Log in
Register
Pages: 0123456789101112131415161718


Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2013 sorted by title, page: 0
» 1-Tb/s WDM-OFDM-PON System With Subband Access Scheme and Flexible Subcarrier-Level Bandwidth Allocation
Abstract:
A novel subband access scheme for multiband high-speed orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) passive optical network (PON) is proposed, where the granularity of the bandwidth allocation is as small as the bandwidth of just one subcarrier and the ONUs only receives the desired subcarriers according to the bandwidth allocation strategy from the whole downstream OFDM signal without band limitation. Since the ONUs do not have to receive a complete OFDM band, low-bandwidth and low-speed devices can be used to reduce ONU cost. The algorithm used in the scheme is also explained in detail, and a 1-Tb/s experimental system is successfully established to prove the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Lei, C.;Chen, M.;Chen, H.;Yang, S.;Yu, Y.;Xie, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 5, issue:1, pages: 7900208 - 7900208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1060-nm Tunable Monolithic High Index Contrast Subwavelength Grating VCSEL
Abstract:
We present the first tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) where the top distributed Bragg reflector has been completely substituted by an air-cladded high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirror. In this way, an extended cavity design can be realized by reducing the reflection at the semiconductor–air interface using an anti-reflective coating (ARC). We demonstrate how the ARC can be integrated in a monolithic structure by oxidizing AlGaAs with high Al-content. The HCG VCSEL has the potential to achieve polarization stable single-mode output with high tuning efficiency. The HCG VCSEL shows a total tuning range of 16 nm around an emission wavelength of 1060 nm with 1-mW output power.
Autors: Ansbaek, T.;Chung, I.-S.;Semenova, E. S.;Yvind, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 25, issue:4, pages: 365 - 367
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 160-GHz Power Amplifier Design in Advanced SiGe HBT Technologies With in Excess of 10 dBm
Abstract:
Power amplifier (PA) design for 160-GHz applications in an advanced SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology with saturated output power in excess of 10 dBm is presented. The architecture is based on a three-stage pseudodifferential configuration that was implemented in SiGe HBT evaluation technology with of 400 GHz. At saturation, a PA breakout circuit delivers 10 dBm with 20-dB gain. From 150 to 170 GHz, the small-signal gain is within 20–32 dB and the output referred 1-dB compression point is 8.5 dBm at 160 GHz. High output power was possible due to optimum device sizing, efficient layout, and accurate EM modeling. To our best knowledge, this is the highest output power reported for silicon PAs operating beyond 120 GHz.
Autors: Sarmah, N.;Chevalier, P.;Pfeiffer, U. R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 939 - 947
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2- to 20-GHz Switch Using III-Nitride Capacitively Coupled Contact Varactors
Abstract:
We report on the low-loss microwave switch monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) built using voltage-controlled capacitors formed by the two Schottky contacts deposited over an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. A symmetrical structure of the varactor allows for either positive or negative control voltage. A small electrode and a spacing size of 2 ensure low on-impedance. The fabricated series–shunt switch MMIC shows 0.8-dB insertion loss and 28-dB isolation at 18 GHz and the maximum linear power of 34 dBm at 10 GHz and 38 dBm at 18 GHz (extrapolated from 2- to 10-GHz data). The device does not require contact alignment or annealing; it is robust, simple to fabricate, and well suited for MMICs.
Autors: Jahan, F.;Yang, Y.-H.;Gaevski, M.;Deng, J.;Gaska, R.;Shur, M.;Simin, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 34, issue:2, pages: 208 - 210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2012 - A Great Year in the Student Chapter Development [Chapter News]
Abstract:
Reportson IAS chapter news.
Autors: Magyar, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 106 - 109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2012 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence for Security and Defence Applications (IEEE CISDA 2012) [Conference Report]
Abstract:
The 2012 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence for Security and Defence Applications (IEEE CISDA 2012) was held from 11 to 13 July 2012 in the Delta Ottawa City Centre Hotel in Ottawa, Canada. This article overviews the happenings at the conference. IEEE CISDA 2012 was the fifth forum (the first was held in 2007) on CI for security and defence applications. Since that inaugural year, new problems have emerged within the broad areas of security and defence that are increasingly more difficult to tackle with conventional methods, thus requiring new techniques for detecting and adapting to emerging threats. The purpose of the symposium is to present current efforts in CI (e.g., neural networks, fuzzy systems, evolutionary computation, swarm intelligence, and other emerging learning or optimization techniques) as applied to security, defence and military problems. The following topics are typically discussed at the symposium: complex adaptive systems, intelligence gathering and exploitation, modeling and simulation of military operations, network security, automatic target recognition and tracking, biometrics, as well as employment and control of autonomous vehicles.
Autors: Abielmona, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 8, issue:1, pages: 12 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2013 Trends and Strategies
Abstract:
This article examines the key technology trends and strategies facing CIOs for 2013, including mobility & BYOD, the personal cloud (BYOC), mobile apps (HTML5), Big Data, social media, corporate app stores, in-memory computing, actionable analytics, hybrid IT (the public cloud), and video and voice telepresence.
Autors: Costello, Tom;Prohaska, Beverly;
Appeared in: IT Professional
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 64 - 64
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 250 DPI at 1000 Hz acquisition rate S0 lamb wave digitizing pen
Abstract:
This paper presents an active stylus (X, Y) flat digitizing tablet (AST). The tablet features an acquisition rate of 1000 pts/s with 0.1 mm resolution. The cordless stylus incorporates a 1-mA low-power pulse generator. Precision is limited by diffraction to about ±0.3 mm on a 57 x 57 mm region of a 71 x 71 x 1 mm digitizing plate. Selective generation and detection of the S0 Lamb mode with a precessing tip is the key feature of this tablet. We first highlight the ultrasonic propagation inside the stylus tip and stability of Lamb wave generation when the stylus is inclined, rotated, and slid. Then, modeling of the limitations imposed by diffraction of a 1-MHz burst S0 plane Lamb wave packet is carried out. The model takes into account high-order zero crossing detection as well as reflections and shear horizontal (SH) conversions of the S0 Lamb mode at free edges of a glass plate. Reflection and transmission through an isotropic PZT bar are also calculated. Finally, localization precision by time difference of arrival (TDOA) is calculated and experimentally verified near the borders of the plate, taking into account the angular sensitivity of the precessing tip.
Autors: Nikolovski, J.-P.;Fournier, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 380 - 394
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Spatial Resolution of 350 m Pitch Pixelated CdZnTe Detectors for Imaging Applications
Abstract:
We are currently investigating the feasibility of using highly pixelated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors for sub-500 m resolution PET imaging applications. A 20 mm 20 mm 5 mm CdZnTe substrate was fabricated with 350 m pitch pixels (250 m anode pixels with 100 m gap) and coplanar cathode. Charge sharing among the pixels of a 350 m pitch detector was studied using collimated 122 keV and 511 keV gamma ray sources. For a 350 m pitch CdZnTe detector, scatter plots of the charge signal of two neighboring pixels clearly show more charge sharing when the collimated beam hits the gap between adjacent pixels. Using collimated Co-57 and Ge-68 sources, we measured the count profiles and estimated the intrinsic spatial resolution of 350 m pitch detector biased at V. Depth of interaction was analyzed based on two methods, i.e., cathode/anode ratio and electron drift time, in both 122 keV and 511 keV measurements. For single-pixel photopeak events, a linear correlation between cathode/anode ratio and electron drift time was shown, which would be useful for estimating the DOI information and preserving image resolution in CdZnTe PET imaging applications.
Autors: Yin, Y.;Chen, X.;Wu, H.;Komarov, S.;Garson, A.;Li, Q.;Guo, Q.;Krawczynski, H.;Meng, L.-J.;Tai, Y.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 9 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D-Laser-Based Scene Measurement and Place Recognition for Mobile Robots in Dynamic Indoor Environments
Abstract:
Active environment perception and autonomous place recognition play a key role for mobile robots to operate within a cluttered indoor environment with dynamic changes. This paper presents a 3-D-laser-based scene measurement technique and a novel place recognition method to deal with the random disturbances caused by unexpected movements of people and other objects. The proposed approach can extract and match the Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURFs) from bearing-angle images generated by a self-built rotating 3-D laser scanner. It can cope with the irregular disturbance of moving objects and the problem of observing-location changes of the laser scanner. Both global metric information and local SURF features are extracted from 3-D laser point clouds and 2-D bearing-angle images, respectively. A large-scale indoor environment with over 1600 m2 and 30 offices is selected as a testing site, and a mobile robot, i.e., SmartROB2, is deployed for conducting experiments. Experimental results show that the proposed 3-D-laser-based scene measurement technique and place recognition approach are effective and provide robust performance of place recognition in a dynamic indoor environment.
Autors: Yan Zhuang;Nan Jiang;Huosheng Hu;Fei Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 62, issue:2, pages: 438 - 450
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 40-Gb/s Colorless Reflective Amplified Modulator
Abstract:
In this letter, we demonstrate a colorless reflective amplified modulator operating within the C- and L-band spectral ranges with the modulation data rate up to 40 Gb/s. We obtain a stable, open eye performance of the device at the temperature until 85 . The presented device is fabricated using an indium phosphide (InP) monolithic integration platform, which relies on an AlGaInAs quantum well active material, gap engineering by selective area growth, and low-parasitic RC semi-insulating buried heterostructures.
Autors: Lawniczuk, K.;Patard, O.;Guillamet, R.;Chimot, N.;Garreau, A.;Kazmierski, C.;Aubin, G.;Merghem, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 25, issue:4, pages: 341 - 343
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5 Bit Patterned Media Fabricated by a Directed Self-Assembly Mask
Abstract:
FePt bit patterned media (BPM) was fabricated with a self-assembled polymer mask with a feature size of 12 nm pitch (equivalent to 5 ). A 3.5 nm FePt film with high c-axis crystal orientation was prepared for the magnetic recording layer. A solvent vapor annealing process was applied for obtaining uniform directed self-assembling of polystyrene (PS)—polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) diblock copolymer pattern. Pattern transfer from a polymer mask to FePt layer was achieved by employing a carbon hard mask. In spite of excellent magnetic characteristics of FePt layer, the fabricated FePt BPM showed small coercivity of 6 kOe and large switching field distribution (SFD) of 21%. These results are due to the etching damage of FePt dots. Disordering of FePt phase by the etching damage reduced magnetic anisotropy energy . The damaged portion became a nucleus of the magnetization reversal and reduced . Distribution of the damaged volume and the extent of the reduction contributed to large SFD. This model is supported by the experimental data of magnetic field angle dependence of switching field. The result suggests the domain wall motion type of magnetization reversal mode, where the domain wall is created at the interface between the damaged portion and the internal high- region.
Autors: Kikitsu, A.;Maeda, T.;Hieda, H.;Yamamoto, R.;Kihara, N.;Kamata, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 49, issue:2, pages: 693 - 698
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 50 Years of the DEIS
Abstract:
The Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society (DEIS), more precisely the IEEE Professional Technical Group on Electrical Insulation, held its first meeting on 16 September 1963 in Chicago. The chairman, vice-chairman (administration), vicechairman (technical), and secretary-treasurer were J. R. Perkins, K. N. Mathes, G. L. Moses, and L. M. Johnson, respectively. The name of the Group was changed to the Electrical Insulation Group on 8 May 1964 and to the Electrical Insulation Society (EIS) on 1 January 1978. The latter change was due mainly to the initiative of President Ray Bartnikas; being an IEEE Society rather than an IEEE Group enabled EIS to be fully financially responsible for its own activities and publish its own archival journal. The most recent name change, to DEIS, occurred on 5 February 1986; Arend van Roggen felt that EIS did not reflect the significant fraction of the membership interested in the fundamental properties of dielectrics as well as their role in insulation. DEIS membership has been fairly steady around the 2,000 mark for 25 years.
Autors: Fleming, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 8 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ohmic Contact Formation on N-Type Using Selenium or Sulfur Implant and Segregation
Abstract:
The physics of ohmic contact formation for nickel stanogermanide on n-type germanium–tin was investigated. Low-resistivity was formed on using a 350 30-s anneal. Ion implantation of selenium (Se) or sulfur (S) into followed by nickel stanogermanidation led to the segregation of Se or S at the interface. Low effective electron Schottky barrier height of 0.12 and 0.11 eV was achieved for contacts with Se and S segregation, respectively. A simulation study was also performed to explain the experimental observations. Se and S atoms could be modeled as donor-like traps near the interface, modifying the potential profile near the contact and giving rise to trap-assisted tunneling to increase the reverse leakage current for ohmic contact formation.
Autors: Tong, Y.;Han, G.;Liu, B.;Yang, Y.;Wang, L.;Wang, W.;Yeo, Y.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 746 - 752
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ??????Mixed-Signal Multimode Radio Software/Hardware Development Platform
Abstract:
Heterogeneous wireless networks, where diverse types of communication standards are expected to coexist, call for flexible multistandard radio (MSR) systems to replace traditional single-standard ones. For example, according to the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an MSR base station is a “base station characterized by the ability of its receiver and transmitter to process two or more carriers in common active radio frequency (RF) components simultaneously in a declared RF bandwidth, where at least one carrier is of a different radio access technology (RAT) than the other carrier(s).”
Autors: Mrabet, N.;Mkadem, F.;Petelin, O.;Medini, H.;Boumaiza, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 128 - 133
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.016-mm 144- W Three-Stage Amplifier Capable of Driving 1-to-15 nF Capacitive Load With 0.95-MHz GBW
Abstract:
A 0.016-mm 144- W three-stage amplifier capable of driving 1-to-15-nF capacitive load is described. It is optimized via combining current-buffer Miller compensation and parasitic-pole cancellation (via an active left-half-plane zero circuit) to extend the drivability with small power and area. Fabricated in 0.35- m CMOS, the minimum gain-bandwidth product (GBW), slew rate (SR) and phase margin measured over 1-to-15-nF are 0.95 MHz, 0.22 V/ s and 52.3 , respectively. The results at 15-nF correspond to 2.02x-improved small-signal , and 1.44x-improved large-signal with respect to prior art. The sizing and optimization are systematically guided by Local Feedback Loop Analysis. It is an insightful control-centric method allowing the pole-zero placements to be more analyzable and comparable at the system level.
Autors: Yan, Z.;Mak, P.-I.;Law, M.-K.;Martins, R. P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 48, issue:2, pages: 527 - 540
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.016-mm 144- W Three-Stage Amplifier Capable of Driving 1-to-15 nF Capacitive Load With 0.95-MHz GBW
Abstract:
A 0.016-mm 144- W three-stage amplifier capable of driving 1-to-15-nF capacitive load is described. It is optimized via combining current-buffer Miller compensation and parasitic-pole cancellation (via an active left-half-plane zero circuit) to extend the drivability with small power and area. Fabricated in 0.35- m CMOS, the minimum gain-bandwidth product (GBW), slew rate (SR) and phase margin measured over 1-to-15-nF are 0.95 MHz, 0.22 V/ s and 52.3 , respectively. The results at 15-nF correspond to 2.02x-improved small-signal , and 1.44x-improved large-signal with respect to prior art. The sizing and optimization are systematically guided by Local Feedback Loop Analysis. It is an insightful control-centric method allowing the pole-zero placements to be more analyzable and comparable at the system level.
Autors: Yan, Z.;Mak, P.-I.;Law, M.-K.;Martins, R. P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 48, issue:2, pages: 527 - 540
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.18- m CMOS 10-Gb/s Dual-Mode 10-PAM Serial Link Transceiver
Abstract:
A 0.18- m CMOS 10-Gb/s serial link transceiver is presented. For the power-efficiency, the transceiver employs a dual-mode 10-level pulse amplitude modulation (10-PAM) technique enabling to transmit 4-bit per symbol. Since the operating frequency of the internal circuits is reduced by 4, the power dissipation of the transceiver is much reduced. In addition, compared with a standard 16-PAM technique, the dual-mode 10-PAM technique can reduce power dissipation by 62.5%. The transmitter including a pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) generator, multiplexers, an encoder, and an output driver achieves 10-Gb/s data-rate with 235-mW power dissipation such that the figure of merit (FOM) of the transmitter part is 23.5 mW/(Gb/s). The receiver including a flash type analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a decoder, and output drivers achieves 10-Gb/s data-rate and BER with 190-mW power dissipation such that FOM of the receiver part is 19 mW/(Gb/s). The proposed 10-PAM transceiver was implemented in a 0.18- m standard CMOS technology with 0.3 0.8-mm active area.
Autors: Song, B.;Kim, K.;Lee, J.;Burm, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 457 - 468
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.18- m CMOS 10-Gb/s Dual-Mode 10-PAM Serial Link Transceiver
Abstract:
A 0.18- m CMOS 10-Gb/s serial link transceiver is presented. For the power-efficiency, the transceiver employs a dual-mode 10-level pulse amplitude modulation (10-PAM) technique enabling to transmit 4-bit per symbol. Since the operating frequency of the internal circuits is reduced by 4, the power dissipation of the transceiver is much reduced. In addition, compared with a standard 16-PAM technique, the dual-mode 10-PAM technique can reduce power dissipation by 62.5%. The transmitter including a pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) generator, multiplexers, an encoder, and an output driver achieves 10-Gb/s data-rate with 235-mW power dissipation such that the figure of merit (FOM) of the transmitter part is 23.5 mW/(Gb/s). The receiver including a flash type analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a decoder, and output drivers achieves 10-Gb/s data-rate and BER with 190-mW power dissipation such that FOM of the receiver part is 19 mW/(Gb/s). The proposed 10-PAM transceiver was implemented in a 0.18- m standard CMOS technology with 0.3 0.8-mm active area.
Autors: Song, B.;Kim, K.;Lee, J.;Burm, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 457 - 468
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.4–6-GHz Frequency Synthesizer Using Dual-Mode VCO for Software-Defined Radio
Abstract:
This paper presents a dual-mode voltage-controlled oscillator (DMVCO) and a DMVCO-based wideband frequency synthesizer for software-defined radio applications. The DMVCO allows the synthesizer to leverage single-sideband (SSB) mixing, a power efficient approach, for high-frequency local oscillator (LO) signal generation, without the need of poly-phase filter or quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO). When compared to the QVCO approach, the DMVCO solution allows the synthesizer to provide continuous LO signals without frequency gaps. The synthesizer is implemented in a 0.13- CMOS technology, occupying an active area of 2.2 and consuming 34–77 mW of power. It provides in-phase and quadrature-phase LO signals over the frequency bands of 0.4–3- and 5–6 GHz and differential LO signals from 0.4 to 6 GHz, supporting major wireless standards including DVB-T, GSM, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, WLAN802.11 a/b/g, and Bluetooth. The measured phase noises are 135 and 124 dBc/Hz at 3-MHz offset under 1.8- and 5.15-GHz carriers, respectively. The measured spurious tones are less than 42 dBc at the SSB mixer output.
Autors: Zhou, J.;Li, W.;Huang, D.;Lian, C.;Li, N.;Ren, J.;Chen, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 848 - 859
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1-V 13-mW Single-Path Frequency-Translating Modulator With 55-dB SNDR and 4-MHz Bandwidth at 225 MHz
Abstract:
This paper presents a frequency-translating bandpass ΔΣ modulator that uses single-path mixing within the ΔΣ feedback loop to downconvert a 4-MHz signal band from IF1 = 225 MHz at the input to IF2 = 25 MHz at the output. The proposed ΔΣ modulator is designed with a sixth-order continuous-time loop filter and a 3-bit quantizer. The quantizer operates at a sampling frequency of 100 MHz, which is lower than IF1 and, therefore, reduces both the power consumption and the sensitivity to timing errors relative to a conventional bandpass ΔΣ modulator. Furthermore, the loop filter implements noise shaping primarily at IF 2, which reduces the sensitivity to coefficient variations. The prototype chip was fabricated in 65-nm CMOS with an active area of 0.55 mm2. It achieves an SNDR of 55 dB over a 4-MHz signal bandwidth, and consumes 13 mW from a 1-V power supply.
Autors: Chopp, P.M.;Hamoui, A.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 48, issue:2, pages: 473 - 486
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.62 Gb/s–2.7 Gb/s Referenceless Transceiver for DisplayPort v1.1a With Weighted Phase and Frequency Detection
Abstract:
This paper proposes a 2.7 Gb/s referenceless transceiver with weighted PFD for frequency detection of random signals. A single loop referenceless CDR is also proposed to overcome the disadvantages of a dual loop CDR. The ANSI 8b/10b encoder & decoder with the scrambler, the serializer & de-serializer, and the output driver with pre-emphasis are included in the proposed transceiver architecture for DisplayPort v1.1a. The jitter of the generated clock at the Tx PLL is 3.28 at 2.7 Gb/s with 1.2 V supply. The eye opening of the transmitter output with 3 m cable is 0.54 UI. The measured jitter of the recovered clock at the CDR is 1.57 , and BER is less than . The receiver consumes 23 mW at 2.7 Gb/s with 1.2 V supply. The CDR core and transceiver occupy 0.07 and 0.94 , respectively, in a 0.13 1P8M CMOS process.
Autors: Song, J.;Jung, I.;Song, M.;Kwak, Y.-H.;Hwang, S.;Kim, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 268 - 278
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10 Gb/s Linear Burst-Mode Receiver in 0.25 m SiGe:C BiCMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents a 10 Gb/s burst-mode receiver (BMRx) that was designed to have high linearity over a >; 20 dB (optical power) dynamic range. Such a linear BMRx (LBMRx) enables electronic dispersion compensation or multilevel modulation formats in bursty optical links. The LBMRx consists of a variable-gain transimpedance amplifier and a variable-gain post-amplifier. A gain from 47 dBΩ to 85 dBΩ was achieved on a single die. Fast (<; 50ns) gain adjustment is achieved using replica based, feedforward automatic gain control and peak detectors, which are reset between bursts using an external reset signal. A sensitivity of - 23.2 dBm at a bit-error rate of 1.1 × 10-3 was measured using a PIN photodiode. A 0.5 dB penalty is incurred if a 0 dBm burst precedes the burst under consideration; hence the LBMRx can support a dynamic range of 22.7 dB. A 150 ns preamble was used, the guard time between bursts was 25.6 ns. Total harmonic distortion (at 250 MHz) less than 5% was measured for an optical power ranging from - 25&nbsp;dBm to 0 dBm. The chip was designed in a 0.25 μm SiGe:C BiCMOS technology, has an area of 2.4 × 2.1 mm2 and consumes 650 mW from 2.5 V/3.3 V supplies.
Autors: Ossieur, P.;Quadir, N.A.;Porto, S.;Antony, C.;Han, W.;Rensing, M.;O'Brien, P.;Townsend, P.D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 48, issue:2, pages: 381 - 390
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10 000-Image-per-Second Parallel Algorithm for Real-Time Detection of MARFEs on JET
Abstract:
This paper presents a very high-speed image processing algorithm applied to multi-faceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) detection on the Joint European Torus. The algorithm was built in serial and parallel versions and written in C/C+ using OpenCV, cvBlob, and LibSVM libraries. The code implemented was characterized by its accuracy and run-time performance. The final result of the parallel version achieves a correct detection rate of 97.6% for MARFE identification and an image processing rate of more than 10 000 frame per second. The parallel version divides the image processing chain into two groups and seven tasks. One group is responsible for Background Image Estimation and Image Binarization modules, and the other is responsible for region Feature Extraction and Pattern Classification. At the same time and to maximize the workload distribution, the parallel code uses data parallelism and pipeline strategies for these two groups, respectively. A master thread is responsible for opening, signaling, and transferring images between both groups. The algorithm has been tested in a dedicated Intel symmetric-multiprocessing computer architecture with a Linux operating system.
Autors: Portes de Albuquerque, M.;Murari, A.;Giovani, M.;Alves, N.;Portes de Albuquerque, M.;Romanelli, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 41, issue:2, pages: 341 - 349
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 100-m Range 10-Frame/s 340 96-Pixel Time-of-Flight Depth Sensor in 0.18- CMOS
Abstract:
This paper introduces a single-photon detection technique for time-of-flight distance ranging based on the temporal and spatial correlation of photons. A proof-of-concept prototype achieving depth imaging up to 100 meters with a resolution of 340 96 pixels at 10 frames/s was implemented. At the core of the system, a sensor chip comprising 32 macro-pixels based on an array of single-photon avalanche diodes featuring an optical fill factor of 70% was fabricated in a 0.18- CMOS. The chip also comprises an array of 32 circuits capable of generating precise triggers upon correlation events as well as of sampling the number of photons involved in each correlation event, and an array of 32 12-b time-to-digital converters. Characterization of the TDC array led to and 0.73 LSB of differential and integral nonlinearities, respectively. Quantitative evaluation of the TOF sensor under strong solar background light, i.e., 80 klux, revealed a repeatability error better than 10 cm throughout the distance range of 100 m, thus leading to a relative precision of 0.1%. In the same condition, the relative nonlinearity error was 0.37%. In order to show the suitability of our approach in a real-world situation, experimental results in which the depth sensor was operated in a typical traffic scenario are also reported.
Autors: Niclass, C.;Soga, M.;Matsubara, H.;Kato, S.;Kagami, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 48, issue:2, pages: 559 - 572
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.4-GHz Low-Flicker-Noise CMOS Sub-Harmonic Receiver
Abstract:
A 2.4-GHz low-noise sub-harmonic direct-conversion receiver (SH-DCR) is demonstrated using standard 0.18- m CMOS technology. Deep-n-well vertical-NPN (V-NPN) bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) are employed to solve the flicker noise problem in CMOS process. Design optimization of a power-constrained noise-impedance-matched low-noise amplifier (LNA) with the effect of lossy on-chip inductors is fully discussed in this paper. A multi-stage octet-phase polyphase filter is analyzed in detail and implemented to generate well balanced octet-phase LO signals. As a result, the demonstrated receiver achieves 51-dB voltage gain and 3-dB noise figure with flicker noise corner less than 30 kHz when GHz. The I/Q amplitude/phase mismatch is below dB/ , respectively, covering from 2.35 to 2.6 GHz. The dc current consumption is 5 mA at a 1.8-V supply.
Autors: Syu, J.-S.;Meng, C.;Wang, C.-L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 437 - 447
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.4-GHz Subharmonically Injection-Locked PLL With Self-Calibrated Injection Timing
Abstract:
A 2.4-GHz subharmonically injection-locked PLL (SILPLL) with injection timing calibration is realized. The injection timing issues has been clearly described and modeled mathematically. An injection timing calibration technique is presented to ensure the best phase noise performance. This work is fabricated in 0.18- process with 12.6-mW power consumption. The measured phase noises at 1 MHz offset before and after injection are 114 and , respectively. The measured rms jitter integrated from 1 kHz to 40 MHz before and after injection are 317 and 145 fs, respectively.
Autors: Huang, Y.-C.;Liu, S.-I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 48, issue:2, pages: 417 - 428
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 20 Gb/s Clock and Data Recovery With a Ping-Pong Delay Line for Unlimited Phase Shifting in 65 nm CMOS Process
Abstract:
This paper describes a 20 Gb/s receiver with a DLL-based CDR, which uses a proposed Ping-Pong delay line (PPDL) in order to ameliorate the limited operating range problem of the DLL. The unlimited phase shifting algorithm with the PPDL extends the tracking range of the DLL-based CDR. The PPDL correlates two variable delay lines and swaps each other whenever one of them reaches its operational limit. The chip occupies 0.24 in 65 nm CMOS process. The power efficiency of the data transfer is 8.46 mW/Gb/s. The measured jitter of the 5 GHz clock is 1.125 and the data eye opening is 0.613UI.
Autors: Kwak, Y.-H.;Kim, Y.;Hwang, S.;Kim, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 303 - 313
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 24-Gb/s Double-Sampling Receiver for Ultra-Low-Power Optical Communication
Abstract:
This paper describes a dense, high-speed, and low-power CMOS optical receiver implemented in a 65-nm CMOS technology. High data rate is achieved using an RC double-sampling front-end and a novel dynamic offset-modulation technique. The low-voltage double-sampling technique provides high power efficiency by avoiding linear high-gain elements conventionally employed in transimpedance-amplifier (TIA) receivers. In addition, the demultiplexed output of the receiver helps save power in the following digital blocks. The receiver functionality was validated by electrical and optical measurements. The receiver achieves up to 24 Gb/s data rate with better than 160- A current sensitivity in an experiment performed by a photodiode current emulator embedded on-chip. Optical measurements performed by a 1550-nm wire-bonded photodiode show better than 4.7-dBm optical sensitivity at 24 Gb/s. The receiver offers peak power efficiency of 0.36 pJ/b at 20 Gb/s from a 1.2-V supply and occupies less than 0.0028 silicon area.
Autors: Nazari, M. H.;Emami-Neyestanak, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 48, issue:2, pages: 344 - 357
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-MV Low-Jitter UV-Illumination Switch
Abstract:
In a wide variety of high-power pulsed devices, the megavolt switch plays a key role in the system performance. A capacitance–resistance coupling structure was designed to produce UV light which triggered the switch to decrease the breakdown jitter. High-speed electrical measurements with a circuit integrating probe in the nanosecond range were employed to measure the voltage before the switch. From the experimental results, the breakdown characteristic of a 3-MV UV-illumination switch was obtained in the range of 1.6–2.5 MV: The jitter of the breakdown voltage is lower than 25 kV, and the jitter of the breakdown time is shorter than 5 ns.
Autors: Li, J.;Jia, W.;Tang, J.;Chen, W.;Xue, B.;Qiu, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 41, issue:2, pages: 360 - 364
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 30-GHz Integrated Subharmonic Mixer Based on a Multichannel Graphene FET
Abstract:
A 30-GHz integrated subharmonic mixer based on a single graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET) has been designed, fabricated, and characterized. The mixer is realized in microstrip technology on a 250- silicon substrate. In order to enhance the current on–off ratio, the G-FET utilizes a channel consisting of an array of bow-tie structured graphene, yielding a current on–off ratio of 7. A conversion loss (CL) of 19 1 dB over the frequency range of 24–31 GHz is obtained with a local oscillator (LO) to RF isolation better than 20 dB at an LO power of 10 dBm. The overall minimum CL is 18 dB at 27 GHz. The mixer has a 3 GHz 1-dB IF bandwidth, which is achieved with a fixed LO signal of 15 GHz. The mixer linearity is characterized and the highest third-order intercept point is measured to be 12.8 dBm.
Autors: Habibpour, O.;Vukusic, J.;Stake, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 841 - 847
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 300-MS/s, 1.76-ps-Resolution, 10-b Asynchronous Pipelined Time-to-Digital Converter With on-Chip Digital Background Calibration in 0.13-µm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents an asynchronous pipelined all-digital 10-b time-to-digital converter (TDC) with fine resolution, good linearity, and high throughput. Using a 1.5-b/stage pipeline architecture, an on-chip digital background calibration is implemented to correct residue subtraction error in the seven MSB stages. An asynchronous clocking scheme realizes pipeline operation for higher throughput. The TDC was implemented in standard 0.13-µm CMOS technology and has a maximum throughput of 300 MS/s and a resolution of 1.76 ps with a total conversion range of 1.8 ns. The measured DNL and INL were 0.6 LSB and 1.9 LSB, respectively.
Autors: Kim, J.-S.;Seo, Y.-H.;Suh, Y.;Park, H.-J.;Sim, J.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 48, issue:2, pages: 516 - 526
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 45-nm SOI CMOS Integrate-and-Dump Optical Sampling Receiver
Abstract:
An integrate-and-dump receiver based on an active feedback integrator is demonstrated in a 45-nm SOI CMOS process. The integrate-and-dump receiver provides matched filtering for non-return-to-zero, return-to-zero, and pulse amplitude modulation digital modulation formats, resulting in high SINAD as well as inherent anti-aliasing/low-pass filtering for a 2 GS/s high linearity/high-dynamic-range optical sampling receiver. The measured SINAD is greater than 28 dBc with a sinusoidal input up to 1 GHz; the SNR is greater than 29 dBc. The 2-GS/s integrate-and-dump receiver consumes less than 100 mW. The chip area is 0.980x0.762 mm including the pads.
Autors: Gathman, T. D.;Buckwalter, J. F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 469 - 478
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 7.5-Gb/s One-Tap-FFE Transmitter With Adaptive Far-End Crosstalk Cancellation Using Duty Cycle Detection
Abstract:
A 2.5-7.5-Gb/s transmitter with one-tap feed-forward equalizer (FFE) and adaptive far-end crosstalk (FEXT) cancellation is presented. To cancel the intersymbol interference, the one-tap FFE is also employed. A crosstalk canceller (XTC) is adapted to cancel FEXT by using inverse pulses. To cancel the FEXT due to the coupled microstrip lines with various spacing, the pulse amplitude of the XTC is digitally controlled by using the proposed duty cycle detection. The one-tap FFE and the XTC are merged together to save the power. This adaptive transmitter is fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS technology. The maximum power consumption from a 1.2-V supply is 26.4 mW, and the core area occupies 0.0307 . For two 5-in FR4 printed-circuit-board traces with the spacing of 8 mil, the measured rms and peak-to-peak jitters of the recovered data are improved by 10.01 and 48.9 ps, respectively, for a 7.5-Gb/s PRBS of 2 . The measured calibration time of the XTC is 1.17 .
Autors: Kao, S.-Y.;Liu, S.-I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 48, issue:2, pages: 391 - 404
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 76–84 GHz SiGe Power Amplifier Array Employing Low-Loss Four-Way Differential Combining Transformer
Abstract:
This paper presents holistic design of a novel four-way differential power-combining transformer for use in millimeter-wave power-amplifier (PA). The combiner with an inner radius of 25 m exhibits a record low insertion loss of 1.25 dB at 83.5 GHz. It is designed to simultaneously act as a balanced-to-unbalanced converter, removing the need for additional BALUNs typically required in differential circuits. A complete circuit comprised of a power splitter, two-stage differential cascode PA array, a power combiner as well as input and output matching elements was designed and realized in SiGe technology with 170/250 GHz. Measured small-signal gain of at least 16.8 dB was obtained from 76.4 to 85.3 GHz with a peak 19.5 dB at 83 GHz. The prototype delivered 12.5 dBm output referred 1 dB compression point and 14 dBm saturated output power when operated from a 3.2 V dc supply voltage at 78 GHz.
Autors: Thian, M.;Tiebout, M.;Buchanan, N. B.;Fusco, V. F.;Dielacher, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 931 - 938
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -Band Wide Locking Range and Low DC Power Injection-Locked Frequency Tripler Using Transformer Coupled Technique
Abstract:
A -band wide locking range injection-locked frequency tripler (ILFT) with low dc power consumption is presented in this paper. By using a transformer coupled (TC) topology, the proposed TC-ILFT features the following advantages: 1) the negative resistance of the cross-coupled pair is not degraded due to the proposed TC-ILFT without source degeneration, and the TC-ILFT can be operated in lower dc supply voltage as compared to the conventional ILFTs; 2) the dc bias of the injector can be properly designed for maximizing locking range; 3) the parasitic capacitance provided by the injector can be reduced due to the impedance transformation; and 4) the larger device size of the injector can be chosen enhancing the third harmonic. Moreover, the operation frequency and the locking range of this work are boosted using a multiorder resonator. A theoretical model of the proposed TC-ILFT is also established and it has been carefully verified with the experimental results. The free-running oscillation frequency of the proposed TC-ILFT is 94.51 GHz. As the input power is 1 dBm, the measured locking range is 5.9 GHz without varactor tunning. The dc supply voltage and the power consumption are 0.7 V and 1 mW, respectively.
Autors: Yeh, Y.-L.;Chang, H.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 860 - 870
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -Band Wide Locking Range and Low DC Power Injection-Locked Frequency Tripler Using Transformer Coupled Technique
Abstract:
A -band wide locking range injection-locked frequency tripler (ILFT) with low dc power consumption is presented in this paper. By using a transformer coupled (TC) topology, the proposed TC-ILFT features the following advantages: 1) the negative resistance of the cross-coupled pair is not degraded due to the proposed TC-ILFT without source degeneration, and the TC-ILFT can be operated in lower dc supply voltage as compared to the conventional ILFTs; 2) the dc bias of the injector can be properly designed for maximizing locking range; 3) the parasitic capacitance provided by the injector can be reduced due to the impedance transformation; and 4) the larger device size of the injector can be chosen enhancing the third harmonic. Moreover, the operation frequency and the locking range of this work are boosted using a multiorder resonator. A theoretical model of the proposed TC-ILFT is also established and it has been carefully verified with the experimental results. The free-running oscillation frequency of the proposed TC-ILFT is 94.51 GHz. As the input power is 1 dBm, the measured locking range is 5.9 GHz without varactor tunning. The dc supply voltage and the power consumption are 0.7 V and 1 mW, respectively.
Autors: Yeh, Y.-L.;Chang, H.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 860 - 870
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Barycentric Vector Fitting Algorithm for Efficient Macromodeling of Linear Multiport Systems
Abstract:
Common-pole modeling of frequency responses can be time consuming for systems with highly resonant responses. This letter presents a Barycentric Vector Fitting algorithm that improves the running time of existing Vector Fitting algorithms. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by applying it to coupled microstrip lines. Numerical results confirm the accuracy of the model and the savings in computation time.
Autors: Deschrijver, D.;Knockaert, L.;Dhaene, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 60 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Behavior-Based Approach for Educational Robotics Activities
Abstract:
Educational robotics proposes the use of robots as a teaching resource that enables inexperienced students to approach topics in fields unrelated to robotics. In recent years, these activities have grown substantially in elementary and secondary school classrooms and also in outreach experiences to interest students in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) undergraduate programs. A key problem in educational robotics is providing a satisfactory, adequate, easy-to-use interface between an inexpert public and the robots. This paper presents a behavior-based application for programming robots and the design of robotic-centered courses and other outreach activities. Evaluation data show that over 90% of students find it easy to use. These activities are part of a comprehensive outreach program conducted by the Exact and Natural Science Faculty of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina (FCEN-UBA). Statistical data show that since 2009 over 35% of new students at the FCEN-UBA have participated in some outreach activity, suggesting their significant impact on student enrollment in STEM-related programs.
Autors: De Cristoforis, P.;Pedre, S.;Nitsche, M.;Fischer, T.;Pessacg, F.;Di Pietro, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 61 - 66
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bottom-Up Approach to Teaching Robotics and Mechatronics to Mechanical Engineers
Abstract:
This paper describes a multidisciplinary teaching program, designed to provide students with the broad knowledge and skills required to practice product development in robotics and mechatronics. The curriculum was designed to prepare students for the senior capstone design project, in which they design and build a working mechatronic/robotic system. It consists of a basic program in mechanical engineering, augmented with courses and laboratories in electronics, microprocessors, control, and computer programming. The early introduction of the specialty courses and the ample hands-on experience offered in the accompanying laboratories allows students to gain intuitive understanding of concepts that are usually foreign to mechanical engineers. The capstone design project attracts students to the program and serves as a beacon for the entire program. The program is now in its 11th year, receiving positive feedback from students and graduates.
Autors: Shiller, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 103 - 109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Branch-and-Bound Algorithm for Quadratically-Constrained Sparse Filter Design
Abstract:
This paper presents an exact algorithm for sparse filter design under a quadratic constraint on filter performance. The algorithm is based on branch-and-bound, a combinatorial optimization procedure that can either guarantee an optimal solution or produce a sparse solution with a bound on its deviation from optimality. To reduce the complexity of branch-and-bound, several methods are developed for bounding the optimal filter cost. Bounds based on infeasibility yield incrementally accumulating improvements with minimal computation, while two convex relaxations, referred to as linear and diagonal relaxations, are derived to provide stronger bounds. The approximation properties of the two relaxations are characterized analytically as well as numerically. Design examples involving wireless channel equalization and minimum-variance distortionless-response beamforming show that the complexity of obtaining certifiably optimal solutions can often be significantly reduced by incorporating diagonal relaxations, especially in more difficult instances. In the case of early termination due to computational constraints, diagonal relaxations strengthen the bound on the proximity of the final solution to the optimum.
Autors: Wei, D.;Oppenheim, A. V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:4, pages: 1006 - 1018
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Dual-Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna for Base Stations
Abstract:
A broadband vertically/horizontally dual-polarized omnidirectional antenna is proposed for mobile communications. The dual-polarized antenna is a combination of a modified low-profile monopole for vertical polarization (VP) and a circular planar loop for horizontal polarization (HP). The modified low-profile monopole is a circular folded patch shorted by four tubes while the circular loop consists of four half-wavelength arc dipoles. The dual-polarized omnidirectional antenna achieves a bandwidth of (1.7–2.2 GHz) with an isolation of around 40 dB. The gain variations in the horizontal plane are less than 2.5 dB for VP and 1.5 dB for HP. An eight-element dual-polarized antenna array is developed for base station applications. The antenna gains of the array for both VP and HP are with a difference of less than 1 dB. The beamwidths in the vertical plane are for VP and for HP. The cross-polarization levels in the horizontal plane for both VP and HP are lower than .
Autors: Quan, X.;Li, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 943 - 947
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Built-In Repair Analyzer With Optimal Repair Rate for Word-Oriented Memories
Abstract:
This paper presents a built-in self repair analyzer with the optimal repair rate for memory arrays with redundancy. The proposed method requires only a single test, even in the worst case. By performing the must-repair analysis on the fly during the test, it selectively stores fault addresses, and the final analysis to find a solution is performed on the stored fault addresses. To enumerate all possible solutions, existing techniques use depth first search using a stack and a finite-state machine. Instead, we propose a new algorithm and its combinational circuit implementation. Since our formulation for the circuit allows us to use the parallel prefix algorithm, it can be configured in various ways to meet area and test time requirements. The total area of our infrastructure is dominated by the number of content addressable memory entries to store the fault addresses, and it only grows quadratically with respect to the number of repair elements. The infrastructure is also extended to support various types of word-oriented memories.
Autors: Chung, J.;Park, J.;Abraham, J. A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 281 - 291
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cascode Feedback Bias Technique for Linear CMOS Power Amplifiers in a Multistage Cascode Topology
Abstract:
A novel feedback bias technique for a multistage cascode topology is developed to improve the linearity and reliability of power amplifiers (PAs). Due to the large parasitic capacitance and low substrate resistivity of CMOS technology, signal swings are coupled between the ports of transistors. The proposed method utilized the RF leakage signals at the gate of common-gate (CG) transistor in a cascode topology for employing negative feedback, which not only enhances the linearity of the PA, but also alleviates the voltage stress between the gate and the drain of the CG device in a cascode topology from 4.5 to 1.9 V. This technique requires no additional components or space and is easily applicable to the multistage cascode topology, which is one of the most popular structures of CMOS PA designs. In order to prove the concept, a 1.95-GHz fully integrated linear PA was implemented in a 0.18- CMOS technology. With a 3.4-V power supply, the PA transmits a saturated output power of 26 dBm with a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 46.4%, and a linear output power of 23.5 dBm with a PAE of 40% using a 3 GPP WCDMA modulated signal. The PA occupies 1.60 0.52 . This PA demonstrates the potential of the highly efficient CMOS PA design approach for wireless communication standards.
Autors: Jeon, H.;Lee, K.-S.;Lee, O.;An, K. H.;Yoon, Y.;Kim, H.;Kobayashi, K. W.;Lee, C.-H.;Kenney, J. S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 890 - 901
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class of Uncontrollable Diffusively Coupled Multiagent Systems with Multichain Topologies
Abstract:
We construct systematically a class of uncontrollable diffusively coupled multiagent systems with a single leader and multichain topologies. For studying the controllability of diffusively coupled multiagent systems, such identified uncontrollable systems serve as counterexamples that prove the need to modify the existing sufficient condition using graph partitioning characterization. The uncontrollability of the constructed multichain structures can be preserved when the structures are further augmented to get better connected. The paper also provides an algorithm to obtain the minimal leader-invariant relaxed equitable partition for the graph associated with any diffusively coupled multiagent system guided by a single leader.
Autors: Cao, M.;Zhang, S.;Camlibel, M. K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 465 - 469
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class-D Amplifier With Pulse Code Modulated (PCM) Digital Input for Digital Hearing Aid
Abstract:
A class-D amplifier with pulse code modulated (PCM) digital input is developed for a low-power digital hearing aid. A 16-bit 40-kbps PCM digital input is noise-shaped by a third-order digital sigma-delta modulator (SDM) which provides 1.5-bit digital output. The 1.5-bit digital output of the digital SDM is converted to a three-level analog signal by a simple digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and then applied to an analog SDM. The analog SDM provides pulse density modulated (PDM) signal to drive a power switch. The PDM output is fed back to the input of the analog SDM in order to suppress the noise of the power switch. While the integrators of the analog SDM are implemented with switched-capacitor (SC) circuits for a well-defined frequency response of the modulator loop filter, the feedback path from the power switch output is realized with a continuous-time (CT) integrator for effective noise suppression. The class-D amplifier with PCM digital input has been implemented in a standard 0.13- CMOS process. With 160- load of speaker, the maximum output power delivered to the load is 1.14-mW while the efficiency of the power switch is 97-%. The (SNDR) and dynamic range (DR) of the class-D amplifier are measured to be 80.6-dB and 87-dB, respectively. The class-D amplifier consumes 0.38-mW from a 1.2-V power supply including the driving power of the power switch.
Autors: Noh, J.;Lee, D.;Jo, J.-G.;Yoo, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 48, issue:2, pages: 465 - 472
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Clock Control Strategy for Peak Power and RMS Current Reduction Using Path Clustering
Abstract:
Peak power reduction has been a critical challenge in the design of integrated circuits impacting the chip's performance and reliability. The reduction of peak power also reduces the power density of integrated circuits. Due to large IR-voltage drops in circuits, transistor switching slows down giving rise to timing violations and logic failures. In this paper, we present a new clock control strategy for peak-power reduction in VLSI circuits. In the proposed method, the simultaneous switching of combinational paths is minimized by taking advantage of the delay slacks among the paths and clustering the paths with similar slack values. Once the paths are identified based on the path delays and their slack values, the clustering algorithm determines the ideal number of clusters for the given circuit and for each cluster the maximum possible phase shift that can be applied to the clock. The paths are assigned to clusters in a load balanced manner based on the slack values and each cluster will have a phase shift possible on its clock depending on the slack. Thus, the proposed register-transfer level (RTL) method takes advantage of the logic-path timing slack to re-schedule circuit activities at optimal intervals within the unaltered clock period. When switching activities are redistributed more evenly across the clock period, the IC supply-current consumption is also spread across a wider range of time within the clock period. This has the beneficial effect of reducing peak-current draw in addition to reducing RMS power draw without having to change the operating frequency and without utilizing additional power supply voltages as in dual or multi VT approaches. The proposed method is implemented and tested through simulations using an experimental setup with Synopsys Tools Suite and Cadence Tools on the ISCAS'85 benchmark circuits, OpenCore circuits and LEON processor multiplier circuit. Experimental results indicate that peak power can be reduced significantly to at- least 72% depending on the number of clusters and the phase-shifted clock identified as suitable for the given circuit by the proposed algorithms. Although the proposed method incurs some power overhead compared to the traditional clocking method, the overhead can be made negligible compared to the peak-power reduction as seen in the experimental results presented.
Autors: Hyman, R.;Ranganathan, N.;Bingel, T.;Vo, D. T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 259 - 269
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Switched Load Harmonic Rejection Mixer for DTV Tuner Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, a switched load harmonic rejection mixer (HRM) structure with one single mixer core and a pair of switched load resistors is proposed. Different from the traditional three-phase HRM which is widely used in DTV tuners, this HRM performs the harmonic rejection function by vector multiplication rather than superposition. Sharing most of its parts with an ordinary Gilbert mixer, the proposed HRM shows greater simplicity in structure. The single mixer-core structure is also more power efficient than a traditional three-phase HRM. In order to verify the effectiveness of this approach, a proof-of-concept prototype is designed and fabricated in 0.18- m RFCMOS technology. Measurements indicate that 38 dB for 3rd and 34.5 dB for 5th harmonic rejection ratio can be achieved. The HRM including a buffer stage consumes a low bias current of 3 mA under 1.8 V supply voltage and has equivalent performance such as CG, NF, and IIP3 to an ordinary Gilbert mixer. With the load switch inactivated, this HRM can be easily transformed into an ordinary Gilbert mixer, which increases its flexibility for different applications.
Autors: Chen, C.;Wu, J.;Huang, C.;Shi, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 428 - 436
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS-Process-Compatible ZnO-Based Charge-Trap Flash Memory
Abstract:
ZnO-based charge-trap Flash technology using a resistive switching mechanism is demonstrated for next-generation nonvolatile memory. This device consists of metal/ZnO/nitride/oxide/silicon in order to make use of the electrical transport in the ZnO resistive switching layer. Compared to the previous devices with perovskite oxide materials used as a conduction path, the proposed device shows faster switching speeds (10 ns/100 ), lower operation voltages ( 7 V) for the program/erase ( P/E) states, and higher endurance ( P/E cycles), along with comparable retention properties.
Autors: Seo, Y.;Song, M. Y.;An, H.-M.;Kim, T. G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 34, issue:2, pages: 238 - 240
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined TSA-SPA Algorithm for Computing Most Sensitive Eigenvalues in Large-Scale Power Systems
Abstract:
A novel algorithm (TSA-SPA) that combines the Two-Sided Arnoldi method (TSA) and the Sensitive Pole Algorithm (SPA) is proposed in this paper for calculation of the most sensitive eigenvalues to control parameters in large power systems. In the proposed method, first, with the shift-invert transformation precondition, TSA builds two Krylov subspaces and obtains a reduced matrix of a much smaller scale, which contains eigenvalues close to the chosen shift point. Second, SPA is adopted to realize the most sensitive eigenvalue computation. TSA-SPA can find the most sensitive eigenvalues of interest, with satisfactory reliability and convergence, in a specified frequency domain. With proper selection of sizes of Krylov subspace and the reduced matrix, the convergence to good eigenvalue approximations is practically guaranteed. Moreover, with the deflation technique, the algorithm is also capable of finding several other dominant eigentriplets which may relate to inter-area and/or local control modes. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm has been validated on small and large-scale power systems. It has been found that compared to other available sensitive pole algorithms, the proposed algorithm has more robust and reliable performance. The proposed algorithm is suitable for practical applications in large-scale power systems.
Autors: Chung, C. Y.;Dai, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 149 - 157
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact and Compliant External Pipe-Crawling Robot
Abstract:
The focus of this paper is on the practical aspects of design, prototyping, and testing of a compact, compliant external pipe-crawling robot that can inspect a closely spaced bundle of pipes in hazardous environments and areas that are inaccessible to humans. The robot consists of two radially deployable compliant ring actuators that are attached to each other along the longitudinal axis of the pipe by a bidirectional linear actuator. The robot imitates the motion of an inchworm. The novel aspect of the compliant ring actuator is a spring-steel compliant mechanism that converts circumferential motion to radial motion of its multiple gripping pads. Circumferential motion to ring actuators is provided by two shape memory alloy (SMA) wires that are guided by insulating rollers. The design of the compliant mechanism is derived from a radially deployable mechanism. A unique feature of the design is that the compliant mechanism provides the necessary kinematic function within the limited annular space around the pipe and serves as the bias spring for the SMA wires. The robot has a control circuit that sequentially activates the SMA wires and the linear actuator; it also controls the crawling speed. The robot has been fabricated, tested, and automated. Its crawling speed is about 45 mm/min, and the weight is about 150 g. It fits within an annular space of a radial span of 15 mm to crawl on a pipe of 60-mm outer diameter.
Autors: Singh, P.;Ananthasuresh, G. K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 251 - 260
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Dual-Band Pattern Diversity Antenna by Dual-Band Reconfigurable Frequency-Selective Reflectors With a Minimum Number of Switches
Abstract:
A novel compact dual-band pattern diversity antenna is proposed. Dual-band reconfigurable frequency-selective reflectors are designed and applied to form a right-angle corner reflector antenna with reconfigurable patterns. With only one switch, the reconfigurable frequency-selective reflector can be controlled to be transmissive or reflective to vertically polarized waves at 2.45 and 5.25 GHz. By changing the combinations of the switch states, multiple patterns can be obtained. A dual-band feeding antenna designed via using the coupling effects is made to achieve well-matching conditions in all circumstances corresponding to various switch states at both frequencies. The measured results show good agreement with the calculated ones and demonstrate good pattern diversity virtues.
Autors: Ko, C.-H.;Tarn, I.-Y.;Chung, S.-J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 646 - 654
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Physical AlGaN/GaN HFET Model
Abstract:
We introduce a physics-based compact model for AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs) that is suitable for both RF microwave and switched-mode power supply (SMPS) applications, so that RF techniques can help determine HFET performance in SMPS applications. Such simulations can predict the on-resistance, slew rate, and breakdown voltage from the physical design of the transistor. Starting from an expression for the drain–source conduction current, charge distribution and displacement current are determined. The new model was implemented in Verilog-A and implemented in AWRDE, the design environment from Applied Wave Research. The HFET model was validated by comparison with Silvaco simulations and with data from an AlGaN/GaN HFET S-band amplifier. The new model accurately predicts device performance for dc, small-signal, and large-signal operations.
Autors: Hou, D.;Bilbro, G. L.;Trew, R. J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 639 - 645
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computationally Efficient Particle Filter for Multitarget Tracking Using an Independence Approximation
Abstract:
Particle filter (PF) based multi-target tracking (MTT) methods suffer from the curse of dimensionality. Existing strategies to combat this assume posterior independence between target states, in order to then sample targets independently, or to perform joint sampling of closely spaced targets only. When many targets are in proximity, these strategies either perform poorly or are too computationally expensive. We make two contributions towards addressing these limitations. Firstly, we advocate an alternative view of the use of posterior independence which emphasizes the statistical effect of assuming posterior independence on the Monte Carlo (MC) approximation of posterior density. Our analysis suggests that assuming posterior independence can provide a better MC approximation of the prior distribution at the next time, and therefore the posterior at the next time, without regard for how sampling is performed. Secondly, we present a computationally efficient, measurement directed, joint sampling method to cope with the target coupling and measurement ambiguity when targets are near each other. Consequently, we develop a PF which employs posterior independence while sampling targets jointly. This PF is applicable to both the traditional thresholded and track-before-detect style pixelized models. Simulation results for a challenging tracking scenario show that the proposed PF substantially outperforms existing approaches.
Autors: Yi, W.;Morelande, M. R.;Kong, L.;Yang, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:4, pages: 843 - 856
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Consideration of the Wind Power Benefits in Day-Ahead Scheduling of Wind-Coal Intensive Power Systems
Abstract:
This paper studies day-ahead unit commitment in wind-coal intensive power systems. Due to their long start up time, high start up cost, and high minimum stable output, coal-fired generators do not provide a favorable environment for accommodating variable wind generation. The reduced efficiencies resulting from the coal-fired generation side as measured in increased fuel consumption and emissions can greatly undermine the wind power benefits to the system if wind generation and coal-fired generation are not properly coordinated. Special attention in the study is given to the wind power benefits to the system in fuel savings and in reduction of emissions. Based on the wind power forecast, the stochastic nature of wind power is treated in two parts, i.e., wind power variability and wind power uncertainty. Unit commitment is studied using wind power variability and uncertainty separately in different wind power dispatch modes and using respectively different spinning reserve procurement strategies. System performance indices are then applied to determine the optimal wind power dispatch mode and optimal spinning reserve procurement strategy to capture optimal wind power benefits for the system. A simulation system characterized by typical wind-coal features is constructed to model and to conduct the studies. The results show that taking wind power curtailment as a control option and using wind as a reserve provider improve the wind power benefits to the system.
Autors: Wang, C.;Lu, Z.;Qiao, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 236 - 245
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Contest-Oriented Project for Learning Intelligent Mobile Robots
Abstract:
A contest-oriented project for undergraduate students to learn implementation skills and theories related to intelligent mobile robots is presented in this paper. The project, related to Micromouse, Robotrace (Robotrace is the title of Taiwanese and Japanese robot races), and line-maze contests was developed by the embedded control system research group of the Department of Electronic Engineering, Lunghwa University of Science and Technology, Taiwan. It targets both those students who have to earn credits for a one-year special topics course and those who are just interested in making robots, and it is designed to motivate them to learn digital motion control, path planning, attitude correction, curvature detection and maze-solving algorithms. The students begin by getting acquainted with the development environment of microcontrollers, the characteristics of different sensors, and servomotor control techniques. Having learned these basic skills, they acquire further specific advanced skills and proceed to design their own mobile robots to compete in contests. The special topics course students' robots must pass examination by five teachers. Blogs and a wiki Web site for recording students' progress and experiences enhance the project's learning outcomes. Although not every student wins a prize in the contests, student feedback still shows that the contest-oriented project did motivate them to acquire the skills necessary to build and operate intelligent mobile robots.
Autors: Huang, H.-H.;Su, J.-H.;Lee, C.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 88 - 97
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coordinated Approach to Channel Estimation in Large-Scale Multiple-Antenna Systems
Abstract:
This paper addresses the problem of channel estimation in multi-cell interference-limited cellular networks. We consider systems employing multiple antennas and are interested in both the finite and large-scale antenna number regimes (so-called "massive MIMO"). Such systems deal with the multi-cell interference by way of per-cell beamforming applied at each base station. Channel estimation in such networks, which is known to be hampered by the pilot contamination effect, constitutes a major bottleneck for overall performance. We present a novel approach which tackles this problem by enabling a low-rate coordination between cells during the channel estimation phase itself. The coordination makes use of the additional second-order statistical information about the user channels, which are shown to offer a powerful way of discriminating across interfering users with even strongly correlated pilot sequences. Importantly, we demonstrate analytically that in the large-number-of-antennas regime, the pilot contamination effect is made to vanish completely under certain conditions on the channel covariance. Gains over the conventional channel estimation framework are confirmed by our simulations for even small antenna array sizes.
Autors: Yin, Haifan;Gesbert, David;Filippou, Miltiades;Liu, Yingzhuang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 264 - 273
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coplanar Waveguide Fed Two Arm Archimedean Spiral Slot Antenna With Improved Bandwidth
Abstract:
A compact wideband circularly polarized (CP) printed antenna design is presented in this communication. The proposed antenna consists of two Archimedean spiral slots, loaded with two chip resistors and fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line. The antenna is situated in one plane and fed without using an external balun or a matching network. The antenna has wideband input impedance bandwidth with circular polarization (CP), and broad beamwidth radiation pattern over 1.6:1 bandwidth. The study has shown that the proposed antenna is capable of improving the CP bandwidth and reducing the overall antenna size.
Autors: Ahmad Mashaal, O.;Rahim, S. K. A.;Abdulrahman, A. Y.;Sabran, M. I.;Rani, M. S. A.;Hall, P. S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 939 - 943
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A cryogenic scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope
Abstract:
Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) provides few nanometer optical spatial resolution and is compatible with nearly any form of linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy. We have developed a versatile s-SNOM instrument operating under cryogenic and variable temperature (∼20–500 K) and compatible with high magnetic fields (up to 7 T). The instrument features independent tip and sample scanning and free-space light delivery with an integrated off-axis parabolic mirror for tip-illumination and signal collection with a numerical aperture of N.A. = 0.45. The optics operate from the UV to THz range allowing for continuous wave, broadband, and ultrafast s-SNOM spectroscopy, including different variants of tip-enhanced spectroscopy. We discuss the instrument design, implementation, and demonstrate its performance with mid-infrared Drude response s-SNOM probing of the domain formation associated with the metal-insulator transitions of VO2 (TMIT ≃ 340 K) and V2O3 (TMIT ≃ 150 K). This instrument enables the study of mesoscopic order and domains of competing quantum phases in correlated electron materials over a wide range of controlled electric and magnetic fields, strain, current, and temperature.
Autors: Yang, Honghua U.;Hebestreit, Erik;Josberger, Erik E.;Raschke, Markus B.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 84, issue:2, pages: 023701 - 023701-6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A custom game controller [Resources]
Abstract:
I was getting tired of dinging the International Space Station-not in reality, of course, but in the fantastically detailed (and free) spaceflight simulator Orbiter. Unlike most spacecraft games, Orbiter tries for as much physical realism as possible, including the need for considerable finesse when docking a spaceship at the ISS's air lock. Unfortunately, the keyboard controls are not particularly intuitive, and most joysticks and other game controllers are designed with airplanes, cars, or avatars in mind, not spacecraft. So I decided to build my own controller. The task was made much easier thanks to the release last summer of a new version of the popular Arduino microcontroller. The US $25 Arduino Leonardo can mimic a USB keyboard or mouse, sending keystrokes or mouse movements to a computer in response to circuitry hooked up to the microcontroller.
Autors: Cass, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 50, issue:2, pages: 21 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Datta-Das transistor and conductance switch based on a zigzag graphene nanoribbon
Abstract:
We theoretically investigate the transport properties of a zigzag graphene nanoribbon, where there exists the Rashba spin-orbit coupling only in the central region modulated by a gate voltage. Using the approach of nonequilibrium Green function, we show that when the two electrode regions are ferromagnetic but the central region is nonmagnetic, the device based on graphene has the behavior of the Datta-Das transistor and at the same time a giant magnetoresistance effect can be observed. Inversely, when the central region has a magnetization but the two electrode regions are nonmagnetic, the device can work as a conductance switch, because an energy gap appears in the band structure of the central graphene ribbon under the coaction of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the magnetization. In addition, we find that the behavior of the conductance switch of the device is robust when the weak disorder is present in the system.
Autors: Cao, Jie;Pui Tang, Chi;Xiong, Shi-Jie;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 113, issue:5, pages: 054304 - 054304-6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Delay System Method for Designing Event-Triggered Controllers of Networked Control Systems
Abstract:
This note is concerned with event-triggered controller design for networked control systems. A novel event-triggering scheme is proposed, which has some advantages over some existing schemes. A delay system model for the analysis is firstly constructed by investigating the effect of the network transmission delay. Then, based on this model, criteria for stability with an norm bound and criteria for co-designing both the feedback gain and the trigger parameters are derived. These criteria are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Simulation results have shown that the proposed event-triggering scheme is superior to some existing event-triggering schemes in the literature.
Autors: Yue, D.;Tian, E.;Han, Q.-L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 475 - 481
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deterministic Compressed GNSS Acquisition Technique
Abstract:
In the cold start of a Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receiver, fast acquisition of the GNSS signal requires either an extensive usage of hardware resources for massive parallel correlators or a high computational complexity for fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse FFT operations. Because GNSS uses direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signaling with binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) or with BPSK and binary offset carrier, any GNSS signal can have a sparse representation so that the concept of compressed sensing can be applied to detect GNSS signals. To achieve a fast acquisition of the GNSS signal with a reduced number of correlators and low computational complexity, we propose a two-stage deterministic compressed GNSS acquisition technique using the Walsh–Hadamard matrix. The proposed technique makes fast acquisition possible for a receiver using a much smaller number of correlators than the conventional parallel-correlator-based technique, which requires much less computational complexity than the FFT-based technique. We provide complexity analysis of the proposed technique and compare the statistical performance of the proposed technique with other techniques applicable to the fast GNSS acquisition. The proposed technique is easy to implement and is the first compressed-sensing-based GNSS acquisition technique.
Autors: Kong, S.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 62, issue:2, pages: 511 - 521
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deterministic EM Design Technique for General Waveguide Dual-Mode Bandpass Filters
Abstract:
Circular waveguide dual-mode (CWDM) filters have been widely employed in the manifold-coupled output multiplexer (OMUX) for satellite payloads. In this paper, a deterministic electromagnetic (EM) design technique for fast and accurately computerized prototyping a general CWDM filter is presented. By introducing a generalized impedance inverter using the generalized scattering matrix of the tuning screw section, the insertion phase and the coupling of the two degenerate modes in a CWDM cavity can be determined by a most effective way. To handle the asynchronously tuned cases, the theoretical formula that relates a self-coupling to its corresponding phase offset is derived. The design technique is based on modal analysis at the center frequency and is deterministic without using optimization or curve fitting. The presented technique enables the full-wave EM design of CWDM filters as easy and accurate as designing conventional single mode waveguide filters. To validate the design technique, practical design of eight-pole symmetric and asymmetric CWDM filters have been studied theoretically and experimentally. An EM design of a complete -band 15-channel contiguous OMUX is also demonstrated.
Autors: Hu, H.;Wu, K.-L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:2, pages: 800 - 807
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Control Law for Load Balancing in Content Delivery Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we face the challenging issue of defining and implementing an effective law for load balancing in Content Delivery Networks (CDNs). We base our proposal on a formal study of a CDN system, carried out through the exploitation of a fluid flow model characterization of the network of servers. Starting from such characterization, we derive and prove a lemma about the network queues equilibrium. This result is then leveraged in order to devise a novel distributed and time-continuous algorithm for load balancing, which is also reformulated in a time-discrete version. The discrete formulation of the proposed balancing law is eventually discussed in terms of its actual implementation in a real-world scenario. Finally, the overall approach is validated by means of simulations.
Autors: Manfredi, S.;Oliviero, F.;Romano, S. P.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 55 - 68
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Drop-on-Demand-Based Electrostatically Actuated Microdispenser
Abstract:
This paper presents a noncontact drop-on-demand three-layer microdroplet generator based on electrostatic actuation. The dispenser is actuated via a deformable membrane that isolates the electrical field from the working fluid. The dispenser controlled droplet formation, frequency, size, and velocity within the ranges tested. Prototypes were fabricated using three-step deep reactive-ion etching and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) plasma activated bonding. Experiments verified stable droplet dispensing with a variance in subsequent droplet volume of less than 15% between droplets. The frequency of stable generation was 20 Hz, and the average volume of dispensed droplet was 1 nL. The dispenser operating range and the nondestructive actuation make it suitable for biological applications. [2012-0009]
Autors: Ahamed, M. J.;Ben-Mrad, R.;Sullivan, P.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 177 - 185
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual Decomposition Approach to Feature Correspondence
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a new approach for establishing correspondences between sparse image features related by an unknown nonrigid mapping and corrupted by clutter and occlusion, such as points extracted from images of different instances of the same object category. We formulate this matching task as an energy minimization problem by defining an elaborate objective function of the appearance and the spatial arrangement of the features. Optimization of this energy is an instance of graph matching, which is in general an NP-hard problem. We describe a novel graph matching optimization technique, which we refer to as dual decomposition (DD), and demonstrate on a variety of examples that this method outperforms existing graph matching algorithms. In the majority of our examples, DD is able to find the global minimum within a minute. The ability to globally optimize the objective allows us to accurately learn the parameters of our matching model from training examples. We show on several matching tasks that our learned model yields results superior to those of state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Torresani, L.;Kolmogorov, V.;Rother, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 35, issue:2, pages: 259 - 271
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A dual-polarized broadband planar antenna and channelizing filter bank for millimeter wavelengths
Abstract:
We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a broadband log-periodic antenna coupled to multiple cryogenic bolometers. This detector architecture, optimized here for astrophysical observations, simultaneously receives two linear polarizations with two octaves of bandwidth at millimeter wavelengths. The broad bandwidth signal received by the antenna is divided into sub-bands with integrated in-line frequency-selective filters. We demonstrate two such filter banks: a diplexer with two sub-bands and a log-periodic channelizer with seven contiguous sub-bands. These detectors have receiver efficiencies of 20%–40% and percent level polarization isolation. Superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers detect the power in each sub-band and polarization. We demonstrate circularly symmetric beam patterns, high polarization isolation, accurately positioned bands, and high optical efficiency. The pixel design is applicable to astronomical observations of intensity and polarization at millimeter through sub-millimeter wavelengths. As compared with an imaging array of pixels measuring only one band, simultaneous measurements of multiple bands in each pixel has the potential to result in a higher signal-to-noise measurement while also providing spectral information. This development facilitates compact systems with high mapping speeds for observations that require information in multiple frequency bands.
Autors: O'Brient, Roger;Ade, Peter;Arnold, Kam;Edwards, Jennifer;Engargiola, Greg;Holzapfel, William L.;Lee, Adrian T.;Myers, Michael J.;Quealy, Erin;Rebeiz, Gabriel;Richards, Paul;Suzuki, Aritoki;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 102, issue:6, pages: 063506 - 063506-4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A dynamic calibration technique for temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy
Abstract:
A novel, rapid and accurate calibration procedure as a means for quantitative gas desorption measurement by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectroscopy is presented. Quantitative measurement beyond the linear regime of the instrument is achieved by associating an instantaneous calibrated molar flow rate of gas to the detector response. This technique is based on fundamental methods, and is independently verified by comparison to the hydrogen desorption capacity of a known standard metal hydride with known stoichiometry. The TPD calibration procedure described here may be used for any pure gas, and the accuracy is demonstrated for the specific case of hydrogen.
Autors: Hurst, K. E.;Heben, M. J.;Blackburn, J. L.;Gennett, T.;Dillon, A. C.;Parilla, P. A.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 84, issue:2, pages: 025103 - 025103-9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast-Locking All-Digital Deskew Buffer With Duty-Cycle Correction
Abstract:
In this paper, a fast-locking all-digital deskew buffer with duty cycle correction is proposed and implemented. A cyclic time-to-digital converter is introduced to decrease the locking time in conventional register-controlled delay-locked loop to only two input clock cycles in coarse tuning. With the aid of the three half delay lines technique, the mismatch between half delay lines causing the duty cycle distortion can be alleviated by interpolation. A balanced edge combiner to achieve a precise 50% output clock is also presented. A test chip is fabricated in 0.18- m technology to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed architecture. The circuit can accept the input clock rates from 250 to 625 MHz with the duty cycle variation within 30% and 70% to generate 50% output clocks. It preserves the capability of closed-loop control with a small area and power consumption.
Autors: Chen, Y.-G.;Tsao, H.-W.;Hwang, C.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 270 - 280
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fiber Bragg Grating RMS Current Transducer Based on the Magnetostriction Effect Using a Terfenol-D Toroidal-Shaped Modulator
Abstract:
A new approach to the fabrication of robust and low-cost fiber Bragg gratings optical current transducers using a Terfenol-D magnetostrictive material is presented. Electro-erosion is used to manufacture a magnetic core in a toroidal shape, which results in a single piece robust mechanical design. By applying mechanical compression to the toroidal sensor and making its response very close to a quadratic function, it is possible to calculate the rms value of the current directly from the output of the sensor and eliminate the dc biasing magnetic field used in all previous techniques. A new electronic interrogation circuit technique, which allows for the measurement of ac signals and keeps the dc operation point of the fiber Bragg grating, is developed and successfully used in the prototype. Experimental results measured in the developed optical current transducer show that an error of is achieved for currents over the 320–900 A range. When tested over the temperature range of 25 –45 , a maximum error of is observed. The developed system presents a fast transient response, and needs only 34 ms to reach the steady state after a 150% amplitude step increase is applied to current being measured.
Autors: Cremonezi, A. O.;Ferreira, E. C.;Filho, A. J. B.;Dias, J. A. S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 13, issue:2, pages: 683 - 690
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexible Platform for Hardware-Aware Network Experiments and a Case Study on Wireless Network Coding
Abstract:
In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a general, flexible, hardware-aware network platform that takes hardware processing behavior into consideration to accurately evaluate network performance. The platform adopts a network-hardware co-simulation approach in which the NS-2 network simulator supervises the network-wide traffic flow and the SystemC hardware simulator simulates the underlying hardware processing in network nodes. In addition, as a case study, we implemented wireless all-to-all broadcasting with network coding on the platform. We analyze the hardware processing behavior during the algorithm execution and evaluate the overall performance of the algorithm. Our experimental results demonstrate that hardware processing can have a significant impact on the algorithm performance and hence should be taken into consideration in the algorithm design. We expect that this hardware-aware platform will become a very useful tool for more accurate network simulations and more efficient design space exploration of processing-intensive applications.
Autors: Deng, X.;Yang, Y.;Hong, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 149 - 161
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Extremum Seeking Control of Systems With Parameter Uncertainties
Abstract:
Traditionally, the design of extremum seeking algorithm treats the system as essentially a black-box, which for many applications means disregarding known information about the model structure. In contrast to this approach, there have been recent examples where a known plant structure with uncertain parameters has been used in the online optimization of plant operation. However, the results for these approaches have been restricted to specific classes of plants and optimization algorithms. This paper seeks to provide general results and a framework for the design of extremum seekers applied to systems with parameter uncertainties. General conditions for an optimization method and a parameter estimator are presented so that their combination guarantees convergence of the extremum seeker for both static and dynamic plants. Tuning guidelines for the closed loop scheme are also presented. The generality and flexibility of the proposed framework is demonstrated through a number of parameter estimators and optimization algorithms that can be combined to obtain extremum seeking. Examples of anti-lock braking and model reference adaptive control are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
Autors: Nesic, D.;Mohammadi, A.;Manzie, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 435 - 448
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Inference Using Goodness of Fit Tests Based on Ensemble of Phi-Divergences
Abstract:
In this paper we study the inferential use of goodness of fit tests in a non-parametric setting. The utility of such tests will be demonstrated for the test case of spectrum sensing applications in cognitive radios. We provide the first comprehensive framework for decision fusion of an ensemble of goodness-of-fit testing procedures through an Ensemble Goodness-of-Fit test. Also, we introduce a generalized family of functionals and kernels called -divergences which allow us to formulate goodness-of-fit tests that are parameterized by a single parameter. The performance of these tests is simulated under Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise in a MIMO setting. We show that under uncertainty in the noise statistics or non-Gaussianity in the noise, the performance of non-parametric tests in general, and phi-divergence based goodness-of-fit tests in particular, is significantly superior to that of the energy detector with reduced implementation complexity. In particular, the false alarm rates of our proposed tests is maintained at a fixed level over a wide variation in the channel noise distributions. Additionally, we describe a collaborative spatially separated version of the test for robust combining of tests in a distributed spectrum sensing setting and quantify the significant collaboration gains achieved.
Autors: Kundargi, N.;Liu, Y.;Tewfik, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 61, issue:4, pages: 945 - 955
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Mining Signatures from Event Sequences and Its Applications in Healthcare Data
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel temporal knowledge representation and learning framework to perform large-scale temporal signature mining of longitudinal heterogeneous event data. The framework enables the representation, extraction, and mining of high-order latent event structure and relationships within single and multiple event sequences. The proposed knowledge representation maps the heterogeneous event sequences to a geometric image by encoding events as a structured spatial-temporal shape process. We present a doubly constrained convolutional sparse coding framework that learns interpretable and shift-invariant latent temporal event signatures. We show how to cope with the sparsity in the data as well as in the latent factor model by inducing a double sparsity constraint on the β-divergence to learn an overcomplete sparse latent factor model. A novel stochastic optimization scheme performs large-scale incremental learning of group-specific temporal event signatures. We validate the framework on synthetic data and on an electronic health record dataset.
Autors: Fei Wang;Lee, N.;Jianying Hu;Jimeng Sun;Ebadollahi, S.;Laine, A.F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 35, issue:2, pages: 272 - 285
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Secure and Efficient Data Acquisition in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:
Intervehicular communication lies at the core of a number of industry and academic research initiatives that aim at enhancing the safety and efficiency of transportation systems. Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) enable vehicles to communicate with each other and with roadside units (RSUs). Service-oriented vehicular networks are special types of VANETs that support diverse infrastructure-based commercial services, including Internet access, real-time traffic management, video streaming, and content distribution. Many forms of attacks against service-oriented VANETs that attempt to threaten their security have emerged. The success of data acquisition and delivery systems depends on their ability to defend against the different types of security and privacy attacks that exist in service-oriented VANETs. This paper introduces a system that takes advantage of the RSUs that are connected to the Internet and that provide various types of information to VANET users. We provide a suite of novel security and privacy mechanisms in our proposed system and evaluate its performance using the ns2 software. We show, by comparing its results to those of another system, its feasibility and efficiency.
Autors: Mershad, K.;Artail, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 62, issue:2, pages: 536 - 551
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Free and Fast Three-Dimensional/Two-Dimensional Solar Cell Simulator Featuring Conductive Boundary and Quasi-Neutrality Approximations
Abstract:
Details of Quokka, which is a freely available fast 3-D solar cell simulation tool, are presented. Simplifications to the full set of charge carrier transport equations, i.e., quasi-neutrality and conductive boundaries, result in a model that is computationally inexpensive without a loss of generality. Details on the freely available finite volume implementation in MATLAB are given, which shows computation times on the order of seconds to minutes for a full curve sweep on a conventional personal computer. As an application example, the validity of popular analytical models of partial rear contact cells is verified under varying conditions. Consequently, it is observed that significant errors can occur if these analytical models are used to derive local recombination properties from effective lifetime measurements of test structures.
Autors: Fell, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 733 - 738
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fuzzy Measure Similarity Between Sets of Linguistic Summaries
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the problem of evaluating the similarity of two sets of linguistic summaries of sensor data. Huge amounts of available data cause a dramatic need for summarization. In continuous monitoring, it is useful to compare one time interval of data with another, for example, to detect anomalies or to predict the onset of a change from a normal state. Assuming that summaries capture the essence of the data, it is sufficient to compare only those summaries, i.e., they are descriptive features for recognition. In previous work, we developed a similarity measure between two individual summaries and proved that the associated dissimilarity is a metric. Additionally, we proposed some basic methods to combine these similarities into an aggregate value. Here, we develop a novel parameter free method, which is based on fuzzy measures and integrals, to fuse individual similarities that will produce a closeness measurement between sets of summaries. We provide a case study from the eldercare domain where the goal is to compare different nighttime patterns for change detection. The reasons for studying linguistic summaries for eldercare are twofold: First, linguistic summaries are the natural communication tool for health care providers in a decision support system, and second, due to the extremely large volume of raw data, these summaries create compact features for an automated reasoning for detection and prediction of health changes as part of the decision support system.
Autors: Wilbik, A.;Keller, J. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 183 - 189
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Gas Switch Triggered by a Microhollow Cathode Discharge (MHCD) Array With Lower Trigger Energy
Abstract:
A microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) array was operated at atmospheric pressure with a pulse voltage of 2.5 kV supplied by a trigger circuit. Triggered by this MHCD array, a gas switch with an annular plate structure operated under a voltage of 27 kV with a fall time of 30 ns and a current of 400 A with a rise time of 15 ns was investigated. It is used for discharging the charge stored in a capacitor of 4 nF through a resistor of 50 . The advantages of the switch are obvious: a compact trigger with lower trigger voltage. An electrical model including MHCD capacitance is built, and the simulation results agree well with the experimental results.
Autors: Liu, K.;Teng, Y.;Li, L.;Qiu, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 875 - 879
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A giant polarization value of Zn and Mn co-modified bismuth ferrite thin films
Abstract:
A giant remanent polarization of BiFeO3 thin films is obtained by introducing Zn and Mn, and Bi(Fe0.93Mn0.05Zn0.02)O3 (BFMZO) thin films were prepared on SrRuO3-buffered silicon substrates by the radio-frequency sputtering. An (111) orientation is induced in such a film because of the introduction of an SrRuO3 buffer layer. An enhanced ferroelectric behavior of 2Pr ∼ 235 μC/cm2 and 2Ec ∼ 612 kV/cm is observed in BFMZO thin films, together with a fatigue-free behavior. As a result, the introduction of Zn and Mn is a good way to improve the electrical behavior of BiFeO3 thin films.
Autors: Wu, Jiagang;Qiao, Sha;Wang, John;Xiao, Dingquan;Zhu, Jianguo;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Feb 2013, volume: 102, issue:5, pages: 052904 - 052904-3
Publisher: IEEE
 

Publication archives by date

  2017:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2016:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2015:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2014:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2013:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2012:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2011:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2010:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2009:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

 
0-C     D-L     M-R     S-Z