Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2016 sorted by title, page: 0

» 1.7-kV and 0.55- GaN p-n Diodes on Bulk GaN Substrates With Avalanche Capability
Abstract:
We report vertical GaN-on-GaN p-n diodes with a breakdown voltage (BV) of 1.7 kV and a low differential specific ON-resistance RON of 0.55 mQ · cm2 with current spreading considered (or 0.4 mQ · cm2 using the diode bottom mesa size), resulting in a figure-of-merit (VB2/RON) of 5.3 GW/cm2 (or 7.2 GW/cm2). These devices exhibit a current swing over 14 orders of magnitude and a low ideality factor of 1.3. Temperature dependent I-V measurements show that the BV increases with increasing temperature, a signature of avalanche breakdown.
Autors: Nomoto, K.;Bo Song;Zongyang Hu;Mingda Zhu;Meng Qi;Kaneda, N.;Mishima, T.;Nakamura, T.;Jena, D.;Xing, H.G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 161 - 164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1.7-kV and 0.55- GaN p-n Diodes on Bulk GaN Substrates With Avalanche Capability
Abstract:
We report vertical GaN-on-GaN p-n diodes with a breakdown voltage (BV) of 1.7 kV and a low differential specific ON-resistance of 0.55 with current spreading considered (or 0.4 using the diode bottom mesa size), resulting in a figure-of-merit ( of 5.3 GW/cm2 (or 7.2 GW/cm . These devices exhibit a current swing over 14 orders of magnitude and a low ideality factor of 1.3. Temperature dependent – measurements show that the BV increases with increasing temperature, a signature of avalanche breakdown.
Autors: Nomoto, K.;Song, B.;Hu, Z.;Zhu, M.;Qi, M.;Kaneda, N.;Mishima, T.;Nakamura, T.;Jena, D.;Xing, H.G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 161 - 164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10-Gb/s 1.59- DFB-LD Transmission Over 20 km SMF With No Compensation
Abstract:
We present a 10-Gb/s 1.59- directly modulated laser (DML) capable of a 20-km transmission in a standard single-mode fiber without the use of any other compensation techniques. For the fabricated distributed feedback laser diode chips, the static, dynamic, and transmission properties were tested. During these tests, it appears that the signal quality was improved after a certain transmission distance. To examine the change in signal shape during the transmission, a time-resolved back-to-back signal was measured and its transmission properties simulated. The simulated results of a time-resolved signal show good agreement with those obtained from a transmission test. As a result, it was confirmed that a 10-Gb/s DML signal (with an extinction ratio of 4 to 5 dB) can be transmitted at up to 20 km with a power penalty of less than 1 dB.
Autors: Kwon, O.K.;Cho, H.S.;Lee, C.W.;Oh, S.H.;Leem, Y.A.;Nam, E.S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 509 - 512
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 100 km coherent Nyquist ultradense wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network using a tunable gain-switched comb source
Abstract:
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a long-reach Nyquist ultradense wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network using a tunable optical frequency comb source and a digital coherent receiver. Each of the six comb tones on a 12.5 GHz grid is modulated with a 12 Gbaud Nyquist polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keyed signal which includes a 20% overhead for forward error correction. Unrepeated downlink transmission of 100 km is demonstrated at three different operating wavelengths across the C-band. A worst-case channel sensitivity of −35.3 dBm (59 photons/bit) is achieved at a bit error rate of 1.5 × 10−2, yielding a system loss budget of 35.7 dB.
Autors: Shao, Tong;Zhou, Rui;Vujicic, Vidak;Pascual, M.Deseada Gutierrez;Anandarajah, Prince M.;Barry, Liam P.;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 8, issue:2, pages: 112 - 117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 16-QAM Almost-Complementary Sequences With Low PMEPR
Abstract:
A pair of sequences is said to be an almost-complementary pair (ACP) if they have zero aperiodic autocorrelation sums except at only one position over all the positive/negative time-shifts. Having correlation property very close to that of Golay complementary pairs (GCPs), ACPs may be used as an alternative to GCPs in many applications in communications and radar. For high-rate code-keying OFDM communication, we construct novel 16-QAM ACPs from three new classes of quadratic offsets, leading to three large sets of 16-QAM almost-complementary sequences with maximum peak-to-mean envelope power ratio (PMEPR) of 2.4.
Autors: Liu, Z.;Guan, Y.L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 668 - 679
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D Decoding Algorithms and Recording Techniques for Bit Patterned Media Feasibility Demonstrations
Abstract:
Recording experiments and decoding algorithms are presented for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) of state-of-the-art magnetic bit-patterned media (BPM). The recording experiments are performed with a static tester and conventional hard-disk drive heads. As the reader dimensions are larger than the bit dimensions in both the down-track and the cross-track directions, a 2-D bit-decoding algorithm is required. Two such algorithms are presented in detail together with the methodology implemented to accurately retrieve island positions during recording. Using these techniques, a 1.6 Td/in2 magnetic BPM is demonstrated to support 2-D BER below 1e-2 under shingled magnetic recording conditions.
Autors: Obukhov, Y.;Jubert, P.;Bedau, D.;Grobis, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
Abstract:
Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. The analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25 V. The 2-D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and a pulsed addressing scheme. [2015–0172]
Autors: Burns, D.E.;Oh, L.H.;Li, M.J.;Kelly, D.P.;Kutyrev, A.S.;Moseley, S.H.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 101 - 107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2016 IEEE CIS Awards [Society Briefs]
Abstract:
Presents the recipients of various CIS society awards.
Autors: Yen, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 4 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2016 is Born [Editorial]
Abstract:
Let me open this first issue of 2016 by wishing you all a marvelous scientific 2016! That all your dreams may come true! What will 2016 bring us? A lot of interesting magazine issues! Let???s start with this issue on??? food!
Autors: Moer, W.V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 4 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2FLIP: A Two-Factor Lightweight Privacy-Preserving Authentication Scheme for VANET
Abstract:
Authentication in a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) requires not only secure and efficient authentication with privacy preservation but applicable flexibility to handle complicated transportation circumstances as well. In this paper, we proposed a Two-Factor LIghtweight Privacy-preserving authentication scheme (2FLIP) to enhance the security of VANET communication. 2FLIP employs the decentralized certificate authority (CA) and the biological-password-based two-factor authentication (2FA) to achieve the goals. Based on the decentralized CA, 2FLIP only requires several extremely lightweight hashing processes and a fast message-authentication-code operation for message signing and verification between vehicles. Compared with previous schemes, 2FLIP significantly reduces computation cost by 100–1000 times and decreases communication overhead by 55.24%–77.52%. Furthermore, any certificate revocation list (CRL)-related overhead on vehicles is avoided. 2FLIP makes the scheme resilient to denial-of-service attack in both computation and memory, which is caused by either deliberate invading behaviors or jammed traffic scenes. The proposed scheme provides strong privacy preservation that the adversaries can never succeed in tracing any vehicles, even with all RSUs compromised. Moreover, it achieves strong nonrepudiation that any biological anonym driver could be conditionally traced, even if he is not the only driver of the vehicle. Extensive simulations reveal that 2FLIP is feasible and has an outstanding performance of nearly 0-ms network delay and 0% packet-loss ratio, which are particularly appropriate for real-time emergency reporting applications.
Autors: Wang, F.;Xu, Y.;Zhang, H.;Zhang, Y.;Zhu, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 896 - 911
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Printed Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Lenses with Fixed and Frequency Scanned Beam
Abstract:
High-gain and beam-scanning antennas are extremely important in the applications of millimeter-wave (MMW) and terahertz (THz) technologies. Dielectric lens is a suitable candidate for this purpose, because it has no metal and quite small feeding loss. In this paper, discrete dielectric lenses are studied in which periodic antireflection (AR) structures are added to reduce impedance mismatch at the air–dielectric interfaces, leading to higher directivity. Meanwhile, a multifrequency phase matching method is proposed to realize a beam-scanning lens in both MMW and THz regions. The design concept of the beam-scanning lens is applicable to other frequency ranges as well, which opens new opportunities for future lens design. Moreover, three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology is employed to simplify the manufacturing process and reduce the cost. Experiments are done in both MMW and THz regions, and the results verify the concept of lens design. The 3-D printed MMW and THz lenses with fixed and scanning beams demonstrated in this work could be an important step toward MMW and THz communications, radar, and imaging systems for practical applications.
Autors: Yi, H.;Qu, S.;Ng, K.;Chan, C.H.;Bai, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 442 - 449
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-Speed Transmission Using Dual Motors and One-Way Clutches
Abstract:
The use of electric vehicles has begun to increase, and the ratio of electric vehicles will continually increase due to environmental regulations. The speed–torque characteristic of an electric motor is better than that of a combustion engine for vehicle driving due to the high torque in a low-speed range. However, the efficiency of the motor declines in the low-speed range; therefore, when an electric vehicle climbs a steep slope slowly, severe heat may be generated due to the high current in the low-efficiency range. In this regard, for driving at a high efficiency, electric vehicles also require mechanical multispeed transmissions, but a conventional mechanical multispeed transmission is bulky, heavy, and energy consuming. This paper suggests a 3-speed transmission using dual-electric motors and one-way clutches. The transmission has a structure simple enough to be used in an in-wheel drive unit, and it does not have actively moved clutches, resulting in high reliability and eliminating the need for energy to move the clutches during speed changes. The operational principle is explained, and a prototype and its experimental results are presented.
Autors: Bang, Y.;Yoon, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 412 - 418
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 32-nJ 615-fs Stable Dissipative Soliton Ring Cavity Fiber Laser With Raman Scattering
Abstract:
We report on a 32-nJ 615-fs stable dissipative soliton (DS) fiber laser in the presence of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in a long ring cavity. We found that a transition from noise-like pulses to dissipate soliton occurred at sufficiently high power in a nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Accompanied with the transition was a surge of pulse energy and suppression of Raman emission—the residual Raman emission counts only % of energy in the output pulse. We attribute this transition to the shift of the transfer function in the NALM. Our results clearly show that the DS energy can be scaled up further in a long cavity even in the presence of Raman scattering. However, despite the increase of SRS threshold, further DS energy scaling may still be limited by SRS.
Autors: Zhou, J.;Gu, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 453 - 456
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4-Ary Codebook Design Using Reed–Muller Codes for MIMO Beamforming Systems
Abstract:
We design 4-ary codebooks using Reed–Muller codes for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) beamforming systems. An upperbound on the maximum correlation magnitude metric of a 4-ary codebook is derived from the minimum Hamming distance of the corresponding binary linear block code. The 4-ary MIMO beamforming codebooks for the number of transmit antennas equal to 4, 8, 16, and 32 are tabulated. We show that the 4-ary codebook using Reed–Muller codes provides the same symbol error probability (SEP) as the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) codebook when the number of transmit antennas is 4 and when the number of feedback bits is 4.
Autors: Kim, Y.G.;Vinck, A.J.H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 959 - 966
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5 Gbps Radiation-Hardened Low-Power Pulse Serial Link
Abstract:
Presented is a high-speed, radiation hardened by design, physical layer data link. The 5 Gbps link is implemented in an 130 nm process occupying relatively small area and having low power (60 mW total). The data rate, radiation hardness, and power consumption are all enabled by asynchronous circuits utilizing a pulse-base wire encoding that, in combination, dramatically simplifies data recovery while increasing timing tolerances in both transmitter and receiver designs. This means that neither the transmitter nor the receiver uses a high-speed clock, instead, small asynchronous state machines handle the transmit and receive functions as well as serialization and deserialization. These small structures contribute to radiation hardness by allowing for efficient modular redundancy at high speeds. The design is also hardened for long environment lifetime (very high total irritated dose of greater than 300MRad Si). This paper specifically addresses the design implementation trade-offs and high-speed design methodology for the link with simulation results as well as preliminary test data.
Autors: Miller, M.P.;Magazzu, G.;Brewer, F.D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 203 - 212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60-GHz Dual-Polarized Two-Dimensional Switch-Beam Wideband Antenna Array of Aperture-Coupled Magneto-Electric Dipoles
Abstract:
A dual-polarized aperture-coupled magneto-electric (ME) dipole antenna is proposed. Two separate substrate-integrated waveguides (SIWs) implemented in two printed circuit board (PCB) laminates are used to feed the antenna. The simulated -dB impedance bandwidth of the antenna is 21% together with an isolation of over 45 dB between the two input ports. Good radiation characteristics, including almost identical unidirectional radiation patterns in two orthogonal planes, front-to-back ratio larger than 20 dB, cross-polarization levels less than , and a stable gain around 8 dBi over the operating band, are achieved. By employing the proposed radiating element, a wideband antenna array working at the 60-GHz band is designed, fabricated, and tested, which can generate two-dimensional (2-D) multiple beams with dual polarization. A measured impedance bandwidth wider than 22% and a gain up to 12.5 dBi are obtained. Owing to the superiority of the ME dipole, the radiation pattern of the array is also stable over the operating frequencies and nearly identical in two orthogonal planes for both of the polarizations. With advantages of desirable performance, convenience of fabrication and integration, and low cost, the proposed antenna and array are attractive for millimeter-wave wireless communication systems.
Autors: Li, Y.;Luk, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 554 - 563
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 7.6 V Threshold Voltage High-Performance Normally-Off Al2O3/GaN MOSFET Achieved by Interface Charge Engineering
Abstract:
An efficient approach to engineering the Al2O3/GaN positive interface fixed charges by post-dielectric annealing in nitrogen is demonstrated. The remarkable reduction of interface fixed charges from to cm−2 was observed, which leads to a record high threshold voltage ( of 7.6 V obtained in the Al2O3/GaN MOSFETs. The significantly reduced interface fixed charges and the corresponding remote scattering effect enable respectable improvement in the electron mobility that results in a high drain current density of 355 mA/mm in the device. These competitive results reveal that the method reported in this letter is promising in pushing more positive and simultaneously achieving good device performance of normally-off GaN power devices.
Autors: Zhou, Q.;Liu, L.;Zhang, A.;Chen, B.;Jin, Y.;Shi, Y.;Wang, Z.;Chen, W.;Zhang, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 165 - 168
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 880-nm-Diode-Laser-End-Pumped Electrooptically Q-Switched Nd:YLF Laser With High Energy and Good Beam Quality at 1047 nm and 1 kHz
Abstract:
An electrooptically Q-switched Nd:YLF laser end-pumped by an 880-nm laser diode with high energy and short pulsewidth at 1 kHz is demonstrated. The asymmetry of the focal lengths of thermal lens along the -axis and -axis is observed, and the cylindrical lens is used to compensate for the thermal lens effect along the -axis. We experimentally studied the performance of the Nd:YLF laser with different combinations of the output coupler transmission and the focal length of cylindrical lens. With and , 9.5-mJ pulse energy, 9.5-ns pulsewidth, and beam quality factors of and are obtained. Moreover, the relationships between the pulse width and pump power as well as beam transverse mode were experimentally studied and discussed.
Autors: Zhang, Z.;Liu, Q.;Nie, M.;Ji, E.;Gong, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 8, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Editorial Preface: Special Issue on Big Data Analytics, Infrastructure, and Applications
Abstract:
Autors: Sobolevsky, S.;McIntosh, S.;Hung, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 2 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» SITAR: GUI Test Script Repair
Abstract:
System testing of a GUI-based application requires that test cases, consisting of sequences of user actions/events, be executed and the software's output be verified. To enable automated re-testing, such test cases are increasingly being coded as low-level test scripts, to be replayed automatically using test harnesses. Whenever the GUI changes—widgets get moved around, windows get merged—some scripts become unusable because they no longer encode valid input sequences. Moreover, because the software's output may have changed, their test oracles—assertions and checkpoints—encoded in the scripts may no longer correctly check the intended GUI objects. We present ScrIpT repAireR (SITAR), a technique to automatically repair unusable low-level test scripts. SITAR uses reverse engineering techniques to create an abstract test for each script, maps it to an annotated event-flow graph (EFG), uses repairing transformations and human input to repair the test, and synthesizes a new “repaired” test script. During this process, SITAR also repairs the reference to the GUI objects used in the checkpoints yielding a final test script that can be executed automatically to validate the revised software. SITAR amortizes the cost of human intervention across multiple scripts by accumulating the human knowledge as annotations on the EFG. An experiment using QTP test scripts suggests that SITAR is effective in that 41-89 percent unusable test scripts were repaired. Annotations significantly reduced human cost after 20 percent test scripts had been repaired.
Autors: Gao, Z.;Chen, Z.;Zou, Y.;Memon, A.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 42, issue:2, pages: 170 - 186
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0–40 GHz On-Wafer Probe With Replaceable Micromachined Silicon Tip
Abstract:
This work reports on a new approach to realizing RF on-wafer probes with contact tips that can be replaced or exchanged readily by the user. The probe design is based on a micromachined silicon tip that is aligned and clamped to a primary transmission line and probe housing using integrated tabs. The probe is characterized over the 0–40 GHz range and shows RF performance that is comparable to that achieved with commercially-available probes with permanently-attached tips.
Autors: Gonzalez, B.D.;Bauwens, M.F.;Zhang, C.;Lichtenberger, A.W.;Barker, N.S.;Weikle, R.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 110 - 112
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10 Gb/s Inductorless AGC Amplifier With 40 dB Linear Variable Gain Control in 0.13 CMOS
Abstract:
This work presents an inductorless, 10 Gbps automatic gain control (AGC) circuit including a speed enhanced variable gain amplifier (VGA), a power detector, a comparator, and a novel exponential function generator for extended dB-linear performance. Third-order interleaved feedback technique is utilized in the current steering VGA stage to achieve 10 Gb/s operation without using on-chip inductors. A stagger-tuned switching architecture for CMOS exponential function generation is proposed to achieve a dB-linear gain control range of with better than gain error. The relationship between tuning range and approximation error is analyzed and a novel current ratio generator circuit is proposed to implement the approximation functions in the current domain. The AGC circuit achieves a highest data rate of 10 Gb/s for PRBS input, maintaining constant differential output with a BER for an input dynamic range of (15–240 ). Fabricated in IBM 0.13 CMOS technology, the chip draws 50 mW from a 1.2 V power supply (excluding the output buffer) and occupies an active area of .
Autors: Ray, S.;Hella, M.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 51, issue:2, pages: 440 - 456
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-bit 40-MS/s Time-Domain Two-Step ADC With Short Calibration Time
Abstract:
A 10-bit 40-MS/s time-domain two-step analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in a 0.18- CMOS process is presented. The proposed ADC is realized without any high-gain amplifiers and its calibration time requires only 622 clock cycles, which is over 10 times less than prior digitally calibrated ADCs. The measured spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal-to-noise-plus distortion ratio (SNDR) are 61.3 dB and 53.8 dB at 40 MS/s, respectively. The power and area are 6.1 mW and 0.75 mm2, respectively.
Autors: Chen, L.;Liu, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 126 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2 GHz Synthesized Fractional-N ADPLL With Dual-Referenced Interpolating TDC
Abstract:
This paper presents a synthesized 2 GHz fractional-N ADPLL with a dual-referenced interpolating time-to-digital converter (TDC). The proposed TDC measures fractional phase by referencing adjacent two integer phases and achieves gain matching without any calibration scheme. It also improves linearity with little sensitivity to process, voltage, and temperature variations by averaging nonlinearity errors of opposite polarities. Except for digitally controlled oscillator (DCO), the PLL is designed only by RTL-level behavioral descriptions and synthesized with a standard cell library. The PLL is implemented in 65 nm CMOS with an active area of and achieves a stable in-band phase noise of lower than in a wide range of supply voltage from 1 to 1.4 V.
Autors: Kim, S.;Hong, S.;Chang, K.;Ju, H.;Shin, J.;Kim, B.;Park, H.;Sim, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 51, issue:2, pages: 391 - 400
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.02–5.16 fJ/Conversion Step 10 Bit Hybrid Coarse-Fine SAR ADC With Time-Domain Quantizer in 90 nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents an ultra-low-voltage and power-efficient 10 bit hybrid successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). For reducing the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) capacitance and comparator requirement, we propose a hybrid architecture comprising a coarse 7 bit SAR ADC and fine 3.5 bit time-to-digital converter (TDC). The Vcm-based switching method is adopted for coarse conversion to reduce DAC power and maintain common mode. The residual voltage after coarse conversion is converted to time domain, and the fine TDC detects the least three bits with 0.5 bit redundancy by using a Vernier delay structure. Offset calibration and delay time locking are implemented to guarantee the ADC performance under process variation. The test chip, fabricated in 90 nm CMOS technology, occupied a core area of . With a 0.4 V supply and a Nyquist rate input, the prototype consumed 200 nW at 250 kS/s and achieved an ENOB of 8.63 bits and a SFDR of 78.5 dB. The operation frequency was scalable from 250 kS/s to 4 MS/s. The converter had a power supply range of 0.4–0.7 V, and the figure of merit (FoM) were 2.02–5.16 fJ/conversion step.
Autors: Chen, Y.;Chang, K.;Hsieh, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 51, issue:2, pages: 357 - 364
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 21-Gbit/s 1.63-pJ/bit Adaptive CTLE and One-Tap DFE With Single Loop Spectrum Balancing Method
Abstract:
This brief presents an adaptive continuous-time linear equalizer (CTLE) and one-tap decision feedback equalizer (DFE) using the spectrum balancing (SB) method. The SB method is extended for not only CTLE but also DFE with the aid of gain characteristics of one-tap DFE. Thus, adaptation loops for each equalizer type are merged to a single loop. As a result, the complexity and power consumption of the adaptation circuits are reduced significantly. The test chip consumes 34.2 mW from 1.2 V supply with 65-nm CMOS process.
Autors: Kim, Y.;Kim, Y.;Lee, T.;Kim, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 24, issue:2, pages: 789 - 793
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 28 nm 2 Mbit 6 T SRAM With Highly Configurable Low-Voltage Write-Ability Assist Implementation and Capacitor-Based Sense-Amplifier Input Offset Compensation
Abstract:
This paper presents a highly configurable low-voltage write-ability assist implementation along with a sense-amplifier offset reduction technique to improve SRAM read performance. Write-assist implementation combines negative bit-line (BL) and collapse schemes in an efficient way to maximize improvements while saving on area and energy overhead of these assists. Relative delay and pulse width of assist control signals are also designed with configurability to provide tuning of assist strengths. Sense-amplifier offset compensation scheme uses capacitors to store and negate threshold mismatch of input transistors. A test chip fabricated in 28 nm HP CMOS process demonstrates operation down to 0.5 V with write assists and more than 10% reduction in word-line pulsewidth with the offset compensated sense amplifiers.
Autors: Sinangil, M.E.;Poulton, J.W.;Fojtik, M.R.;Greer III, T.H.;Tell, S.G.;Gotterba, A.J.;Wang, J.;Golbus, J.;Zimmer, B.;Dally, W.J.;Gray, C.T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 51, issue:2, pages: 557 - 567
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-D Large-Signal Model of Folded-Waveguide TWTs
Abstract:
A steady-state 3-D large-signal model of the beam–wave interaction (BWI) in folded-waveguide (FW) traveling-wave tubes (TWTs) has been developed. The model used a three-port network representation of the circuit and a set of discrete rays representation of the 3-D electron beam. Values of the impedance elements that characterize the model are determined by a 3-D finite-element code, high-frequency circuit simulator (HFCS). Besides, the RF fields inside the beam tunnel are represented with the digitized field profile obtained from HFCS. A new circuit attenuation model is described by introducing only one parameter. The model has been implemented in the BWISFW-3-D code. The results of the code predictions agree well with the measured data for an FW-TWT operating in the -band. The effect of uniform focusing magnetic field on BWI is also studied.
Autors: Yan, W.;Hu, Y.;Tian, Y.;Li, J.;Li, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 819 - 826
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4-to-10.5 Gb/s Continuous-Rate Digital Clock and Data Recovery With Automatic Frequency Acquisition
Abstract:
A continuous-rate digital clock and data recovery (CDR) with automatic frequency acquisition is presented. The proposed automatic frequency acquisition scheme implemented using a conventional bang–bang phase detector (BBPD) requires minimum additional hardware, is immune to input data transition density, and is applicable to subrate CDRs. A ring-oscillator-based two-stage fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) is used as a digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) to achieve wide frequency range, low noise, and to decouple the tradeoff between jitter transfer (JTRAN) bandwidth and ring oscillator noise suppression in conventional CDRs. The CDR is implemented using a digital D/PLL architecture to decouple JTRAN bandwidth from jitter tolerance (JTOL) corner frequency, eliminate jitter peaking, and remove JTRAN dependence on BBPD gain. Fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process, the prototype CDR achieves error-free operation (BER ) from 4 to 10.5 Gb/s with pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) data sequences ranging from PRBS7 to PRBS31. The proposed automatic frequency acquisition scheme always locks the CDR loop within 1000 ppm residual frequency error in worst case. At 10 Gb/s, the CDR consumes 22.5 power and achieves a recovered clock long-term jitter of 2.2 /24.0 with PRBS31 input data. The measured JTRAN bandwidth and JTOL corner frequencies are 0.2 and 9 MHz, respectively.
Autors: Shu, G.;Choi, W.;Saxena, S.;Talegaonkar, M.;Anand, T.;Elkholy, A.;Elshazly, A.;Hanumolu, P.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 51, issue:2, pages: 428 - 439
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4.7 T/11.1 T NMR Compliant 50 nW Wirelessly Programmable Implant for Bioartificial Pancreas In Vivo Monitoring
Abstract:
This paper presents a 50 nW wirelessly powered implant for the noninvasive monitoring of a bioartificial pancreas postimplantation in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) animal studies. The proposed implant increases NMR signal sensitivity across a 190–470 MHz frequency range in both 4.7 and 11.1 T magnetic fields through the use of a wirelessly programmable resonator. An integrated split capacitive array provides 51.8 pF tuning range and 52 fF resolution while maintaining resonant Q and reducing parasitic contributions. The implant supports forward data telemetry at 5–250 kbit/s using an envelope detector front-end and a 2.4 MHz oversampling clock/data recovery (CDR) receiver. An integrated logic-controlled RF-DC converter and strongly coupled resonant wireless link provide sustained reliable energy transfer during NMR acquisition. NMR signal isolation from the wireless power transmissions is achieved through frequency allocation and orthogonally embedded coil design that provides increased mechanical strength for incorporating device components. Experimental results in tissue-equivalent gel phantoms and small animal studies show an increase in acquired signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by 141% (7.7 dB) and 83% (5.3 dB) within 4.7 and 11.1 T magnetic field strengths, respectively, with an approximate 100% (6 dB) increase in SNR within the region of interest (ROI) at higher image resolutions.
Autors: Turner, W.J.;Bashirullah, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 51, issue:2, pages: 473 - 483
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5.58 nW Crystal Oscillator Using Pulsed Driver for Real-Time Clocks
Abstract:
A 5.58 nW real-time clock using a crystal oscillator is presented. In this circuit, the amplifier used in a traditional circuit is replaced with pulsed drivers. The pulse is generated with precise timing using a DLL. With this approach, an extremely low oscillation amplitude of 160 mV results in low-power operation. This low-amplitude oscillation is sustained robustly using additional supply voltages: a lower supply for the final drive stage and a higher supply used for pulses that drive the final drive stage, which ensures low on-resistance necessary for reliable operation. The different supply levels are generated on-chip by a switched capacitor network (SCN) from a single supply. The circuit has been tested at different supply voltages and temperatures. It shows a minimum power consumption of 5.58 nW and power supply sensitivity of 30.3 ppm/V over supply voltage of 0.94–1.2 V, without degrading the crystal’s temperature dependency: between . Moreover, its performance as a real-time clock has been verified by measurement of an Allan deviation of .
Autors: Yoon, D.;Jang, T.;Sylvester, D.;Blaauw, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 51, issue:2, pages: 509 - 522
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 50 nW-to-10 mW Output Power Tri-Mode Digital Buck Converter With Self-Tracking Zero Current Detection for Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting
Abstract:
This paper presents a tri-mode digital buck converter in CMOS technology for photovoltaic energy harvesting. The on-chip gate-boosted digital pulsewidth modulation (DPWM) improves the conversion efficiency at heavy load conditions. Pulse–frequency modulation (PFM) along with digital self-tracking zero current detection is proposed to avoid reverse current at light load. The asynchronous mode (AM) operation further reduces the controller loss and improves the conversion efficiency at ultra-light load conditions. By applying DPWM, PFM, and AM at different load conditions, the proposed converter provides a maximum conversion efficiency of 92% with output power ranging from 50 nW to 10 mW. In addition, the proposed buck converter achieves more than 70% efficiency from 400 nW to 10 mW output power.
Autors: Chen, P.;Wu, C.;Lin, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 51, issue:2, pages: 523 - 532
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6 b 5 GS/s 4 Interleaved 3 b/Cycle SAR ADC
Abstract:
This paper presents a time-interleaved 6-bit 5 GS/s 3 b/cycle SAR analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Hardware overhead induced by a 3 b/cycle architecture is eased by an interpolation technique where around 1/3 of the hardware is saved. In addition, complicated switching controls are simplified with a proposed fractional DAC array switching scheme, thus reducing the design complexity and the hardware burden. A boundary detection code overriding (BDCO) is introduced to reduce error probability at the large error magnitude, by utilizing the extended time when the comparator is at reset and the DAC at settling. The floorplan of the front-end is optimized for important interleaving clock distributions, and a master-clock-control bootstrapped-switch technique is adopted to suppress the timing-skew effect among the channels. The unit capacitor has been designed to suit for the DAC structure which allows top-plate sharing in both directions, plus, the offset is calibrated on-chip with a clocking variable biasing transistor pair at the latch. Measurement results show that the prototype can achieve 5 GS/s with a total power consumption of 5.5 mW at 1 V supply in 65 nm CMOS technology. Besides, it exhibits a 30.76 dB SNDR and 43.12 dB SFDR at Nyquist, which yields a Walden FoM of 39 fJ/conversion-step.
Autors: Chan, C.;Zhu, Y.;Sin, S.;Ben U, S.;Martins, R.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 51, issue:2, pages: 365 - 377
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6.7 MHz to 1.24 GHz Fast-Locking All-Digital DLL Using Phase-Tracing Delay Unit in 90 nm CMOS
Abstract:
In this paper, an all-digital delay-locked loop (ADDLL) with a phase-tracing delay unit (PTDU) has been proposed to achieve wide-operating frequency range, low power, and low cost. For the wide-range DLL, the long delay line is replaced by a PTDU which includes two gated ring oscillators (GROs) for generating the wide delay range with a reduced die area. According to the dual-loop control scheme in this work, the input clock rising edge and falling edge are tracked independently to ensure that the ADDLL output maintains the duty cycle of the input reference. Furthermore, the ADDLL utilizes an open-loop scheme to achieve fast lock time of five clock cycles for all supported input frequencies. The proposed ADDLL has been fabricated in TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology and supports a wide-operating frequency range from 6.7 MHz to 1.24 GHz within a small active area of . The measured peak-to-peak and root-mean-square jitter at 1.24 GHz are 2.22 ps and 424.62 fs, respectively. The ADDLL consumes 14.5 mW while operating at 1.24 GHz.
Autors: Hsieh, M.;Chen, L.;Liu, S.;Chen, C.C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 51, issue:2, pages: 412 - 427
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6:1 Bandwidth, Low-Profile, Dual-Polarized Ring Array of Spiral Antennas With Connecting Arms
Abstract:
In an earlier work, the design of a 2:1 bandwidth dual-polarized phased array of Archimedean spiral antennas with cavity was presented. The reflection coefficient, circular polarization, and grating lobes goals were obtained independently in the design process. The low end of the final bandwidth was constrained to the frequency cutoff of the spiral antenna, at the low end of its bandwidth. In this communication, an extension of the bandwidth of the array is achieved by connecting the spiral antennas of the array. Hence, with the same size, the bandwidth is enlarged almost three times (a total of 6:1). The measurements confirm the simulations. The array can scan up to keeping a low reflection coefficient, good right- and left-hand circular polarization, low-sidelobe levels, and using a low-profile cavity.
Autors: Hinostroza Saenz, I.D.;Guinvarch, R.;Haupt, R.L.;Louertani, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 752 - 756
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 90-nm CMOS V-Band Low-Power Image-Reject Receiver Front-End With High-Speed Auto-Wake-Up and Gain Controls
Abstract:
A low-power auto-wake-up image-reject receiver front-end in 90-nm CMOS technology is presented for V-band applications. The proposed front-end generally operates in the sleep mode and consumes 19 mW. When an RF signal greater than dBm is received, the front-end wakes up automatically and enters into the active mode consuming only 46-mW power. Adjustable linearity of the front-end is provided by changing two gain modes (high- and low-gain modes). When input RF power is higher than dBm, will be improved (from high-gain mode to low-gain mode). Experiments show of and dBm in high- and low-gain modes, respectively. An image-reject ratio greater than 32 dB is measured when using the proposed image-reject mixer topology. All passive phase-shift couplers for realizing the image-rejection are composed of standard CMOS lumped elements, thereby considerably reducing the chip size (0.82 mm ).
Autors: Hsieh, J.-Y.;Wang, T.;Lu, S.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 541 - 549
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Balanced Filtering Branch-Line Coupler
Abstract:
A balanced filtering branch-line coupler is proposed for the first time. The proposed design is realized by coupled microstrip lines and coupled-line-fed coupling structures. Based on this, the proposed design not only exhibits the functions of power dividing and filtering for differential-mode signals, but also can suppress the common-mode noise/signal and be easily connected with other balanced circuits. The dimension of the proposed design is similar to that of the traditional single-ended design. A prototype of the balanced filtering branch-line coupler centered at 1.87 GHz with the size of 0.33 is fabricated, where is the guided wavelength at the center frequency. The measured results exhibit the maximum insertion loss of 1.4 dB with a 3-dB fractional bandwidth of 3.5%.
Autors: Shi, J.;Qiang, J.;Xu, K.;Wang, Z.;Lin, L.;Chen, J.;Liu, W.;Zhang, X.Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 119 - 121
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bayesian Technique for Real and Integer Parameters Estimation in Linear Models and Its Application to GNSS High Precision Positioning
Abstract:
A novel Bayesian technique for the joint estimation of real and integer parameters in a linear measurement model is presented. The integer parameters take values on a finite set, and the real ones are assumed to be a Gaussian random vector. The posterior distribution of these parameters is sequentially determined as new measurements are incorporated. This is a mixed distribution with a Gaussian continuous part and a discrete one. Estimators for the integer and real parameters are derived from this posterior distribution. A Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) estimator modified with the addition of a confidence threshold is used for the integer part and a Minimum Mean Squared Error (MMSE) is used for the real parameters. Two different cases are addressed: i) both real and integer parameters are time invariant and ii) the integer parameters are time invariant but the real ones are time varying. Our technique is applied to the GNSS carrier phase ambiguity resolution problem, that is key for high precision positioning applications. The good performance of the proposed technique is illustrated through simulations in different scenarios where different kind of measurements as well as different satellite visibility conditions are considered. Comparisons with state-of-the-art ambiguity solving algorithms confirm performance improvement. The new method is shown to be useful not only in the estimation stage but also for validating the estimates ensuring a predefined success rate through proper threshold selection.
Autors: Garcia, J.G.;Roncagliolo, P.A.;Muravchik, C.H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 923 - 933
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bricolage Perspective on Technological Innovation in Emerging Markets
Abstract:
Product innovation strategies of emerging market companies are increasingly challenging conventional wisdom. Drawing on a qualitative case study of Mahindra Reva, the only electric vehicle producer in India, this paper explores how a bricolage strategy enabled a resource-constrained emerging market firm to deliver affordable, innovative, and high-tech products with minimal capital investments. The findings of this study illustrate how multiple forms of bricolage can be implemented and managed at organizational and interorganizational levels. They show how different bricolage activities relate to different stages of the new product development process, and further, highlight the complementarities between bricolage and engineering activities. This paper argues that bricolage, which is typically regarded as a behavioral trait or skill that allows entrepreneurs and innovators to operate in challenging environments, can also be a carefully planned and executed strategy conducive to innovation. Thus, it suggests that a cost-effective bricolage strategy can underpin emerging market companies' development of discontinuity-creating and market disrupting technology products.
Autors: Ravishankar, M.N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 53 - 66
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Brief History: The Common Information Model [In My View]
Abstract:
TThe history behind the Common Information Model (CIM ) is one of an industry searching for solutions to problems that had long been recognized by vendors and electric utility customers alike. The efforts of many groups went into the solution, and often these groups completed one stage of the solution and another group picked up the work with little continuity. The first such group to take up the effort was the Energy Management System Architecture Task Force. This task force, under the IEEE Power Engineering Society???s Working Group 73-3, had as it purpose to think about and make recommendations on the energy management system (EMS ) architecture of the future.
Autors: Wollenberg, B.;Britton, J.;Dobrowolski, E.;Podmore, R.;Resek, J.;Scheidt, J.;Russell, J.;Saxton, T.;Ivanov, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 128 - 126
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Capacitive Sensor for the Measurement of Departure From the Vertical Movement
Abstract:
A capacitive sensor is proposed to measure the departure from the vertical movement. It has a special structure consisting of a long silica filament static plate and a cylindrical-surface moving plate. Now it is adopted to measure the horizontal displacement of the movable coil moving along the vertical direction in a joule balance. For the consideration of avoiding the error caused by the transfer process of direction reference, the sensor is designed to have a direct vertical direction reference. The measurement errors caused by the imperfection of the capacitive sensor plates are discussed. In addition, the characteristics of the sensor, such as sensitivity, resolution, and short-time stability, have been analyzed through experiments. The experimental results show that the resolution of the sensor is better than 0.05 μm, and the short-time stability is about 0.1 μm peak to peak, which is better than that of the alcohol mirror. The combined uncertainty of the capacitive sensor obtained through analysis and experiments is 1.68 μm.
Autors: Tao Zeng;Yunfeng Lu;Yongmeng Liu;Hongxing Yang;Yang Bai;Pengcheng Hu;Zhengkun Li;Zhonghua Zhang;Jiubin Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 458 - 466
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Capacitive-to-Digital Converter With Automatic Range Adaptation for Readout Instrumentation
Abstract:
Capacitive sensors have profoundly found their way in everyday life. Devices and instrumentation ranging from specialty equipment to smartphones all employ in one way or the other a capacitive sensor and its associated readout circuit, making the latter ubiquitious. We present a capacitive readout system that automatically adapts its range to the unknown measured capacitance, thereby extending its functional input range, as well as its application and instrumentation compatibility. The proposed system achieves a constant resolution for a range of input capacitance up to 690 pF.
Autors: Georgakopoulou, K.;Spathis, C.;Petrellis, N.;Birbas, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 336 - 345
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Categorical Isomorphism Between Injective Stratified Fuzzy Spaces and Fuzzy Continuous Lattices
Abstract:
For a frame as the truth value table, we apply fuzzy domain theory for the study of injective objects in the category of stratified - spaces. We show that every fuzzy continuous lattice equipped with the fuzzy Scott topology is an injective stratified - space, and conversely, the specialization -ordered set of an injective stratified - space is a fuzzy continuous lattice. These two transformations form a categorical isomorphism between injective stratified - spaces and fuzzy continuous lattices.
Autors: Yao, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 131 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Circular Interference Model for Heterogeneous Cellular Networks
Abstract:
Scaling up the number of base stations per unit area and augmenting the heterogeneity of networks are two major trends in mobile cellular systems of the fourth (4G)- and fifth generation (5G), making it increasingly difficult to characterize aggregate interference statistics with system models that are characterized by a low number of parameters. This paper proposes a new circular interference model that aggregates given interferer topologies to power profiles along circles. We introduce a mapping procedure that preserves the aggregate interference statistics at arbitrary user locations within the associated cell with a certain desired accuracy. At the same time, our method identifies the amount of nodes in a given interferer topology that principally determine the shape of the interference distribution. To further refine the analysis of given power profiles, a new finite sum representation for the sum of Gamma random variables with integer-valued shape parameter is introduced. The approach allows decomposing the distribution of the aggregate interference into the contributions of the individual interferers. Such knowledge is particularly expedient for the application of base station coordination- and cooperation schemes. Moreover, the proposed method enables accurate prediction of the corresponding signal-to-interference-ratio- and rate statistics.
Autors: Taranetz, M.;Rupp, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 1432 - 1444
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class of Extremely Wideband Resonant Cavity Antennas With Large Directivity-Bandwidth Products
Abstract:
Extremely wideband resonant cavity antennas (RCAs) with large directivity-bandwidth products (DBPs) are presented. Their distinct feature is a single-slab superstrate that has a permittivity gradient in the directions transverse to the antenna axis. The application of such a superstrate in a single-feed RCA improves the DBP by a factor of three or more as compared with superstrates composed of uniform dielectric slabs. Their very small area enables an antenna designer to achieve unprecedented figures of DBP per unit area, from a simple planar antenna. Prototype RCAs have been fabricated and measurements have validated the concept. A measured 3-dB directivity bandwidth of 52.9% was demonstrated with a measured directivity of 16.4 dBi for an RCA that has a very small total footprint area of 1.54 at the lowest operating frequency (2.84 at the center frequency). This represents an increase of 90% over the previous best measured RCA directivity bandwidth of 28%.
Autors: Hashmi, R.M.;Esselle, K.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 830 - 835
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Classification Method for User-Independent Intent Recognition for Transfemoral Amputees Using Powered Lower Limb Prostheses
Abstract:
Powered lower limb prosthesis technologies hold the promise of providing greater ability and mobility to transfemoral amputees. Intent recognition systems for these devices may allow amputees to perform automatic, seamless transitions between locomotion modes. Prior studies in which pattern recognition algorithms have been trained to recognize subject-specific patterns within device-mounted sensor data have shown the feasibility of such systems. While effective, these strategies require substantial training regimens. To reduce this training burden, we developed and evaluated user-independent intent recognition systems. A novel mode-specific classification system was developed that allowed each locomotion transition to be statistically considered its own class. Various pattern recognition algorithms were trained with sensor data from a pool of eight lower limb amputees and performance was tested using data on a novel subject. For both user-dependent and user-independent classification, mode-specific classification reduced error ( ) on transitional steps by without affecting steady-state classification. Incorporating sensor time history and level-ground walking data from the novel subject into the training data resulted in decreasing errors ( ) on steady-state classification by over 60% without affecting transitional error. These strategies were combined to demonstrate significant overall system improvements from baseline conditions presented in prior research.
Autors: Young, A.J.;Hargrove, L.J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 24, issue:2, pages: 217 - 225
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Closed Expression for the Lightning Induced Voltage in Short Loops
Abstract:
This paper presents a closed expression for the lightning induced voltage in short loops, which considers the effect of the return stroke speed. It is shown that the traditional expression that provides the induced voltage as the product of the current time derivative by the mutual inductance is a particular case of the expression developed in this paper, which holds when the return stroke propagates with the speed of light. The comparison between the results of the traditional expression and the new one is carried out for different distances from the lightning flash and different stroke current waveforms. The effect of the return stroke speed is also investigated, showing that the higher the speed, the higher the induced voltage. The effect of loop length is investigated, showing that the loop can be considered as electrically short if its dimensions are smaller than one-tenth of the product between the current front time and the speed of light in free space.
Autors: Barbosa, C.F.;Paulino, J.O.S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 172 - 179
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor With Single-Point Calibration Method for Clinical Use
Abstract:
A smart temperature sensor has been realized using a Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18- standard CMOS process. Substrate positive-negative-positive (PNP) transistors are used to extract the temperature information. Using the techniques of dynamic element matching, single-transistor approach, and offset cancellation, the process spread between batches on the transistors becomes the main inaccuracy sources of the temperature sensor. The sensor uses a single-point calibration method that reduces the process spread and simplifies trimming. The temperature sensor can realize an inaccuracy within ±0.1 °C in the temperature range from 20 °C to 50 °C after single-point calibration. The average power consumption of the sensor is 16 at the conversion rate of 10 Hz. These properties allow the use of the temperature sensor in clinical electronic thermometers.
Autors: Deng, C.;Sheng, Y.;Wang, S.;Hu, W.;Diao, S.;Qian, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 136 - 140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Communications Jamming Taxonomy
Abstract:
With the now widespread availability of software-defined radio technology for wireless networks, the distinction between jamming in the original electronic warfare sense and wireless cybersecurity attacks becomes hazy. A taxonomy delineates these concepts in the rapidly expanding field of wireless security, classifying communication jammers' theoretical behaviors and characteristics.
Autors: Lichtman, Marc;Poston, Jeffrey D.;Amuru, SaiDhiraj;Shahriar, Chowdhury;Clancy, T.Charles;Buehrer, R.Michael;Reed, Jeffrey H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Security & Privacy
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 47 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Branch-Line Coupler Using Substrate Integrated Suspended Line Technology
Abstract:
A novel compact branch-line coupler using substrate integrated suspended line (SISL) technology is proposed in this letter. In order to reduce the size of conventional branch-line coupler, we propose a novel slow wave structure, which is composed of high-low impedance lines cascaded in meander line configuration, and a 62% size reduction has been achieved. Moreover, fabricated by using standard printed circuit board process, the proposed compact SISL branch-line coupler has advantages of self-packaging, low cost and light weight.
Autors: Wang, Y.;Ma, K.;Mou, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 95 - 97
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Broadband Horizontally Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna Using Planar Folded Dipole Elements
Abstract:
A compact horizontally polarized (HP) omnidirectional antenna with broadband characteristic is presented. The antenna is composed of four planar folded dipole antennas (PFDAs) as radiation elements of a square array and a broadband microstrip feeding structure composed of baluns and matching networks. The folded dipole antennas are chosen in order to achieve wide bandwidth operation within a compact size. The folded dipole elements are modified to compensate for the mutual coupling effects and also to improve the bandwidth and radiation performance of the antenna. The antenna is fabricated and its input impedance and radiation pattern are measured. The measured 10 dB return loss bandwidth is about 53.2% (1.19–2 GHz) and the gain variation in all directions of azimuth plane is less than 2 dB over the frequency band 1.2–1.9 GHz, and is increased to 2.8 dB at 2 GHz. The gain is almost constant over the entire band with a peak gain about 1.2 dB. The co-pol and cross-pol isolation is more than 20 dB for all azimuth directions and frequencies over the entire band.
Autors: Cai, X.;Sarabandi, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 414 - 422
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact First-Order Modulator for Analog High-Volume Testing of Complex System-on-Chips in a 14 nm Tri-Gate Digital CMOS Process
Abstract:
On complex system-on-chips (SOCs), a compact on-die analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is required in high-volume testing, in order to reduce the test time and improve the test coverage of on-die analog intellectual properties (IPs). This paper presents a compact first-order modulator for on-die voltage measurements in such applications. The primary design focus is to achieve a highly compact area so that many instances can be integrated to cover the testing of multiple analog IPs on a single chip die. The proposed modulator deploys an inverter-based architecture which enables the aggressive area reduction. There are two new additional enhancements: 1) hardware dithering to minimize the limit-cycling effect and 2) time-multiplexed pseudodifferential operation for common mode rejection. The modulator exhibits a figure of merit (FOM) of 554.7 fJ/conv-step, in spite of the compact area of only .
Autors: Oshita, T.;Shor, J.;Duarte, D.E.;Kornfeld, A.;Geannopoulos, G.L.;Douglas, J.;Kurd, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 51, issue:2, pages: 378 - 390
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Model for Single-Poly Multitime Programmable Memory Cells
Abstract:
A compact model for the single-poly multitime programmable (MTP) memory cells is presented in this paper for the first time. It is based on the charge balance approach, while the traditional old model is on the fixed capacitive coupling approach. The proposed cell model has been implemented by Verilog-A and integrated into commercial SPICE simulator. The model supports both dc and transient analyses, and the simulated results are consistent very well with those from device simulation and measurement, whereas the results by the traditional old model deviate substantially. Furthermore, the comprehensive optimization of the MTP cells is made feasible thanks to the new model, such as device size, high voltage ramp rate, and reliability prediction. As a result, this compact cell model will be very useful for the designers to evaluate and optimize a single-poly MTP cell.
Autors: Li, C.;Xu, S.;Li, J.;Chen, Y.;Wang, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 675 - 683
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison of the SEU Response of Planar and FinFET D Flip-Flops at Advanced Technology Nodes
Abstract:
Heavy-ion experimental results were used to characterize single-event upset trends in 16 nm bulk FinFET, 20 nm bulk planar, and 28 nm bulk planar D flip-flops. Experimental data show that 16 nm bulk FinFET flip-flops have considerably lower SEU cross sections than their sub-32 nm planar counterparts for linear energy transfer (LET) less than . However, FinFET SEU cross section improvement compared to the planar technologies is weak for high LET particles. Three-dimensional technology computer-aided design simulations are used to investigate charge collection mechanisms and single-event transient (SET) pulse widths at these advanced fabrication nodes. Simulation results show that SETs follow conventional scaling trends, which are that SET pulse widths reduce with technology scaling.
Autors: Nsengiyumva, P.;Ball, D.R.;Kauppila, J.S.;Tam, N.;McCurdy, M.;Holman, W.T.;Alles, M.L.;Bhuva, B.L.;Massengill, L.W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 266 - 272
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Benchmark and Optimization of 5-nm Lateral and Vertical GAA 6T-SRAMs
Abstract:
In this paper, we present an intensive study of 6T-SRAM designs for vertical gate-all-around (GAA) transistors (VFETs) and lateral GAA transistors (LFETs) using 5-nm node design rules. Optimizations of the nanowire (NW) diameter and the gate length are also conducted to enhance the SRAM performance. Device retargeting has been proposed for improving the minimum operating voltage ( ) of SRAMs. The isoperformance and isoyield have been performed to assess and determine the benefits provided by LFET and VFET architectures, respectively. Our results show that the VFET bitcells are denser than the LFET bitcells by 20%–30%. The SRAM read stability (read static noise margin) is significantly improved using the NW channel. For a yield target and an isoarea of SRAM bitcells, of the VFET bitcell is 80 mV lower than LFET designs. Applying the proposed retargeting technique can allow the VFET 122 bitcell to operate at 0.57 V without using assist circuits. A standby leakage below 10 pA/cell can be achieved for both architectures. At isoperformance, the standby leakage of VFET bitcells is lower than LFET bitcells.
Autors: Huynh-Bao, T.;Sakhare, S.;Yakimets, D.;Ryckaert, J.;Thean, A.V.;Mercha, A.;Verkest, D.;Wambacq, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 643 - 651
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Evaluation and Analysis of the Performance of Multiple Tropospheric Models in China Region
Abstract:
Tropospheric path delay is an important error source in range measurements of many Earth observation systems. In this paper, the accuracies of 9 zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD) and 18 zenith wet delay (ZWD) models are assessed using benchmark values derived from 10 years (2003–2012) of radiosonde data recorded at 92 stations in the China region. Our study confirms that ZHD can be well modeled with an accuracy of several millimeters by using surface meteorological observations. ZHD derived from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has the best agreement of 2.8 mm with the radiosonde data in the China region, while the Baby ZHD model achieves the second best with an accuracy of 6.0 mm. All of the ZWD models can only estimate the ZWD with an accuracy of a few centimeters. ECMWF can provide ZWD estimation with the best accuracy of 21.4 mm, followed by the Baby semiempirical, Hopfield, Goad and Goodman, Askne and Nordius, Saastamoinen, Callahan, and Berman 74 ZWD models whose errors are below 40 mm. We find that in the China region all of the ZWD models perform better in winter than in summer and have higher accuracy in high latitudes than low latitudes. The performances of the 18 ZWD models are further validated in a Global Positioning System (GPS) precise point positioning (PPP) computation at 6 GPS stations in China. The PPP results also confirm that ECMWF is the best model. Considering its performance and simplicity, we conclude that Saastamoinen is the optimal ZWD model for the China region.
Autors: Chen, B.;Liu, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 663 - 678
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compressive Sensing Approach for 3D Breast Cancer Microwave Imaging With Magnetic Nanoparticles as Contrast Agent
Abstract:
In microwave breast cancer imaging magnetic nanoparticles have been recently proposed as contrast agent. Due to the non-magnetic nature of human tissues, magnetic nanoparticles make possible the overcoming of some limitations of conventional microwave imaging techniques, thus providing reliable and specific diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, a Compressive Sensing inspired inversion technique is introduced for the reconstruction of the magnetic contrast induced within the tumor. The applicability of Compressive Sensing theory is guaranteed by the fact that the underlying inverse scattering problem is linear and the searched magnetic perturbation is sparse. From the numerical analysis, performed in realistic conditions in 3D geometry, it has been pointed out that the adoption of this new tool allows improving resolution and accuracy of the reconstructions, as well as reducing the number of required measurements.
Autors: Bevacqua, M.T.;Scapaticci, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 35, issue:2, pages: 665 - 673
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computational Model for Object-Based Visual Saliency: Spreading Attention Along Gestalt Cues
Abstract:
The past few years have witnessed impressive progress on the research of salient object detection. Nevertheless , existing approaches still cannot perform satisfactorily in the case of complex scenes, particularly when the salient objects have non- uniform appearance or complicated shapes, and the background is complexly structured. One important reason for such limitations may be that these approaches commonly ignore the factor of perceptual grouping in saliency modeling. To address this issue, this paper presents a novel computational model for object -based visual saliency, which explicitly takes into consideration the connections between attention and perceptual grouping, and incorporates Gestalt grouping cues into saliency computation. Inspired by the sensory enhancement theory, we suggest a paradigm for object-based saliency modeling, that is, object-based saliency stems from spreading attention along Gestalt grouping cues. Computationally , three typical Gestalt cues, including proximity, similarity, and closure, are respectively extracted from the given image, which are then integrated by constructing a unified Gestalt graph. A new algorithm named personalized power iteration clustering is developed to effectively fulfill the spreading of attention information across the Gestalt graph. Intensive experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed model in comparison to the state-of-the-art.
Autors: Yu, J.-G.;Xia, G.-S.;Gao, C.;Samal, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 273 - 286
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Configurable Energy-Efficient Compressed Sensing Architecture With Its Application on Body Sensor Networks
Abstract:
The past decades have witnessed a rapid surge in new sensing and monitoring devices for well-being and healthcare. One key representative in this field is body sensor networks (BSNs). However, with advances in sensing technologies and embedded systems, wireless communication has gradually become one of the dominant energy-consuming sectors in BSN applications. Recently, compressed sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in solving this problem due to its enabled sub-Nyquest sampling rate. In this paper, we investigate the quantization effect in CS architecture and argue that the quantization configuration is a critical factor of the energy efficiency for the entire CS architecture. To this end, we present a novel configurable quantized compressed sensing (QCS) architecture, in which the sampling rate and quantization are jointly explored for better energy efficiency. Furthermore, to combat the computational complexity of the configuration procedure, we propose a rapid configuration algorithm, called RapQCS. According to the experiments involving several categories of real biosignals, the proposed configurable QCS architecture can gain more than 66% performance-energy tradeoff than the fixed QCS architecture. Moreover, our proposed RapQCS algorithm can achieve over speedup on average, while decreasing the reconstructed signal fidelity by only 2.32%.
Autors: Wang, A.;Lin, F.;Jin, Z.;Xu, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 15 - 27
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Configuration-Independent Score-Based Benchmark for Distributed Databases
Abstract:
The business potential of big data is leading to a data-driven economy, where low-cost and low-latency data analysis represents a major competitive advantage. The research community has proposed many technological solutions for big data, such as NoSQL databases, which are difficult to evaluate and compare via standard IT procurement procedures. In addition, lack of competences in big data domains make procurement of big data solutions a tedious and uncertain process, which might impair the success of a business. In this paper, we present a score-based benchmark for distributed databases, which supports adopters in selecting a solution that fits their needs. The proposed benchmark is independent from the configurations of the specific database and deployment environment, requires low effort on the part of end users, is extensible and can be applied to both SQL and NoSQL databases, can be used to evaluate databases according to different properties (e.g., performance, consistency), and can be integrated with existing benchmarks to reduce the burden of their execution. We experimentally evaluate our methodology to validate its effectiveness.
Autors: Ardagna, C.A.;Damiani, E.;Frati, F.;Rebeccani, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 123 - 137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Continuous Semianalytic Current Model for DG and NW TFETs
Abstract:
A continuous semianalytic – model is developed for double-gate (DG) and nanowire tunnel FETs (TFETs). At the core of the model is a gate-controlled channel potential that satisfies the source and drain boundary conditions. The band-to-band tunneling current is expressed in terms of Franz’s two-band relation with 3-D density of states. Verified by numerical simulations, the model is capable of generating – characteristics for any a given bandgap and channel length, based on which the guidelines for TFET scaling are derived. A methodology for evaluating different – characteristics, distinguished from the common practice of ratio and SS slope, is employed. Ambipolar effect or channel-to-drain tunneling is also covered by the model. The model has been applied to an example of GaSb–InAs DG TFET, to compare with published atomistic simulation results. – characteristics are also generated by building into the model the debiasing effect of channel charge in the linear region.
Autors: Wu, J.;Taur, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 841 - 847
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Continuous Toroidal Winding SRM With 6- or 12-Switch DC Converter
Abstract:
A new toroidally wound switched reluctance machine (TSRM) with a single continuous multitapped winding is presented. This machine may be driven by a 6-switch asymmetric converter that supplies unipolar coil currents or by a 12-switch voltage source converter that supplies bipolar coil currents. The TSRM magnetic design and power electronic control is described, and its performance is compared with a conventional switched reluctance motor (CSRM) and with a previously reported toroidal format switched reluctance machine that utilizes six discrete winding coils in a three-phase wye connection (WSRM) driven by a voltage source inverter. A fixed 6–4 CSRM magnetic circuit design is selected for the comparative analysis of the three machine topologies by static and dynamic finite-element simulations.
Autors: Marlow, R.;Schofield, N.;Emadi, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 52, issue:1, pages: 189 - 198
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cost-Effective Distributed Acoustic Sensor Using a Commercial Off-the-Shelf DFB Laser and Direct Detection Phase-OTDR
Abstract:
We propose and experimentally demonstrate the use of cyclic pulse coding for enhanced performance in distributed acoustic sensing based on a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (φ-OTDR) using direct detection. First, we present a theoretical analysis showing that to make cyclic pulse coding effective in φ-OTDR, the laser linewidth and stability must be optimized to simultaneously guarantee intrapulse coherence and interpulse incoherence. We then confirm that commercial off-the-shelf distributed feedback (DFB) lasers can satisfy these conditions, providing coding gain consistent with theoretical predictions. By externally modulating such lasers with cyclic pulse coding, we demonstrate a distributed acoustic sensor capable of measuring vibrations of up to 500 Hz over 5 km of standard single-mode fiber with 5-m spatial resolution with ~9-dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement compared with the single-pulse equivalent. We also show that the proposed solution offers sensing performances that are comparable to similar sensors employing highly coherent and stabilized external cavity lasers and a single-pulse φ-OTDR.
Autors: Muanenda, Y.;Oton, C.J.;Faralli, S.;Di Pasquale, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 8, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A cross-layer design for a software-defined millimeter-wave mobile broadband system
Abstract:
Heterogeneous networks, which deploy small cells in the mmWave band underlying the macrocell network, have attracted intense interest from both academia and industry. Different from the communication systems using lower carrier frequencies, mmWave communications have unique features, such as high propagation loss, directional communications, and sensitivity to blockage. Aiming to overcome the challenging problems in mmWave networks, such as interference management, spatial reuse, anti-blockage, QoS guarantee, and load balancing, we architecturally borrow the ideas of heterogeneous cloud radio access networks and software-defined networking to propose a software-defined mmWave mobile broadband system via a cross-layer design approach. In this architecture, a centralized controller is introduced by abstracting the control functions from the network layer to the physical layer. Through quantitative simulations in a realistic indoor scenario, we demonstrate the performance advantages of our system in terms of network throughput and flow throughput. This work is the first cross-layer and software-defined design for mmWave communications, which opens up an opportunity for mmWave communications to make a significant impact on future 5G networks.
Autors: Niu, Y.;Li, Y.;Chen, M.;Jin, D.;Chen, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 124 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decade of Enterprise Integration Patterns: A Conversation with the Authors
Abstract:
Department editors Olaf Zimmerman and Cesare Pautasso interview Gregor Hohpe and Bobby Woolf, authors of Enterprise Integration Patterns. They discuss the book's impact, pattern language design, message-oriented middleware, integration technology's evolution, and the authors' future plans.
Autors: Zimmermann, Olaf;Pautasso, Cesare;Hohpe, Gregor;Woolf, Bobby;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 13 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decentralized Bayesian Algorithm For Distributed Compressive Sensing in Networked Sensing Systems
Abstract:
Compressive sensing (CS), as a new sensing/sampling paradigm, facilitates signal acquisition by reducing the number of samples required for reconstruction of the original signal, and thus appears to be a promising technique for applications where the sampling cost is high, e.g., the Nyquist rate exceeds the current capabilities of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Conventional CS, although effective for dealing with one signal, only leverages the intrasignal correlation for reconstruction. This paper develops a decentralized Bayesian reconstruction algorithm for networked sensing systems to jointly reconstruct multiple signals based on the distributed compressive sensing (DCS) model that exploits both intra- and intersignal correlations. The proposed approach is able to address-networked sensing system applications with privacy concerns and/or for a fusion-center-free scenario, where centralized approaches fail. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed decentralized approaches have good recovery performance and converge reasonably quickly.
Autors: Chen, W.;Wassell, I.J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 1282 - 1292
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Delay Locked Loop With a Feedback Edge Combiner of Duty-Cycle Corrector With a 20%–80% Input Duty Cycle for SDRAMs
Abstract:
A feedback edge combiner is proposed for the duty-cycle corrector (DCC) of a delay locked loop (DLL) to increase the range of allowed input duty cycle. The feedback edge combiner generates the rising edge of a DCC output at the rising edge of an input clock. It generates the falling edge of the DCC output at the rising edge of a feedback clock that is a half-period-delayed signal of the DCC output. A dual-delay-line digitally controlled delay line (DCDL) is used for seamless boundary switching. The chip area of the DCDL is reduced by around 46% by employing the architecture of two short coarse delay lines followed by a fine phase mixer (FPM) and a long coarse delay line in series instead of the architecture of two long coarse delay lines followed by an FPM. The measurements on the chip fabricated in the 65-nm CMOS show the allowed input duty cycle in the range from 20% to 80%; root-mean-square and peak-to-peak jitters of 2.69 and 14.0 ps, respectively, at 2 GHz and 1.2 V; and the operating frequency range from 0.12 to 2.0 GHz at 1.2 V. The measured power consumption is 3.3 mW/GHz at 1.2 V. The chip area is 0.059 mm 2.
Autors: Lim, J.;Bae, J.;Jang, J.;Jung, H.;Lee, H.;Kim, Y.;Kim, B.;Sim, J.;Park, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 141 - 145
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deterministic and Stochastic Petri Net Model for Traffic-Responsive Signaling Control in Urban Areas
Abstract:
The problem of reducing congestion within urban areas by means of a traffic-responsive control strategy is addressed in this paper. The model of an urban traffic network is microscopically represented by means of deterministic and stochastic Petri nets, which allow a compact representation of the dynamic traffic network. To properly model traffic congestion, intersections are divided into crossing sections, and roads have limited capacity. Each intersection includes a multiphase traffic signal, whose sequence of phases is given and represented by a timed Petri net. The control strategy proposed in this paper aims at minimizing queue lengths by optimizing the duration of each signal phase. This is accomplished by heuristically solving a stochastic optimization problem within a receding-horizon scheme, to take into account the actual traffic flow entering the network, thus making the proposed approach traffic-responsive. In this framework, the Petri nets play a key role, as the cost function to be minimized is a function of the marking, and the constraints include the marking state evolution. The proposed strategy is applicable to both undersaturated and oversaturated traffic conditions.
Autors: Di Febbraro, A.;Giglio, D.;Sacco, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 510 - 524
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Difference Resolution Approach to Compressing Access Control Lists
Abstract:
Access control lists (ACLs) are the core of many networking and security devices. As new threats and vulnerabilities emerge, ACLs on routers and firewalls are getting larger. Therefore, compressing ACLs is an important problem. In this paper, we propose a new approach, called Diplomat, to ACL compression. The key idea is to transform higher dimensional target patterns into lower dimensional patterns by dividing the original pattern into a series of hyperplanes and then resolving differences between two adjacent hyperplanes by adding rules that specify the differences. This approach is fundamentally different from prior ACL compression algorithms and is shown to be very effective. We implemented Diplomat and conducted side-by-side comparison with the prior Firewall Compressor, TCAM Razor, and ACL Compressor algorithms on real life classifiers. Our experimental results show that Diplomat outperforms all of them on most of our real-life classifiers, often by a considerable margin, particularly as classifier size and complexity increases. In particular, on our largest ACLs, Diplomat has an average improvement ratio of 34.9% over Firewall Compressor on range-ACLs, of 14.1% over TCAM Razor on prefix-ACLs, and 8.9% over ACL Compressor on mixed-ACLs.
Autors: Daly, J.;Liu, A.X.;Torng, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 610 - 623
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Direct Proof of the Discrete-Time Multivariate Circle and Tsypkin Criteria
Abstract:
This technical note presents a new proof of the circle criterion for multivariate, discrete-time systems with time-varying feedback nonlinearities. A new proof for the multivariate Tsypkin criterion for time-invariant monotonic feedback nonlinearities is derived as well. Both integrator- and non-integrator systems are considered. The proofs are direct in the sense that they do not resort to any existing result in systems theory, such as Lyapunov theory, passivity theory or the small-gain theorem. Instead, the proofs refer to the asymptotic properties of block-Toeplitz matrices. One major advantage of the new proof is that it elegantly handles integrator systems without resorting to loop transformation/pole shifting techniques. Additionally, less conservative stability bounds are derived by making stronger assumptions on the sector bound conditions on the feedback nonlinearities. In particular, it is exemplified how this technique relaxes stability conditions of (i) a model predictive control (MPC) rule and (ii) an integrator system.
Autors: Nygren, J.;Pelckmans, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 544 - 549
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Discontinuity Preserving Relaxation Scheme for Spectral–Spatial Hyperspectral Image Classification
Abstract:
In remote sensing image processing, relaxation is defined as a method that uses the local relationship among neighboring pixels to correct spectral or spatial distortions. In recent years, relaxation methods have shown great success in classification of remotely sensed data. Relaxation, as a preprocessing step, can reduce noise and improve the class separability in the spectral domain. On the other hand, relaxation (as a postprocessing approach) works on the label image or class probabilities obtained from pixelwise classifiers. In this work, we develop a discontinuity preserving relaxation strategy, which can be used for postprocessing of class probability estimates, as well as preprocessing of the original hyperspectral image. The newly proposed method is an iterative relaxation procedure, which exploits spatial information in such a way that it considers discontinuities existing in the data cube. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed methodology leads to state-of-the-art classification results when combined with probabilistic classifiers for several widely used hyperspectral data sets, even when very limited training samples are available.
Autors: Li, J.;Khodadadzadeh, M.;Plaza, A.;Jia, X.;Bioucas-Dias, J.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 9, issue:2, pages: 625 - 639
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Discrete HMM-Based Feature Sequence Model Approach for Star Identification
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel star pattern recognition algorithm based on a discrete hidden Markov model (HMM) for autonomous spacecraft attitude determination in the lost-in-space mode. A two-layer structure is proposed to build an HMM-based star pattern for every guide star. The hidden layer describes the unique geometric distributions of stars in the field of view via the transitions among hidden states, and the observation layer uses discrete and rounded feature sequences consisting of the angular distances of star pairs as outputs. An HMM-based star pattern with maximum probabilities in generating the sequences obtained in the recognition process is uniquely matched. Experiments of synthesized and real star images are tested for the HMM algorithm. Results show that the proposed algorithm has a fast average identification time and is highly robust toward star positions, magnitude noise, and false stars. In the simulation, the HMM algorithm exhibits 99.65% identification rate with 0.4 pixel standard deviations of positional noises, 0.323-Mv magnitude noises, and 1.5-ms average identification time. Moreover, the identification rate is 99.11% and the average identification time is 1.2 ms when testing real star images.
Autors: Sun, L.;Jiang, J.;Zhang, G.;Wei, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 16, issue:4, pages: 931 - 940
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distortion Cancelation Technique With the Recursive DFT Method for Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converters
Abstract:
This paper proposes a recursive discrete Fourier transform (RDFT) foreground digital calibration method for successive approximation (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). This calibration method can lower the harmonic distortion caused by capacitor mismatch and dc offset of comparators to improve the resolution and performance of ADCs. Capacitor mismatch results in a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) capacitor array that is unequal to . RDFT can be adopted to evaluate the real radixes of a DAC capacitor array with a new digital output to compensate for the error caused by capacitor mismatch. Furthermore, the calibration technique can eliminate the dc offset error of a comparator circuit. The proposed novel digital calibration method that utilizes RDFT instead of the traditional fast Fourier transform has the advantages of variable transform length, lower complexity, faster computation, and less hardware cost. The analog block of SAR ADC with RDFT is implemented in the TSMC 0.18- standard CMOS process with a 200-kS/s sampling rate to validate the proposed method. Simulation results show that the total harmonic distortion (THD) is 64.97 dB before calibration, whereas a THD of 73.05 dB can be achieved after calibration. In addition, the effective bit numbers are 9.98 and 11.26 b before and after calibration, respectively.
Autors: Juan, Y.;Huang, H.;Lai, S.;Juang, W.;Lee, S.;Luo, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 146 - 150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed, Reconfigurable, and Reusable BIST Infrastructure for Test and Diagnosis of 3-D-Stacked ICs
Abstract:
We present an end-to-end design of a built-in self-test (BIST) and BIST-based diagnosis infrastructure for 3-D-stacked integrated circuits (ICs) that facilitates the use of BIST at multiple stages of 3-D integration. The proposed BIST design is distributed, reusable, and reconfigurable, hence it is attractive for both prebond and post-bond testing. We also provide support for translating a static BIST schedule into a set of BIST control instructions. The BIST design is validated using detailed simulations of the various operating modes. A framework for fault diagnosis using the BIST infrastructure for 3-D-stacked ICs is also proposed. We present results on synthetic stacks created from ITC’99 and Open-Core benchmark circuits and assess the impact of inserting BIST in these designs in terms of area, timing, and power overhead. Results show that the overhead due to BIST is negligible. We also formulate a test-scheduling problem that aims at minimizing test time under BIST-resource and power constraints, and use two algorithms based on bin packing for solving the problem.
Autors: Agrawal, M.;Chakrabarty, K.;Eklow, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 35, issue:2, pages: 309 - 322
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Polarized 2–18-GHz Vivaldi Array for Airborne Radar Measurements of Snow
Abstract:
This communication presents the experimental results of a ultrawideband 2–18-GHz dual-polarized Vivaldi antenna array for airborne radar measurements of snow. The antenna design is based on the previously reported all-metal flared-notch array by Kindt and Pickles for operation over the frequency range 0.7–9 GHz. An antenna array prototype consisting of active dual-polarized elements was fabricated with precise aluminum machining and tested in the anechoic chamber. Beamsteering upto 30° was experimental demonstrated from 2 to 18 GHz. The measurement results are in a good agreement with the full-wave simulation results in both polarization configurations. Preliminary sample results from data collected using the Vivaldi array are also presented. The antenna array enables full polarimetric measurements of snow-over-sea-ice for estimating the snow-water-equivalent (SWE), as well as fine-resolution mapping of snow-air and snow-ice interfaces for estimating thickness.
Autors: Yan, J.;Gogineni, S.;Camps-Raga, B.;Brozena, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 781 - 785
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in mobile networks with big data of users and networks
Abstract:
Data collection has become easy due to the rapid development of both mobile devices and wireless networks. In each second, numerous data are generated by user devices and collected through wireless networks. These data, carrying user and network related information, are invaluable for network management. However, they were seldom employed to improve network performance in existing research work. In this article we propose a bandwidth allocation algorithm to increase the throughput of cellular network users by exploring user and network data collected from user devices. With the aid of these data, users can be categorized into clusters and share bandwidth to improve the resource utilization of the network. Simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme is able to rationally form clusters among mobile users and thus significantly increase the throughput and bandwidth efficiency of the network.
Autors: Fan, B.;Leng, S.;Yang, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 6 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamic Process Adjustment Method Based on Residual Prediction for Quality Improvement
Abstract:
Dynamic process adjustment is an important way for improving product quality in industry production process. Focusing on the process monitoring and feedback adjustment, a residual prediction method for quality improvement is proposed in this paper. This method deals with the problem of dynamic process adjustment in three steps: 1) definition of adjustment rules; 2) building of residual series model; and 3) prediction of adjustment amount, respectively. First, the cost function and quality loss are combined to define the adjustment rules, which is used for judging whether the process should be adjusted. Second, a multivariate residual series model is built to illustrate the time series between input variables (technological parameters) and output variables (quality indices). Third, the double-order weights are introduced to support vector machine to build a prediction model for predicting the adjustment amount of controllable variables. In this way, the adjustment decisions can be made and conducted to realize the dynamic process adjustment. At last, to demonstrate the practical usefulness of the proposed method, a case study about coating process of purifier carrier is provided to validate its effectiveness. The result shows that the proposed method has good performance for industry application.
Autors: Zhao, L.;Diao, G.;Yao, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 41 - 50
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A dynamic trajectory control algorithm for improving the communication throughput and delay in UAV-aided networks
Abstract:
Recently, the UAS has been extensively exploited for data collection from remote and dangerous or inaccessible areas. While most of its existing applications have been directed toward surveillance and monitoring tasks, the UAS can play a significant role as a communication network facilitator. For example, the UAS may effectively extend communication capability to disaster-affected people (who have lost cellular and Internet communication infrastructures on the ground) by quickly constructing a communication relay system among a number of UAVs. However, the distance between the centers of trajectories of two neighboring UAVs, referred to as IUD, plays an important role in the communication delay and throughput. For instance, the communication delay increases rapidly while the throughput is degraded when the IUD increases. In order to address this issue, in this article, we propose a simple but effective dynamic trajectory control algorithm for UAVs. Our proposed algorithm considers that UAVs with queue occupancy above a threshold are experiencing congestion resulting in communication delay. To alleviate the congestion at UAVs, our proposal adjusts their center coordinates and also, if needed, the radius of their trajectory. The performance of our proposal is evaluated through computer-based simulations. In addition, we conduct several field experiments in order to verify the effectiveness of UAV-aided networks.
Autors: Fadlullah, Z.M.;Takaishi, D.;Nishiyama, H.;Kato, N.;Miura, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 100 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast and Accurate Unconstrained Face Detector
Abstract:
We propose a method to address challenges in unconstrained face detection, such as arbitrary pose variations and occlusions. First, a new image feature called Normalized Pixel Difference (NPD) is proposed. NPD feature is computed as the difference to sum ratio between two pixel values, inspired by the Weber Fraction in experimental psychology. The new feature is scale invariant, bounded, and is able to reconstruct the original image. Second, we propose a deep quadratic tree to learn the optimal subset of NPD features and their combinations, so that complex face manifolds can be partitioned by the learned rules. This way, only a single soft-cascade classifier is needed to handle unconstrained face detection. Furthermore, we show that the NPD features can be efficiently obtained from a look up table, and the detection template can be easily scaled, making the proposed face detector very fast. Experimental results on three public face datasets (FDDB, GENKI, and CMU-MIT) show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance in detecting unconstrained faces with arbitrary pose variations and occlusions in cluttered scenes.
Autors: Liao, S.;Jain, A.K.;Li, S.Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 38, issue:2, pages: 211 - 223
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast and Scalable Protection Scheme for Distribution Networks With Distributed Generation
Abstract:
The increasing penetration of distributed generators (DGs) in modern day power grids results in varying fault current levels and network scenarios which may affect the conventional overcurrent protection relays. This necessitates a protection scheme with efficient fault signal estimations and smart decision-making capabilities in case of unexpected events. In this paper, a novel, fast, and adaptive relay mechanism has been proposed for complete protection of radial distribution systems with DG penetration. A fast recursive discrete Fourier transform (FRDFT) algorithm is used here for efficient fundamental tracking of varying power system signals. The numerical relay design using the FRDFT algorithm is embedded with a fuzzy-logic decision-making module for obtaining optimal protection settings in case of changing system conditions. The proposed adaptive scheme is tested on a standard IEEE 34-bus distribution system equipped with DGs by simulating various case studies. Simulation results verify that the adaptive relay is able to capture the changing system scenarios and select the protection settings accordingly.
Autors: Kumar, D.S.;Srinivasan, D.;Reindl, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 67 - 75
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Sauvola Local Image Thresholding Algorithm Using Stochastic Computing
Abstract:
Binarization plays an important role in document image processing, particularly in degraded document images. Among all local image thresholding algorithms, Sauvola has excellent binarization performance for degraded document images. However, this algorithm is computationally intensive and sensitive to the noises from the internal computational circuits. In this paper, we present a stochastic implementation of Sauvola algorithm. Our experimental results show that the stochastic implementation of Sauvola needs much less time and area and can tolerate more faults, while consuming less power in comparison with its conventional implementation.
Autors: Najafi, M.H.;Salehi, M.E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 24, issue:2, pages: 808 - 812
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast-Acquisition All-Digital Delay-Locked Loop Using a Starting-Bit Prediction Algorithm for the Successive-Approximation Register
Abstract:
This brief presents a fast-acquisition 11-bit all-digital delay-locked loop (ADDLL) using a novel starting-bit prediction algorithm for the successive-approximation register (SBP-SAR). It can effectively eliminate the harmonic lock and the false lock. The achievable acquisition time is within 17.5–23.5 or 17.5–32.5 clock cycles when the ADDLL works at the low or high clock rate, respectively. The digital-controlled delay line and the SBP-SAR of the ADDLL chip are synthesized using Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company’s (TSMC’s) 0.18- CMOS cell library. The proposed ADDLL can operate at a clock frequency from 60 MHz to 1.1 GHz.
Autors: Ho, Y.;Yao, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 24, issue:2, pages: 759 - 763
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Faster cDNA Microarray Gene Expression Data Classifier for Diagnosing Diseases
Abstract:
Profiling cancer molecules has several advantages; however, using microarray technology in routine clinical diagnostics is challenging for physicians. The classification of microarray data has two main limitations: 1) the data set is unreliable for building classifiers; and 2) the classifiers exhibit poor performance. Current microarray classification algorithms typically yield a high rate of false-positives cases, which is unacceptable in diagnostic applications. Numerous algorithms have been developed to detect false-positive cases; however, they require a considerable computation time. To address this problem, this study enhanced a previously proposed gene expression graph (GEG)-based classifier to shorten the computation time. The modified classifier filters genes by using an edge weight to determine their significance, thereby facilitating accurate comparison and classification. This study experimentally compared the proposed classifier with a GEG-based classifier by using real data and benchmark tests. The results show that the proposed classifier is faster at detecting false-positives.
Autors: Hsieh, S.;Chou, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 43 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fiber Laser Using Graphene-Integrated 3-D Microfiber Coil
Abstract:
We demonstrate a state variable fiber pulse laser based on a graphene-integrated microfiber device. A 3-D microfiber coil integrated with graphene acts as a polarization-sensitive saturable absorber. By adjusting the polarization controllers, stable Q-switched pulses and mode-locked rectangular pulses are observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted to achieve switching between rectangular pulses and Q-switched pulses while keeping the pump power constant. The rectangular pulses have a pulsewidth and repetition rate of ∼10 ns and ∼940 kHz, respectively, and the Q-switched pulses have a pulsewidth and repetition rate of ∼40 and ∼4.8 kHz, respectively.
Autors: Li, C.;Chen, J.;Yan, S.;Xu, F.;Lu, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 8, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Filtering Approach for Image-Guided Surgery With a Highly Articulated Surgical Snake Robot
Abstract:
Goal: The objective of this paper is to introduce a probabilistic filtering approach to estimate the pose and internal shape of a highly flexible surgical snake robot during minimally invasive surgery. Methods: Our approach renders a depiction of the robot that is registered to preoperatively reconstructed organ models to produce a 3-D visualization that can be used for surgical feedback. Our filtering method estimates the robot shape using an extended Kalman filter that fuses magnetic tracker data with kinematic models that define the motion of the robot. Using Lie derivative analysis, we show that this estimation problem is observable, and thus, the shape and configuration of the robot can be successfully recovered with a sufficient number of magnetic tracker measurements. Results: We validate this study with benchtop and in-vivo image-guidance experiments in which the surgical robot was driven along the epicardial surface of a porcine heart. Conclusion: This paper introduces a filtering approach for shape estimation that can be used for image guidance during minimally invasive surgery. Significance: The methods being introduced in this paper enable informative image guidance for highly articulated surgical robots, which benefits the advancement of robotic surgery.
Autors: Tully, S.;Choset, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 392 - 402
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Filtering Scheme to Reduce the Penetration of Harmonics into Transmission Systems
Abstract:
The widespread adoption of energy efficient but harmonic-producing loads in residential homes has led to increased injection of harmonic currents into transmission systems. In response to this situation, a novel filtering scheme that can reduce the harmonic penetration into transmission systems is proposed. The scheme utilizes the tertiary winding of a substation transformer to construct a tuned low-impedance path for the harmonic currents. The proposed scheme is capable of trapping two zero-sequence harmonics and three nonzero-sequence harmonics simultaneously. A design procedure has been developed. Performance of the scheme is evaluated and demonstrated through simulation studies. In addition, economic analysis reveals that the scheme is a cost-effective solution in comparison with other applicable methods.
Autors: Ding, T.;Xu, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 59 - 66
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flicker Allocation Scheme for MV Networks With High Penetration of Distributed Generation
Abstract:
This letter proposes a flicker allocation scheme in which the customer is allocated a flicker emission limit based on the strength of its point of connection, rather than its absolute rating, aiming for more efficient allocation of flicker emission limits and less restricted penetration of distributed generation in medium-voltage networks.
Autors: Ammar, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 400 - 401
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Categorizing and Applying Privacy-Preservation Techniques in Big Data Mining
Abstract:
To protect sensitive information in mined data, researchers need a way to organize a variety of ongoing work. The Rampart framework categorizes protection approaches and encourages interdisciplinary solutions to the growing variety of privacy problems associated with knowledge discovery from data.
Autors: Xu, Lei;Jiang, Chunxiao;Chen, Yan;Wang, Jian;Ren, Yong;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 49, issue:2, pages: 54 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Structural Input/Output and Control Configuration Selection in Large-Scale Systems
Abstract:
This paper addresses problems on the structural design of large-scale control systems. An efficient and unified framework is proposed to select the minimum number of manipulated/measured variables to achieve structural controllability/observability of the system, and to select the minimum number of feedback interconnections between measured and manipulated variables such that the closed-loop system has no structural fixed modes. Global solutions are computed using polynomial complexity algorithms in the number of the state variables of the system. Finally, graph-theoretic characterizations are proposed, which allow a characterization of all possible solutions.
Autors: Pequito, S.;Kar, S.;Aguiar, A.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 303 - 318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework of Target Detection in Hyperspectral Imagery Based on Blind Source Extraction
Abstract:
A framework based on the blind source extraction (BSE) algorithm is proposed to detect targets in remotely sensed hyperspectral images. The mean square cross prediction error (MSCPE)-based BSE method is used as the kernel algorithm where the autoregressive (AR) parameters of the targets’ spectra are utilized as priors. Numerical simulations show that the proposed framework highlights the desired signal, suppresses the backgrounds, and is able to detect the distribution of the target. In the experiments, the data from the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) were used to evaluate the framework. The proposed method achieved a better performance in the tradeoff between the PD and the PFA with subpixel target detection compared with the constrained energy minimization (CEM), the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), the matched filter (MF), the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT), the adaptive matched subspace detector (AMSD), and the orthogonal subspace projection (OSP).
Autors: Wang, G.;Zhang, Y.;He, B.;Chong, K.T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 9, issue:2, pages: 835 - 844
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Frequency Tunable High Sensitivity H-Field Probe Using Varactor Diodes and Parasitic Inductance
Abstract:
A frequency-tunable resonant magnetic field probe is designed for near-field scanning applications for the radio frequency interference studies. Tunable resonance is achieved by using a varactor diode providing the required capacitance and the parasitic inductance of a magnetic loop (i.e., a parallel LC circuit). An equivalent circuit model for the probe is described, analyzed, and used for designing the probe for achieving maximum sensitivity. The resonance frequency of the designed probe is tunable in the frequency range of 900–2260 MHz that covers multiple radio bands, such as the GSM900, UMTS, and GPS bands. The sensitivity of the probe at the resonance frequency is about 7–9 dB higher than that of an equivalently sized broadband magnetic field probe throughout the tunable frequency range. The measured frequency response and sensitivity over a microstrip trace using the fabricated probe shows good agreement with the simulated results of the equivalent circuit model and the full-wave simulation model.
Autors: Shinde, S.;Marathe, S.;Li, G.;Zoughi, R.;Pommerenke, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 331 - 334
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully Integrated 240-GHz Direct-Conversion Quadrature Transmitter and Receiver Chipset in SiGe Technology
Abstract:
This paper presents a fully integrated direct-conversion quadrature transmitter and receiver chipset at 240 GHz. It is implemented in a 0.13- SiGe bipolar-CMOS technology. A wideband frequency multiplier ( 16) based local-oscillator (LO) signal source and a wideband on-chip antenna designed to be used with an external replaceable silicon lens makes this chipset suited for applications requiring fixed and tunable LO. The chipset is packaged in a low-cost FR4 printed circuit board resulting in a complete solution with compact form-factor. At 236 GHz, the effective-isotropic-radiated-power is 21.86 dBm and the minimum single-sideband noise figure is 15 dB. The usable RF bandwidth for this chipset is 65 GHz and the 6-dB bandwidth is 17 GHz. At the system level, we demonstrate a high data-rate communication system where an external modem is operated in its two IF-bandwidth modes (250 MHz and 1 GHz). For the quadrature phase-shift keying modulation scheme, the measured data rate is 2.73 Gb/s (modem 1-GHz IF) with bit-error rate of for a 15-cm link. The estimated data rate over the 17-GHz RF bandwidth is, hence, 23.025 Gb/s. Also, higher order modulation schemes like 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with a data rate of 0.677 Gb/s and 64-QAM with a data rate of 1.0154 Gb/s (modem 250-MHz IF) is demonstrated. A second application demonstrator is presented where the wide tunable RF bandwidth of the chipset is used for material characterization. It is used to characterize an FR4 material (DE104) over the 215–260-GHz range.
Autors: Sarmah, N.;Grzyb, J.;Statnikov, K.;Malz, S.;Rodriguez Vazquez, P.;Foerster, W.;Heinemann, B.;Pfeiffer, U.R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 562 - 574
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully Integrated X-Band Phased-Array Transceiver in 0.13- SiGe BiCMOS Technology
Abstract:
This paper presents the design of an X-band phased-array transceiver core chip in 0.13- SiGe BiCMOS technology. The system is based on the all-RF architecture and contains switches, low-noise amplifier (LNA), power amplifier (PA), and the common leg 5-bit phase shifter with loss compensation amplifiers. A distributed structure is used in the gain amplifiers design to ease the multi-stage gain roll-off in the transmit (TX)/receive (RX) paths. A distributed LNA is utilized in the RX path to achieve broadband amplification with acceptable noise figure (NF) while a stacked PA is utilized in the TX path to get high output power. In the RX mode, the receiver demonstrates a gain of , an average NF of 3 dB, an output of 6 dBm, a root mean square (rms) phase error less than 3.8 and an rms gain error less than 1.2 dB from 9 to 11 GHz; while dissipating 352-mW dc power. In the TX mode, the transmitter demonstrates a gain of , an output of 28 dBm, an rms phase error less than 3 , and an rms gain error less than 0.6 dB from 9 to 11 GHz; while dissipating 4.128-W dc power. The whole transceiver occupies 5.2 3 chip area including the testing pads.
Autors: Liu, C.;Li, Q.;Li, Y.;Deng, X.-D.;Li, X.;Liu, H.;Xiong, Y.-Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 575 - 584
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A GaN HEMTs Nonlinear Large-Signal Statistical Model and Its Application in S-Band Power Amplifier Design
Abstract:
A GaN HEMTs nonlinear large-signal statistical model based on empirical equivalent circuit including nonlinear electrothermal effect and trapping effects is proposed in this letter. The electrothermal model is constructed by one stage nonlinear R-C electrothermal network, and the trapping effects is modeled by effective gate bias based on Angelov model. Thirty-four GaN HEMTs from 10 batches are measured and all the parameters in the large-signal model are extracted by in-house parameters extraction program. The statistical method is modeled by combining principal component analysis, factor analysis, and multiple regressions modeling techniques. The statistical model is implemented in Agilent-ADS and the Monte Carlo simulation is fulfilled for validation. Two S-band GaN HEMT power amplifiers are designed by using the established statistical model for demonstration purpose. The results show that good accuracy have been achieved by comparing measured and Monte Carlo simulated output power (Pout) and power added efficiency (PAE). So this method is proved to be suitable for GaN HEMT power amplifier's design and yield estimation.
Autors: Chen, Z.;Xu, Y.;Zhang, B.;Chen, T.;Gao, T.;Xu, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 128 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Framework of Skeleton Extraction in Sensor Networks
Abstract:
In sensor networks, skeleton (also known as medial axis) extraction is recognized as an appealing approach to support many applications, such as load-balanced routing and location-free segmentation. Existing solutions in the literature rely heavily on the identified boundaries, posing severe limitations on the applicability of the skeleton extraction algorithm. In this paper, we conduct the first work of a connectivity-based and boundary-free skeleton extraction scheme in sensor networks, and propose a centrality-and-connectivity-based boundary-free algorithm, which is simple, distributed, and scalable, and can correctly identify a few skeleton nodes and connects them into a meaningful representation of the network, without reliance on any constraint on communication radio model or nodal distribution. The key idea of our algorithm is to exploit the necessary (but not sufficient) condition of skeleton points: the intersection area of the disk centered at a skeleton point should be the largest one as compared with the other points on the chord generated by , where the chord is referred to as the line segment connecting and the tangent point in the boundary. To that end, we present the concept of -centrality of a point, quantitatively measuring how central a point is. Accordingly, a skeleton point should have the largest value of -centrality, as compared with the other points on the chord generated by this point. We then propose a distributed algorithm to connect the identified skeleton nodes, while obtaining two by-products, i.e., the boundaries and the segmentation result of the network. We - lso design a light-weight scheme based on the Voronoi diagram, entitled Voronoi-based skeleton extraction algorithm, that yields a skeleton with less communication overhead while sacrificing slightly the skeleton accuracy, providing a tradeoff between skeleton accuracy and communication cost.
Autors: Liu, W.;Yang, Y.;Peng, K.;Jiang, H.;Liao, X.;Wei, W.;Li, B.;Xing, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 16, issue:4, pages: 1103 - 1116
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generalized Probabilistic Framework for Compact Codebook Creation
Abstract:
Compact and discriminative visual codebooks are preferred in many visual recognition tasks. In the literature, a number of works have taken the approach of hierarchically merging visual words of an initial large-sized codebook, but implemented this approach with different merging criteria. In this work, we propose a single probabilistic framework to unify these merging criteria, by identifying two key factors: the function used to model the class-conditional distribution and the method used to estimate the distribution parameters. More importantly, by adopting new distribution functions and/or parameter estimation methods, our framework can readily produce a spectrum of novel merging criteria. Three of them are specifically discussed in this paper. For the first criterion, we adopt the multinomial distribution with the Bayesian method; For the second criterion, we integrate the Gaussian distribution with maximum likelihood parameter estimation. For the third criterion, which shows the best merging performance, we propose a max-margin-based parameter estimation method and apply it with the multinomial distribution. Extensive experimental study is conducted to systematically analyze the performance of the above three criteria and compare them with existing ones. As demonstrated, the best criterion within our framework achieves the overall best merging performance among the compared merging criteria developed in the literature.
Autors: Liu, L.;Wang, L.;Shen, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 38, issue:2, pages: 224 - 237
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Graph-Theoretic Condition for Global Identifiability of Weighted Consensus Networks
Abstract:
In this technical note, we present a sufficient condition that guarantees identifiability for a class of linear network dynamic systems exhibiting continuous-time weighted consensus protocols. Each edge of the underlying network graph of the system is defined by a constant parameter, referred to as the weight of the edge, while each node is defined by a scalar state whose dynamics evolve as the weighted linear combination of its difference with the states of its neighboring nodes. Following the classical definition of output distinguishability, we first derive a condition that ensures the identifiability of the edge-weights of in terms of the associate transfer function. Using this characterization, we propose a sensor placement algorithm that guarantees identifiability of the edge-weights. We describe our results using illustrative examples.
Autors: Nabavi, S.;Chakrabortty, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 497 - 502
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Grouped Up-and-Down Method Used for Efficacy Comparison Between Two Different Defibrillation Waveforms
Abstract:
Electrical defibrillation, which consists of delivering a therapeutic dose of the electrical current to the fibrillating heart with the aid of a defibrillator, is still the only effective way to treat life-threatening ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, the efficacy of electrical therapy for terminating VF is highly dependent on the waveform applied. When new defibrillation waveforms or techniques are developed, their efficacy needs to be accurately evaluated and compared to those in use. A common method for the comparison of defibrillation efficacy is to estimate and compare the individual defibrillation threshold (DFT) by constructing dose response curves or using an up-and-down method. Since DFT is calculated by repetitive and sequential shocks, there will be variability for each measurement and for each individual. This creates a considerable uncertainty for paired comparison. In this paper, a novel grouped up-and-down method is developed for the comparison of defibrillation efficacy between two different defibrillation waveforms or techniques. The efficacy of two commonly used biphasic defibrillation waveforms was compared in a porcine model of cardiac arrest using the developed method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more sensitive for efficacy comparison and requires less defibrillation attempts compared with traditional DFT methods.
Autors: Jin, D.;Wang, J.;Yang, K.;Wang, K.;Quan, W.;Herken, U.;Li, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 385 - 391
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Guided Tour of Selected Image Processing and Analysis Methods for Fluorescence and Electron Microscopy
Abstract:
Microscopy imaging, including fluorescence micro scopy and electron microscopy, has taken a prominent role in life science research and medicine due to its ability to investigate the 3D interior of live cells and organisms. A long-term research in bio-imaging at the sub-cellular and cellular scales consists then in inferring the relationships between the dynamics of macromolecules and their functions. In this area, image processing and analysis methods are now essential to understand the dynamic organization of groups of interacting molecules inside molecular machineries and to address issues in fundamental biology driven by advances in molecular biology, optics and technology. In this paper, we present recent advances in fluorescence and electron microscopy and we focus on dedicated image processing and analysis methods required to quantify phenotypes for a limited number but typical studies in cell imaging.
Autors: Kervrann, C.;Sorzano, C.O.S.;Acton, S.T.;Olivo-Marin, J.-C.;Unser, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Feb 2016, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 6 - 30
Publisher: IEEE
 

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