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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2010 sorted by title, page: 0
» "Pac-Man" process eats nanodirt
Abstract:
Cleaning up nanoparticles is critical to commercializing extreme UV lithography
Autors: Adee, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 47, issue:2, pages: 13 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1-Tb/s Single-Channel Coherent Optical OFDM Transmission With Orthogonal-Band Multiplexing and Subwavelength Bandwidth Access
Abstract:
A 1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) signal consisting of continuous 4104 spectrally-overlapped subcarriers is generated using a recirculating frequency shifter (RFS). Theoretical and experimental analysis of the RFS is performed to study its effectiveness in extending OFDM bandwidth. In particular, the RFS produces a 320.6-GHz wide frequency comb from a single laser with superior flatness and tone-to-noise ratio (TNR). The 1-Tb/s CO-OFDM signal is consisted of 36 uncorrelated orthogonal bands achieved by adjusting the delay of the RFS to an integer number of OFDM symbol periods. The 1-Tb/s CO-OFDM signal with a spectral efficiency of 3.3 bit/s/Hz is successfully received after transmission over 600-km SSMF fiber without either Raman amplification or dispersion compensation.
Autors: Ma, Y.;Yang, Q.;Tang, Y.;Chen, S.;Shieh, W.;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 308 - 315
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10 Gb/s-Based PON Over OCDMA Uplink Burst Transmission Using SSFBG Encoder/Multi-Port Decoder and Burst-Mode Receiver
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel 10 Gb/s-based passive optical network (PON) over optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system to realize the new generation full capacity optical access network which is easily upgraded from existing time division multiplexing PON (TDM-PON) without sacrificing the currently uplink bandwidth assigned to the individual user. 16-ONU (4-OCDMA x 4-packet) uplink burst transmission, an upgrade scenario by a factor of four of conventional 10 Gb/s-based PON, is experimentally demonstrated by using multi-level phase-shift-keying (PSK) super-structured fiber Bragg grating (SSFBG) encoder/multi-port decoder and burst-mode receiver. In the discussions, it will be shown that 32 users can be accommodated in 10 Gb/s-based PON over OCDMA system, and a key is newly introduced multi-level phase-shifted en/decoding, of which auto-correlation waveform can be preferably adopted in the burst-mode reception at 10 Gb/s.
Autors: Yoshima, S.;Nakagawa, N.;Kataoka, N.;Suzuki, N.;Noda, M.;Nogami, M.;Nakagawa, J.;Kitayama, K.-I.;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 365 - 371
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 11-Megapixel CMOS-Integrated SiGe Micromirror Arrays for High-End Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, we report on the design, fabrication, packaging, and testing of very reliable CMOS-integrated 10- 11-megapixel SiGe-based micromirror arrays on top of planarized six-level metal 0.18- CMOS wafers. The array, which is to be used as a spatial light modulator (SLM) for optical maskless lithography, consists of pixels, which can be individually addressed by an analog voltage to enable accurate tilt angle modulation. Due to very stringent requirements on mounted-die flatness ( mrad), the first level packaging of SLM die is done using specially designed SiC holders. To avoid trapped particles between the die and holder, which would jeopardize the flatness spec, special backside cleaning of the dies (less than or equal to one 0.8- ) is needed before mounting the SLM die on the holder. To enable this backside cleaning and to avoid front-side particles during dicing, handling, and wire bonding, a temporary wafer- or zero-level packaging cap, which can be placed and removed at room temperature, was developed. The dynamic white light interferometer measurements of packaged dies showed that 99.5% of the 123 648 mirrors tested are within the spec. In addition, a stable average cupping of below 7 nm, an rms roughness of below 1 nm, and a stable actuation of over 2.5 teracycles are demonstrated. [2009-0169]
Autors: Witvrouw, A.;Haspeslagh, L.;Varela Pedreira, O.;De Coster, J.;De Wolf, I.;Tilmans, H. A. C.;Bearda, T.;Schlatmann, B.;van Bommel, M.;de Nooijer, M.-C.;Magnee, P. H. C.;Lous, E. J.;Hagting, M.;Lauria, J.;Vanneer, R.;van Drieenhuizen, B.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 202 - 214
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 120 Gbit/s Over 500-km Using Single-Band Polarization-Multiplexed Self-Coherent Optical OFDM
Abstract:
In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a single-band self-coherent polarization-multiplexed optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplex system with a raw data rate of 120 Gbit/s. The transmitter uses a novel RF structure that eliminates the need for RF mixers and optical filters. The receiver uses a novel architecture where the optical carrier is filtered and amplified for self-coherent detection. The receiver is polarization diverse and allows for the usual frequency guard band between the carrier and the sideband to be reduced in width, thus increasing spectral efficiency. Using two commercial 20 GS/s arbitrary-waveform generators to generate a single information-carrying band per polarization, we achieve a raw data rate of 120 Gbit/s over 500 km of standard single-mode fiber.
Autors: Schmidt, B. J. C.;Zan, Z.;Du, L. B.;Lowery, A. J.;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 328 - 335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 16-Point Reversible Integer Discrete Fourier Transform With 12 Control Bits
Abstract:
This correspondence discusses the reversible integer 16-point discrete Fourier transform (RiDFT) which uses integer operations with control bits. The decomposition of the RiDFT is based on the paired representation, when the Fourier transform is split recursively into a set of short transforms of orders 8, 4, 2, and 1. Control bits allow for inverting the integer approximations of multiplications by twiddle factors. The proposed 16-point RiDFT uses 16 operations of real multiplication and 62 additions. The integer approximation of the transform with eight control bits with additional two lifting schemes, which requires two more multiplications, is also considered.
Autors: Grigoryan, A. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 912 - 916
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2008 Best Paper Award
Abstract:
Autors: Boning, D. S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 1 - 1
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Mesh Geometry Compression With Set Partitioning in the Spectral Domain
Abstract:
This paper explains the development of a highly efficient progressive 3-D mesh geometry coder based on the region adaptive transform in the spectral mesh compression method. A hierarchical set partitioning technique, originally proposed for the efficient compression of wavelet transform coefficients in high-performance wavelet-based image coding methods, is proposed for the efficient compression of the coefficients of this transform. Experiments confirm that the proposed coder employing such a region adaptive transform has a high compression performance rarely achieved by other state of the art 3-D mesh geometry compression algorithms. A new, high-performance fixed spectral basis method is also proposed for reducing the computational complexity of the transform. Many-to-one mappings are employed to relate the coded irregular mesh region to a regular mesh whose basis is used. To prevent loss of compression performance due to the low-pass nature of such mappings, transitions are made from transform-based coding to spatial coding on a per region basis at high coding rates. Experimental results show the performance advantage of the newly proposed fixed spectral basis method over the original fixed spectral basis method in the literature that employs one-to-one mappings.
Autors: Bayazit, U.;Konur, U.;Ates, H. F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 179 - 188
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3.125 Gb/s Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband Photonic Generation and Distribution Over a 50 km Fiber With Wireless Transmission
Abstract:
A 3.125 Gb/s photonic impulse radio ultra-wideband signal is created using the incoherent optical field summation resulting from the cross gain modulation of an uncooled distributed feedback laser injected with an external cavity laser. After 50 km of fiber and wireless transmission over 2.9–3.3-m, successful detection using a digital signal processing receiver is achieved.
Autors: Gibbon, T. B.;Yu, X.;Gamatham, R.;Gonzalez, N. G.;Rodes, R.;Jensen, J. B.;Caballero, A.;Monroy, I. T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 127 - 129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 30-GHz Low-Noise Performance of 100-nm-Gate-Recessed n-GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMTs
Abstract:
We demonstrate a 100-nm-gate-recessed n-GaN/AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with low-noise properties at 30 GHz. The recessed GaN HEMT exhibits a low ohmic-contact resistance of 0.28 and a low gate leakage current of 0.9 when biased at and . At the same bias point, a minimum noise figure of 1.6 dB at 30 GHz and an associated gain of 5 dB were achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best noise performance reported at 30 GHz for gate-recessed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs.
Autors: Chang, C.-T.;Hsu, H.-T.;Chang, E. Y.;Kuo, C.-I;Huang, J.-C.;Lu, C.-Y.;Miyamoto, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 105 - 107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D modeling of the electron energy distribution function in negative hydrogen ion sources
Abstract:
For optimization and accurate prediction of the amount of H-ion production in negative ion sources, analysis of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is necessary. We are developing a numerical code which analyzes EEDF in the tandem-type arc-discharge source. It is a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation code with realistic geometry and magnetic configuration. Coulomb collision between electrons is treated with the “binary collision” model and collisions with hydrogen species are treated with the “null-collision” method. We applied this code to the analysis of the JAEA 10 A negative ion source. The numerical result shows that the obtained EEDF is in good agreement with experimental results.
Autors: Terasaki, R.;Fujino, I.;Hatayama, A.;Mizuno, T.;Inoue, T.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 81, issue:2, pages: 02A703 - 02A703-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4-D Cardiac MR Image Analysis: Left and Right Ventricular Morphology and Function
Abstract:
In this study, a combination of active shape model (ASM) and active appearance model (AAM) was used to segment the left and right ventricles of normal and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) hearts on 4-D (3-D+time) MR images. For each ventricle, a 4-D model was first used to achieve robust preliminary segmentation on all cardiac phases simultaneously and a 3-D model was then applied to each phase to improve local accuracy while maintaining the overall robustness of the 4-D segmentation. On 25 normal and 25 TOF hearts, in comparison to the expert traced independent standard, our comprehensive performance assessment showed subvoxel segmentation accuracy, high overlap ratios, good ventricular volume correlations, and small percent volume differences. Following 4-D segmentation, novel quantitative shape and motion features were extracted using shape information, volume-time and dV/dt curves, analyzed and used for disease status classification. Automated discrimination between normal/TOF subjects achieved 90%–100% sensitivity and specificity. The features obtained from TOF hearts show higher variability compared to normal subjects, suggesting their potential use as disease progression indicators. The abnormal shape and motion variations of the TOF hearts were accurately captured by both the segmentation and feature characterization.
Autors: Zhang, H.;Wahle, A.;Johnson, R. K.;Scholz, T. D.;Sonka, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 350 - 364
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 40-Gb/s Optical Packet Buffer Using Conversion/Dispersion-Based Delays
Abstract:
We experimentally demonstrate a continuously tunable, all-optical packet buffer based on conversion dispersion delays. 40-Gb/s asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) packets with return-to-zero onoff keying data are buffered up to ten-packet length (116 ns). The packet buffer performance is characterized for several delay values. Power penalties of 3, 2, and 0.5 dB for zero-packet, five-packet, and ten-packet delays are achieved, respectively, at a bit error rate (BER) of . Reconfiguration of the packet buffer is also investigated and reconfiguration times as fast as 25 ps are shown by using a high-speed optical switch to toggle between wavelength conversion pumps. The reconfiguration is also demonstrated for a 1 ns guard time between the packets. It is observed that reconfiguration with this method results in and dB extra power penalty at BER for 1 and 25 ps guard times, respectively.
Autors: Yilmaz, O. F.;Nuccio, S. R.;Wu, X.;Willner, A. E.;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 616 - 623
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 47.4 Gb/s Transmission Over 100 m Graded-Index Plastic Optical Fiber Based on Rate-Adaptive Discrete Multitone Modulation
Abstract:
We experimentally demonstrate a bit-rate of 47.4 Gb/s over 100 m of perfluorinated multimode graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI-POF) by exploiting discrete multitone (DMT) modulation with rate-adaptive bit-loading. The maximum achieved aggregate bit rate is 51.8 Gb/s including DMT transmission overhead (cyclic prefix and preambles) and the standard of 7% of forward-error-correction (FEC) overhead. This is achieved over an intensity-modulated direct-detection (IM-DD) link using a directly-modulated DFB laser (1300-nm) and a multimode fiber-coupled photodetector with a large diameter of 25- m. The bandwidth requirement is only 12 GHz due to the use of spectral-efficient modulation formats of up to 64-QAM.
Autors: Yang, H.;Lee, S. C. J.;Tangdiongga, E.;Okonkwo, C.;van den Boom, H. P. A.;Breyer, F.;Randel, S.;Koonen, A. M. J.;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 352 - 359
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 50-V Shock Hazard Threshold
Abstract:
For the last few years, much attention has been focused on arc flash hazards by the electrical community; however, statistics indicate that the majority of electrical injuries and fatalities are the result of shock. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace both require electrical conductors and circuits that operate at 50 V or greater to be de-energized before working on or near those conductors or circuits. This requirement is generally interpreted to mean that a shock hazard does not exist below 50 V. The objective of this paper will be to explore the validity of this assumption and to determine whether there may be a more appropriate level at which de-energizing should be considered.
Autors: Roberts, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 102 - 107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60-GHz Repeater Link for an ISDB-T Gap-Filler System Based on Self-Heterodyne Technique Applying an Adaptive Distortion Suppression Technique
Abstract:
A 60-GHz through-repeater link, which adopts the self-heterodyne transmission technique and a distortion suppression technique, is demonstrated as a solution to cost-effectively develop an Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting for Terrestrial gap-filler system.
Autors: Shoji, Y.;Choi, C.-S.;Ohta, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 340 - 347
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 640 Gbit/s (64-Wavelength 10 Gbit/s) Data-Rate Wide-Colored NRZ-DPSK Optical Packet Switching and Buffering Demonstration
Abstract:
We demonstrated optical packet switching and buffering operation of a DWDM/NRZ-DPSK optical packet, whose payload-data-rate is 640 Gbit/s (64-wavelength 10 Gbit/s), for transparent optical packet switch systems for the first time. Error-free (bit-error-rate ) operation including 200-Gchip/s PSK optical label processing was achieved for all 64-wavelength-channel 10 Gbit/s DPSK packet-payloads. In addition, the higher tolerance of DPSK format for packet power fluctuation compared with OOK one was verified in an optical packet switch system.
Autors: Furukawa, H.;Wada, N.;Miyazaki, T.;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 336 - 343
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Filter Design for a Class of Networked Control Systems Via T–S Fuzzy-Model Approach
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with -design for a class of networked control systems (NCSs) with multiple state-delays via the Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model. The transfer delays and packet loss that are induced by the limited bandwidth of communication networks are considered. The focus of this paper is on the analysis and design of a full-order filter, such that the filtering-error dynamics are stochastically stable, and a prescribed attenuation level is guaranteed. Sufficient conditions are established for the existence of the desired filter in terms of linear-matrix inequalities (LMIs). An example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed design method.
Autors: Jiang, B.;Mao, Z.;Shi, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 201 - 208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.7- m BiCMOS Electrostatic Energy-Harvesting System IC
Abstract:
Self-powered microsystems like wireless microsensors and biomedical implants derive power from in-package minibatteries that can only store sufficient energy to sustain the system for a short life. The environment, however, is a rich source of energy that, when harnessed, can replenish the otherwise exhausted battery. The problem is harvesters generate low power levels and the electronics required to transfer the energy to charge a battery can easily demand more than the power produced. This paper presents how a 0.7- BiCMOS vibration-supplied electrostatic energy-harvesting system IC produces usable energy. The IC charges and holds the voltage across a vibration-driven variable capacitor so that ambient kinetic energy can induce to generate current into the battery when capacitance decreases, as the plates separate. The precharger, harvester, monitoring, and control microelectronics draw enough power to operate, yet allow the system to yield (experimentally) 1.27, 2.14, and 2.87 nJ per vibration cycle for battery voltages at 2.7, 3.5, and 4.2 V, which at 30 Hz produce 38.1, 64.2, and 86.1 nW. Experiments further show that the harvester system prototype charges (emulating a small thin-film Li Ion) from 3.5 to 3.81 V in 35 s.
Autors: Torres, E. O. T.;Rincon-Mora, G. A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 45, issue:2, pages: 483 - 496
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2-phase 2-D thresholding algorithm?
Abstract:
When using 2-D thresholding to segment images, the used threshold would partition the 2-D histogram into four quadrants, two of which are corresponding to the object and background, while the other two are corresponding to edges and noise. However, unsuccessful segmentation will often happen because many existing 2-D thresholding methods ignore edges and noise quadrants in calculation. To solve this problem, in this paper a novel 2-D threshold line segmentation strategy is proposed, in which the second threshold point is determined adaptively by considering the information of incorrectly classified pixels. The experiments on typical images demonstrated that the proposed method...
Autors: Wen, Chen , Li, Cao , Jingjie, Qian , Shengguo, Huang
Appeared in: Digital Signal Processing
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 250 MHz 14 dB-NF 73 dB-Gain 82 dB-DR Analog Baseband Chain With Digital-Assisted DC-Offset Calibration for Ultra-Wideband
Abstract:
A 250 MHz analog baseband chain for Ultra-Wideband was implemented in a 1.2 V 0.13 m CMOS process. The chip has an active area of 0.8 mm . In the analog baseband, PGAs and filters are carried out by current-mode amplifiers to achieve wide bandwidth and wide dynamic range of gain, as well as low noise and high linearity. Besides, a current-mode Sallen–Key low-pass filter is adopted for effective rejection of out-of-band interferers. A 6th-order Chebyshev low-pass filter realized in -C topology is designed in the baseband chain for channel selection. Digitally-assisted DC-offset calibration improves second-order distortion of the entire chain. The design achieves a maximum gain of 73 dB and a dynamic range of 82 dB. Measured noise figure is 14 dB, an IIP3 of 6 dBV, and IIP2 of 5 dBV at the maximum gain mode. The analog baseband chain consumes 56.4 mA under supply of 1.2 V.
Autors: Shih, H.-Y.;Kuo, C.-N.;Chen, W.-H.;Yang, T.-Y.;Juang, K.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 45, issue:2, pages: 338 - 350
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 40 Gs/s Time Interleaved ADC Using SiGe BiCMOS Technology
Abstract:
The search for high speed, high bandwidth A/D converters is ongoing, and techniques to push the envelope are constantly being developed. In this paper an open loop, scalable, time-interleaved ADC architecture is presented, as well as a 60 GHz Colpitts oscillator. With the use of double-sampling, the timing skew requirements between channels is greatly relaxed, allowing sampling rates of up to 40 Gs/s at 4-bits of accuracy. This circuit is implemented using the IBM 8HP SiGe technology, with fT of 210 GHz. The performance of the 8HP ADC is validated by measurement. In addition, simulations with an experimental 8XP transistor model provided by IBM with a 350 GHz fT suggest that 30% more circuit speed is possible by just swapping the transistors.
Autors: Chu, M.;Jacob, P.;Kim, J.-W.;LeRoy, M. R.;Kraft, R. P.;McDonald, J. F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 45, issue:2, pages: 380 - 390
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 47 GHz Cross-Coupled VCO Employing High- Island-Gate Varactor for Phase Noise Reduction
Abstract:
A 47 GHz cross-coupled voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) employing the high- island-gate varactor (IGV) based on a 0.13 RFCMOS technology is reported in this work. To verify the improvement in the phase noise, two otherwise identical VCOs, each with an IGV and a conventional multi-finger varactor, were fabricated and the phase noise performance was compared. With of 1.2 V and core power consumption of 3.86 mW, the VCOs with the IGV and the multi-finger varactor have a phase noise of 95.4 dBc/Hz and 91.4 dBc/Hz respectively, at 1 MHz offset, verifying the phase noise reduction with the introduction of the high- IGV. The VCO with IGV exhibited an output power of around 15 dBm, leading to a FoM of 182.9 dBc/Hz and a tuning range of 3.35% (45.69 to 47.22 GHz).
Autors: Kim, N.;Oh, Y.;Rieh, J.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 94 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 60–110 GHz Transmission-Line Integrated SPDT Switch in 90 nm CMOS Technology
Abstract:
This letter demonstrates a fully integrated transmit/receive single-pole-double-throw switch in standard bulk 90 nm CMOS process. This switch is based on the transmission-line integrated approach that reduces the effect of parasitic capacitance of transistors in the desired band, and this approach can achieve good isolation and return loss with fewer stages of transistors and broad bandwidth. The switch provides an insertion loss of 3–4 dB and a return loss better than 10 dB in 60–110 GHz. The measured isolation is better than 25 dB. The measured 1 dB compression point of input power is 10.5 dBm at 75 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first CMOS switch operating beyond 100 GHz.
Autors: Lai, R.-B.;Kuo, J.-J.;Wang, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 85 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 60-GHz 38-pJ/bit 3.5-Gb/s 90-nm CMOS OOK Digital Radio
Abstract:
A 60-GHz fully integrated bits-in bits-out on–off keying (OOK) digital radio has been designed in a standard 90-nm CMOS process technology. The transmitter provides 2 dBm of output power at a 3.5-Gb/s data rate while consuming 156 mW of dc power, including the on-chip 60-GHz frequency synthesizer. A pulse-shaping filter has been integrated to support high data rates while maintaining spectral efficiency. The receiver performs direct-conversion noncoherent demodulation at data rates up to 3.5 Gb/s while consuming 108 mW of dc power, for a total average transceiver energy consumption of 38 pJ/bit in time division duplex operation. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the lowest energy per bit reported to date in the 60-GHz band for fully integrated single-chip CMOS OOK radios.
Autors: Juntunen, E.;Leung, M. C.-H.;Barale, F.;Rachamadugu, A.;Yeh, D. A.;Perumana, B. G.;Sen, P.;Dawn, D.;Sarkar, S.;Pinel, S.;Laskar, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 348 - 355
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 74.8 mW Soft-Output Detector IC for 8 8 Spatial-Multiplexing MIMO Communications
Abstract:
In this paper, VLSI implementation of a configurable, soft-output MIMO detector is presented. The proposed chip can support up to 8 8 64-QAM spatial multiplexing MIMO communications, which surpasses all reported MIMO detector ICs in antenna number and modulation order. Moreover, this chip provides configurable antenna number from 2 2 up to 8 8 and modulation order from QPSK to 64-QAM. Its outputs include bit-wise log likelihood ratios (LLRs) and a candidate list, making it compatible with powerful soft-input channel decoders and iterative decoding system. The MIMO detector adopts a novel sphere decoding algorithm with high decoding efficiency and superior error rate performance, called modified best-first with fast descent (MBF-FD). Moreover, a low-power pipelined quad-dual-heap (quad-DEAP) circuit for efficient node pool management and several circuit techniques are implemented in this chip. When this chip is configured as 4 4 64-QAM and 8 8 64-QAM soft-output MIMO detectors, it achieves average throughputs of 431.8 Mbps and 428.8 Mbps with only 58.2 mW and 74.8 mW respective power consumption and reaches 10 coded bit error rate (BER) at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 24.2 dB and 22.6 dB, respectively.
Autors: Liao, C.-H.;Wang, T.-P.;Chiueh, T.-D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 45, issue:2, pages: 411 - 421
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -Cut and Goal-Programming-Based Algorithm for Fuzzy-Linear Multiple-Objective Bilevel Optimization
Abstract:
Bilevel-programming techniques are developed to handle decentralized problems with two-level decision makers, which are leaders and followers, who may have more than one objective to achieve. This paper proposes a -cut and goal-programming-based algorithm to solve fuzzy-linear multiple-objective bilevel (FLMOB) decision problems. First, based on the definition of a distance measure between two fuzzy vectors using -cut, a fuzzy-linear bilevel goal (FLBG) model is formatted, and related theorems are proved. Then, using a -cut for fuzzy coefficients and a goal-programming strategy for multiple objectives, a -cut and goal-programming-based algorithm to solve FLMOB decision problems is presented. A case study for a newsboy problem is adopted to illustrate the application and executing procedure of this algorithm. Finally, experiments are carried out to discuss and analyze the performance of this algorithm.
Autors: Gao, Y.;Zhang, G.;Ma, J.;Lu, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 1 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A band-rejection type RF switch based on a dual-mode microstrip ring resonator
Abstract:
A band-rejection type RF switch, which has very high off-state isolation, low on-state insertion loss, and adjustable bandwidth, is proposed using a dual-mode ring resonator and two PIN diodes. To enable sharp band stop and dual-mode transmission, the ring resonator is directly fed using nonorthogonal feeding. Two PIN diodes are mounted in shunt after a quarter-wavelength transmission line from each feeding point, to turn the switch on and off and to reduce the size of the ring resonator. To estimate the practicable transmission characteristics of the proposed switch in relation to the angle of feeding and the wire-bonded PIN diodes, a lossy transmission-line equivalent circuit model is proposed, and even-odd mode analysis is carried out. The calculated frequency response shows good agreement with the measurement. The fabricated switch exhibits off-state isolation of 43.08 dB, and on-state insertion loss of 0.74 dB, within the range of 2.298-2.401 GHz. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52:947-950, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25080
Autors: Wu Seong Lee, Jae Jong Ryu, Yeon Kwan Moon, Ju Gab Lee, Ha Chul Kim, Hyun Chul Choi
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Biphase Modulator Circuit for Impulse Radio-UWB Applications
Abstract:
This letter presents a circuit to provide binary phase shift keying to ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse transmitters. The circuit is based on a Gilbert-cell multiplier and uses active on-chip balun and unbalanced-to-balanced converters for single-ended to single-ended operation. Detailed measurements of the circuit show a gain ripple of at an overall gain of , an input reflection below , an output reflection below , a group delay variation below 6 ps and a input compression point of more than 1 dBm in both switching states over the full 3.1–10.6 GHz UWB frequency range. A time domain measurement verifies the switching operation using an FCC-compliant impulse generator. The circuit is fabricated in a Si/SiGe HBT technology, consumes 31.4 mA at a 3.2 V supply and has a size of , including pads. It can be used in UWB systems using pulse correlation reception or spectral spreading.
Autors: Schleicher, B.;Ulusoy, C. A.;Schumacher, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 115 - 117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Body Area Propagation Model Derived From Fundamental Principles: Analytical Analysis and Comparison With Measurements
Abstract:
Using wireless sensors worn on the body to monitor health information is a promising new application. To realize transceivers targeted for these applications, it is essential to understand the body area propagation channel. Several numerical, simulated, and measured body area propagation studies have recently been conducted. While many of these studies are useful for evaluating communication systems, they are not compared against or justified by more fundamental physical models derived from basic principles. This type of comparison is necessary to provide better physical insights into expected propagation trends and to justify modeling choices. To address this problem, we have developed a simple and generic body area propagation model derived directly from Maxwell's equations revealing basic propagation trends away, inside, around, and along the body. We have verified the resulting analytical model by comparing it with measurements in an anechoic chamber. This paper develops an analytical model of the body, describes the expected body area pathloss trends predicted by Maxwell's equations, and compares it with measurements of the electric field close to the body.
Autors: Fort, A.;Keshmiri, F.;Crusats, G. R.;Craeye, C.;Oestges, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 503 - 514
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Breaker-Oriented, Three-Phase IEEE 24-Substation Test System
Abstract:
Accurate bus-oriented, three-phase modeling of power systems is desirable for advanced applications and has become practical due to increased computational capability. To assist research activities in this area, this paper presents a benchmark three-phase test system. The proposed system is based on the 24-bus IEEE Reliability Test System that has been converted into a 24-substation, breaker-oriented, three-phase model. The model is available in electronic form at the site: http://pscal.ece.gatech.edu/testsys/. The proposed model is intended for use in research for three-phase power flow analysis, reliability analysis, fault analysis, transient stability, evaluation of fault currents through specific breakers, risk assessment of breaker failures, and other applications.
Autors: Dam, Q. B.;Meliopoulos, A. P. S.;Heydt, G. T.;Bose, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 59 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A C-band GaN based linear power amplifier with 55.7% PAE
Abstract:
A C-band linear power amplifier is successfully developed with a one-chip 2mm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Two kinds of matching circuits for the linear power amplifier are compared. Besides, stabilization methods for the amplifier are also discussed. At 5.4GHz, the developed GaN HEMTs linear power amplifier delivers a 37.2dBm (5.2W) cw P1dB output power with 9dB linear gain and 55.7% maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) with a drain voltage of 25V. To our best knowledge, the achieved PAE is the state-of-the-art result ever reported for 2mm gate width single die GaN-based hybrid microwave integrated power amplifier at C-band.
Autors: Weijun, Luo , Xiaojuan, Chen , Hui, Zhang , Guoguo, Liu , Yingkui, Zheng , ...
Appeared in: Solid-State Electronics
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Class of Neutral-Type Delay Differential Equations That are Effectively Retarded
Abstract:
We demonstrate that some delay-differential equations of neutral type are, up to basis transformation, equivalent to retarded delay differential equations. In particular, for two classes of neutral delay differential equation models, we use state transformations to show that delayed derivatives can in some cases be expressed in terms of the model's state. Hence, we obtain conditions when neutral delay differential equations can be transformed into retarded delay differential equations.
Autors: Stoorvogel, A. A.;Roy, S.;Wan, Y.;Saberi, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 435 - 440
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A class of QC-LDPC codes with low encoding complexity and good error performance
Abstract:
We propose a novel approximate lower triangular structure for the parity part of the parity-check matrix of QC-LDPC codes. About half of the non-zero elements in the parity part are set to locate on the upper diagonal while the remaining non-zero elements can be located almost anywhere within the lower triangular area, provided certain rules are observed. Compared with the typical dual-diagonal structure, the proposed structure requires very similar encoding complexity and produces lower error rates over an AWGN channel.
Autors: Tam, W.M.;Lau, F.C.M.;Tse, C.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 169 - 171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Class-E Power Amplifier With Voltage Stress Relief and Enhanced Efficiency
Abstract:
This paper proposes a class-E power amplifier (PA) with double-resonance circuit to reduce voltage stress on CMOS transistors. The voltage waveform applied to the CMOS transistor is shaped by harmonic control and the transistors are relieved from breakdowns. A negative capacitance is also implemented for efficiency enhancement, compensating for surplus capacitance from parasitic components on the drain node. Thus, nominal class-E operation is restored and high efficiency is achieved. We present a cascode differential class-E RF PA that is fabricated using a 0.13- m CMOS technology that delivers 31.5-dBm output power with 54% drain efficiency and 51% power-added efficiency at 1.8 GHz.
Autors: Song, Y.;Lee, S.;Cho, E.;Lee, J.;Nam, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 310 - 317
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact HTS Duplexer for Communication Application
Abstract:
A compact L-band high temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip input duplexer for satellite communication application has been developed. The duplexer has two output channels with center frequencies at 1200 and 1250 MHz, respectively. It was fabricated on a single piece of 2-in double-sided YBCO thin film on substrate with a dimension of 26 42 mm. The duplexer consists of a T-junction and two bandpass filters, i.e., a ten-pole filter and an eight-pole filter for the two transmission channels, respectively. Both of the two HTS bandpass filters were specially designed to suppress the second-harmonic spurious passband. Moreover, an HTS bandstop filter is added to the duplexer to improve the out-of-band rejection at a special frequency band. As a result of the preceding special designs, in addition to a very low insertion loss (0.2 dB), considerably sharp band edge (21 dB/MHz), and good voltage standing wave ratio (better than 1.4:1), much deeper out-of-band rejection (more than 75 dB) can be realized in a much wider frequency range, i.e., up to 3 GHz, which is almost three times above the center frequency of the passbands. Although all the elements of the duplexer are integrated within a single-piece YBCO film and the layout is compact, excellent isolation (higher than 80 dB) between the two channels has still been achieved.
Autors: Zhang, Q.;Bian, Y.;Guo, J.;Cui, B.;Wang, J.;Yu, T.;Gao, L.;Wang, Y.;Li, C.;Zhang, X.;Li, H.;Gao, C.;He, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 20, issue:1, pages: 2 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact printed monopole antenna for WLAN and WiMAX applications
Abstract:
A compact printed monopole antenna for WLAN and WiMAX applications is proposed. By combining symmetrical G-shaped strips and a coupling-fed plate, fed by a 50 [Omega] microstrip transmission line, wide impedance bandwidths covering WLAN/2.4/5.2 and WiMAX/5.75 are achieved. The omnidirectional pattern and good gain over the operating bands have been obtained by the fabricated antenna with a compact size of 20 × 34.5 mm2, which is suitable for wireless communication applications. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52:857-861, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25060
Autors: Zhiya Zhang, Guang Fu, Shaoli Zuo
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A compact tri-band PIFA antenna for WLAN and WiMAX applications
Abstract:
A tri-band planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) for WLAN and WiMAX applications is proposed.By combining F-T-shaped slots in the radiating structure and using a trapezoidal feeding plate, three resonant modes are generated and impedance bandwidth of the antenna is enhanced. The fabricated radiation patch has a compact size of 25 × 11 × 8 mm3 with a rectangular ground plate of 26 × 40 mm2. For S11 less than -10 dB, the antenna operates at 2.45 GHz with a bandwidth of 170 MHz, and at 5.2 GHz with a bandwidth of 750 MHz for WLAN application, and at 5.75 GHz with a bandwidth of 540 MHz for WiMAX application. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52:919-922, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25052
Autors: Shaoli Zuo, Yingzeng Yin, Zhiya Zhang, Weijun Wu
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A comparison of plasma-induced damage on the reliability between high-k/metal-gate and SiO2/poly-gate complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology
Abstract:
This study examines the effects of plasma-induced damage (PID) both on advanced SiO2/poly-gate and Hf-based high-k/dual metal-gates transistors processed with advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In addition to the gate dielectric degradations, this study demonstrates the PID impacts on transistor reliability including the positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) of n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and the negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) of p-channel MOSFETs with gate dielectric thickness scaling. This study shows that high-k/metal-gate transistors are more robust against PID than conventional SiO2/poly-gate transistors with similar physical thickness. Finally this study proposes a model that successfully explains the observed experimental...
Autors: Wu-Te, Weng , Yao-Jen, Lee , Horng-Chih, Lin , Tiao-Yuan, Huang
Appeared in: Solid-State Electronics
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A compass in every smartphone
Abstract:
Cheaper, better electronic compasses bring augmented reality and other features to your handset
Autors: Jones, W.D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 47, issue:2, pages: 12 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Competitive Mechanism of Unit Maintenance Scheduling in a Deregulated Environment
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel mechanism for unit maintenance scheduling (UMS) in the deregulated environment, based on the different functions of power producers and the independent system operator (ISO). The proposed scheme aims to achieve a tradeoff between ensuring the producers' benefits and maintaining the system reliability, providing satisfactory maintenance windows and cost-reflective reward/charge to individual producers.
Autors: Feng, C.;Wang, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 351 - 359
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A comprehensive analytical study of an undoped symmetrical double-gate MOSFET after considering quantum confinement parameter
Abstract:
This paper presents analytical models of threshold voltage, carrier concentration and drain current for undoped symmetrical double-gate (SDG) MOS devices. The analytical models are derived after solving the Poisson's equation under Gradual Channel Approximation (GCA). Quantum mechanical effect in ultrathin silicon film is studied by introducing quantum confinement parameter and quantum corrected potential in the Poisson's equation instead of solving complex Schrödinger-Poisson's equation. The confinement parameter, which depends on film thickness, work function and gate bias decreases with film thickness. Quantum corrected potential attains its maximum value near the interface and minimum value at the centre of the silicon film....
Autors: Tiw Pei, Wen , Ajay Kumar, Singh
Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A comprehensive framework for performance analysis of cooperative multi-hop wireless systems over log-normal fading channels
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework for performance analysis of multi-hop multi-branch wireless communication systems over Log-Normal fading channels. The framework allows to estimate the performance of Amplify and Forward (AF) relay methods for both Channel State Information (CSI¿) assisted relays, and fixed¿gain relays. In particular, the contribution of this paper is twofold: i) first of all, by relying on the Gauss Quadrature Rule (GQR) representation of the Moment Generation Function (MGF) for a Log-Normal distribution, we develop accurate formulas for important performance indexes whose accuracy can be estimated a priori and just depends on GQR numerical integration errors; ii) then, in order to simplify the computational burden of the former framework for some system setups, we propose various approximations, which are based on the Improved Schwartz¿Yeh (I¿SY) method. We show with numerical and simulation results that the proposed approximations provide a good trade¿off between accuracy and complexity for both Selection Combining (SC) and Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) cooperative diversity methods.
Autors: Renzo, M.D.;Graziosi, F.;Santucci, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 531 - 544
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A computational approach to stability of polytopic families of quasi-polynomials with single delay
Abstract:
This paper addresses stability of families of linear, time-invariant systems with single time delay. The families are generated by system parameters uncertain within known intervals, and appearing linearly (affinely) in the systems' characteristic functions, which are quasi-polynomials. First, easily implementable conditions for delay-independent stability for such families are given. Later, for families that fail to be stable independently of delay, a computationally tractable method is presented to compute all possible time-delay intervals for which the families are stable. The method is based on the edge theorem and provides the complete stability picture of a given family. Numerical examples illustrate the application of the method. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autors: [Idot]lhan Tuzcu
Appeared in: International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A concept of voice guided general aviation aircraft
Abstract:
Tomasz, Rogalski , Robert, Wielgat
Autors: Source: Aerospace Science and Technology, In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 21 February 2010
Appeared in: Aerospace Science and Technology
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A contour-mode film bulk acoustic resonator of high quality factor in a liquid environment for biosensing applications
Abstract:
This letter reports an acoustic resonator of high quality factors (Qs) operating in liquid media. The film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is made of a ring-shaped piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin film, and is excited in a contour mode. By having a low motional resistance upon coupling with liquids, the contour mode FBAR achieved Qs up to 189, more than 12× over the state-of-the-art FBARs in liquids. The resonator was characterized by an aptamer—thrombin binding pair for a biosensor and showed a mass resolution of 1.78 ng/cm2.
Autors: Xu, Wencheng;Choi, Seokheun;Chae, Junseok;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 96, issue:5, pages: 053703 - 053703-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cross-Type Thermal Wind Sensor With Self-Testing Function
Abstract:
A 2-D smart flow sensor with self-testing function was designed, fabricated and tested in this paper. It is composed of cross-structure heaters and four symmetrically located sensing parts. When the flow angle changes in the clockwise direction, the temperature differences among the four parts, namely Mode 1 given by T13(T24) and Model 2 given by T12(T14) will be Sine(Cosine) functions of wind direction. Further study shows that the magnitude of mode 1 is 1.414 times that of Mode 2, and the phase of Mode 2 leads Mode 1 by 45°. By using the fixed phase gap between the two modes, the self-test function can be realized without additional components. In order to achieve a high sensitivity and robust sensor, thermal insulated substrate was introduced to fabricate calorimetric flow sensor instead of silicon wafers. The proposed sensor was fabricated on the Pyrex7740 substrate using single liftoff process. Finally, a wind tunnel test was carried out in constant power (CP) mode, and the test results show reasonable agreement with the simulation curves.
Autors: Guang-Ping Shen;Ming Qin;Qing-An Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 340 - 346
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decentralized Observer for Ship Power System Applications: Implementation and Experimental Validation
Abstract:
In the last few years, the growing complexity of the electrical power networks, mainly due to the increased use of electronic converters together with the requirements of a higher level of reliability and security, pushed the development of new techniques for the state estimation of the power systems. In this paper, the authors focus their attention on the implementation and experimental validation of a decentralized observer for the state estimation in an electric ship, whose power network is characterized by fast dynamics and by the presence of many electronic devices. The proposed solution implements a decentralized information filter (DIF).
Autors: Benigni, A.;D'Antona, G.;Ghisla, U.;Monti, A.;Ponci, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 59, issue:2, pages: 440 - 449
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decision Method for Placement of Tactile Elements on a Sensor Glove for the Recognition of Grasp Types
Abstract:
We describe a decision method for effective placement of tactile elements for grasp-type recognition. Not only does the placement decided by our method require a small number of tactile elements, it also achieves recognition performance as high as placements consisting of many elements. The placement decided by the method is evaluated through experiments involving the recognition of grasp type from the two types of grasp taxonomy defined by Cutkosky and Kamakura. The proposed method is extended by applying a decision tree pruning. The pruning is useful for reducing the number of selected tactile elements without badly dropping the recognition rate.
Autors: Murakami, K.;Matsuo, K.;Hasegawa, T.;Kurazume, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 157 - 162
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Delay-Tolerant Potential-Field-Based Network Implementation of an Integrated Navigation System
Abstract:
Network controllers (NCs) are devices that are capable of converting dynamic, spatially extended, and functionally specialized modules into a taskable goal-oriented group called networked control system. This paper examines the practical aspects of designing and building an NC that uses the Internet as a communication medium. It focuses on finding compatible controller components that can be integrated via a host structure in a manner that makes it possible to network, in real-time, a webcam, an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), and a remote computer server along with the necessary operator software interface. The aim is to deskill the UGV navigation process and yet maintain a robust performance. The structure of the suggested controller, its components, and the manner in which they are interfaced are described. Thorough experimental results along with performance assessment and comparisons to a previously implemented NC are provided.
Autors: Gupta, R. A.;Masoud, A. A.;Chow, M.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 57, issue:2, pages: 769 - 783
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Differential State-Space Approach to Simultaneous Emulation of Uncertainties and Disturbances in Voltage-Controlled Brushless Motors
Abstract:
A method that allows emulation of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances without any mechanical and electrical parts supplementary to the electric drive is proposed. The emulating signal reflecting the desired changes is created in software and added to the nominal controller output, forcing the unperturbed motor output to resemble the output of a motor with actual uncertainties and disturbances. The proposed method allows simultaneous emulation of any combination of parameter variations and unpredicted disturbances. The method can be related to a class of advanced hardware-in-the-loop simulations, where the nominal hardware is present in the test bed in addition to the controller. The technique can be used to thoroughly test the performance of advanced control algorithms before mass production or for didactic purposes in an educational laboratory using motion control kits found on the market. Simulation and experimental results are reported to prove the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Autors: Kuperman, A.;Horen, Y.;Tapuchi, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 57, issue:2, pages: 727 - 734
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Discrete-Time Digital-IF Interference-Robust Ultrawideband Pulse Radio Transceiver Architecture
Abstract:
This paper discusses the challenges in ultrawideband pulse radio transceiver design and proposes an architecture operating between 3.1 and 10.6 GHz to address them. The 7.5-GHz band is subdivided into multiple channels of 500 MHz each to relax the requirements for pulse generation, transceiver synchronization, and group-delay flatness. The pulse bases for these channels are stored in digital memories and are used for pulse generation on the transmit side and correlation on the receive side. The transceiver can operate in combination with a fast interferer detector that quickly sweeps through the channels to determine which channels are occupied by large interferers and are thus unsuitable for communication. The all-digital pulse bases allow the transceiver to quickly switch between different channels to avoid interferers without needing multiple or, alternatively, broadband fast-settling phase-locked loops. The frequency plan allows the most critical 802.11 interferers to be pushed to higher frequencies during the first block downconversion where they are attenuated by the low-pass filters of the receiver. The wideband intermediate-frequency correlation architecture significantly relaxes the speed requirement of the digital circuit and the local memories. Several signal-processing techniques to eliminate sampling images in the transmitter as well as spurious image responses in the receiver are also presented. The proposed architecture is digitally intensive and, hence, can take advantage of technology scaling.
Autors: Jha, A.;Zhang, F.;Hsieh, T.-L.;Gharpurey, R.;Kinget, P. R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 57, issue:2, pages: 481 - 494
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Actor-Critic Algorithm and Applications to Mobile Sensor Network Coordination Problems
Abstract:
We introduce and establish the convergence of a distributed actor-critic method that orchestrates the coordination of multiple agents solving a general class of a Markov decision problem. The method leverages the centralized single-agent actor-critic algorithm of and uses a consensus-like algorithm for updating agents' policy parameters. As an application and to validate our approach we consider a reward collection problem as an instance of a multi-agent coordination problem in a partially known environment and subject to dynamical changes and communication constraints.
Autors: Pennesi, P.;Paschalidis, I. Ch.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 492 - 497
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distribution Power Flow Experiment for Outreach Education
Abstract:
This paper presents a distribution power flow experiment for use in outreach education. The work was adapted from an existing power flow experiment by Yang to target non-engineers with diverse educational backgrounds. Critical educational outcomes were identified. An iterative design process was developed to build the experiment. Subsequently, new laboratory activities and interactive manuals were created. Assessment surveys were designed for evaluation purposes. Feedback results from 26 participants are presented.
Autors: Miu, K.;Cecchi, V.;Kleinberg, M.;Deese, A.;Tong, M.;Kleinberg, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 3 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A do-it-yourself approach to securing patent protection, part 1 in a series on protecting your inventions with limited resources
Abstract:
This series will present some procedural guidance for inventors and entrepreneurs who would otherwise either not pursue protection for their inventions, or would file a patent application pro se without the input of a qualified patent practitioner. Having a professional patent practitioner draft and file a patent application can be beyond the budget of many inventors. The topics discussed in the series will focus exclusively on patents and will not cover other forms of intellectual property (IP) such as trademarks and copyrights. The series will provide tips for such inventors in order to minimize the risk of: devaluing an invention, jeopardizing chances of allowance of a patent during prosecution, having a patent application being deemed unpatentable or lacking enablement, or having a patent being deemed unenforceable against infringement. The material presented here is meant to be informational and in no way serves as legal advice. Individuals who are interested in discussing their innovations in detail should consult a qualified patent practitioner. Part 1 of the series explores the issues involved in securing provisional patent protection at the nascent stage of invention. This is a way to defer costs for inventors and entrepreneurs. I explain the Provisional Patent Application (PPA), patentability requirements including what defines a patentable invention, how to search for patentability, and a suitable PPA disclosure.
Autors: Mouallem, R.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 20 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Band Self-Oscillating Mixer for -Band and -Band Applications
Abstract:
A self-oscillating mixer that employs both the fundamental and harmonic signals generated by the oscillator subcircuit in the mixing process is experimentally demonstrated. The resulting circuit is a dual-band down-converting mixer that can operate in -band from 5.0 to 6.0 GHz, or in -band from 9.8 to 11.8 GHz. The oscillator uses active superharmonic coupling to enforce the quadrature relationship of the fundamental outputs. Either the fundamental outputs of the oscillator or the second harmonic oscillator output signals that exists at the common-mode nodes are connected to the mixer via a set of complementary switches. The mixer achieves a conversion gain between 5–12 dB in both frequency bands. The output 1-dB compression points for both modes of the mixer are approximately and the output third-order intercept point for -band and -band operation are 12 and 13 dBm, respectively. The integrated circuit was fabricated in 0.13- CMOS technology and measures including bonding pads.
Autors: Jackson, B. R.;Saavedra, C. E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 318 - 323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamically Constrained Multiobjective Genetic Fuzzy System for Regression Problems
Abstract:
In this paper, a multiobjective genetic fuzzy system (GFS) to learn the granularities of fuzzy partitions, tuning the membership functions (MFs), and learning the fuzzy rules is presented. It uses dynamic constraints, which enable three-parameter MF tuning to improve the accuracy while guaranteeing the transparency of fuzzy partitions. The fuzzy models (FMs) are initialized by a method that combines the benefits of Wang–Mendel (WM) and decision-tree algorithms. Thus, the initial FMs have less rules, rule conditions, and input variables than if WM initialization were to be used. Moreover, the fuzzy partitions of initial FMs are always transparent. Our approach is tested against recent multiobjective and monoobjective GFSs on six benchmark problems. It is concluded that the accuracy and interpretability of our FMs are always comparable or better than those in the comparative studies. Furthermore, on some benchmark problems, our approach clearly outperforms some comparative approaches. Suitability of our approach for higher dimensional problems is shown by studying three benchmark problems that have up to 21 input variables.
Autors: Pulkkinen, P.;Koivisto, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 161 - 177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Family of Fuzzy Learning Algorithms for Robust Principal Component Analysis Neural Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we analyze Xu and Yuille’s robust principal component analysis (RPCA) learning algorithms by means of the distance measurement in space. Based on the analysis, a family of fuzzy RPCA learning algorithms is proposed, which is robust against outliers. These algorithms can explicitly be understood from the viewpoint of fuzzy set theory, though Xu and Yuille’s algorithms were proposed based on a statistical physics approach. In the proposed algorithms, an adaptive learning procedure overcomes the difficulty of selection of learning parameters in Xu and Yuille’s algorithms. Furthermore, the robustness of proposed algorithms is investigated by using the theory of influence functions. Simulations are carried out to illustrate the robustness of these algorithms.
Autors: Lv, J. C.;Tan, K. K.;Yi, Z.;Huang, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 217 - 226
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Local Index for Online Estimation of Closeness to Loadability Limit
Abstract:
Closeness to the nose point of - curve, or loadability limit (LL), and voltage instability is one of the main concerns of modern power systems. Hence, online evaluation of LL has attracted the interest of researchers in recent years. This letter introduces a simple local index for online estimation of closeness to LL, using two consecutive scalar local measurements. This index is achieved based on the fact that variation of the load apparent power is zero at LL. The index is suitable for implementation in numerical relays to stimulate local control actions to prevent voltage instability, and in the system control center for system-wide coordinated analysis and control measures. Simulation results on the IEEE 30-bus test system show the suitability of the proposed index.
Autors: Parniani, M.;Vanouni, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 584 - 585
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fiber-optic UV Sensor Based on a Side-polished Single Mode Fiber Covered with Azobenzene Dye-Doped Polycarbonate
Abstract:
A fiber-optic UV sensor based on azobenzene-dye doped polycarbonate film coated on a side-polished single mode fiber is proposed and demonstrated. The change of the refractive index of the film by exposure to UV results in a shift of the resonance wavelength in the device. The repeatable operation of the sensor is verified. The sensitivity, that is the shift of resonance wavelength per unit UV power density, is measured to be 2.35nm/[mW/cm2]. The response time of the sensor is shown to be 26seconds.
Autors: Kwang Taek, Kim , Nam Il, Moon , Hyun-Kyoung, Kim
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A fixed-lag particle smoother for blind SISO equalization of time-varying channels
Abstract:
We introduce a new sequential importance sampling (SIS) algorithm which propagates in time a Monte Carlo approximation of the posterior fixed-lag smoothing distribution of the symbols under doubly-selective channels. We perform an exact evaluation of the optimal importance distribution, at a reduced computational cost when compared to other optimal solutions proposed for the same state-space model. The method is applied as a soft input¿soft output (SISO) blind equalizer in a turbo receiver framework and simulation results are obtained to show its outstanding BER performance.
Autors: Guimaraes, A.;Ait-El-Fquih, B.;Desbouvries, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 9, issue:2, pages: 512 - 516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Four-Discrete-Position Electromagnetic Actuator: Modeling and Experimentation
Abstract:
In this paper, an electromagnetic actuator having four discrete positions is discussed. The principle, the modeling, and an experimental device of this actuator are presented in this study. This actuator is composed of a mobile permanent magnet, four fixed permanent magnets, which ensure the holding of the discrete positions, and two perpendicular wires to switch independently in two perpendicular directions. The mobile part has four discrete positions, two in each direction. An electromagnetic actuator modeling has been realized to compute the magnetic and electromagnetic forces exerted on the mobile magnet and its displacement. The experimental device was designed using this model and then manufactured. The stroke of the mobile part is 1 mm times 1 mm. The driving current ranges from 3 to 7 A. A comparison between experimental and modeled results is carried out. Good agreement on the displacement curves and on the rise times is observed for all the range of controlling currents.
Autors: Petit, L.;Prelle, C.;Dore, E.;Lamarque, F.;Bigerelle, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 88 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully-Differential Complementary Hartley VCO in 0.18 m CMOS Technology
Abstract:
In this letter, a new complementary Hartley (C-Hartley) voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) with fully differential outputs is proposed, in which the self-biasing configuration is introduced to solve the biasing difficulty of a Hartley VCO by employing a five-port transformer. The proposed C-Hartley VCO with the center frequency of 5.6 GHz is implemented in a 1P6M 0.18 m CMOS process. The measurement result shows that the phase noise is dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset frequency, while dissipating 6.5 mA from 1.6 V supply with the FOM of dBc.
Autors: Park, J.;Choi, Y.;Sim, K.;Baek, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 91 - 93
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A GaAs Junction Varactor With a Continuously Tunable Range of 9 : 1 and an of 57 dBm
Abstract:
In this letter, a junction varactor is presented with a large capacitance tuning range, while providing very high linearity. Such varactors are extremely useful in adaptive RF applications, which directly benefit from passive components with high tuning range and high linearity. Using a preproduction GaAs process technology and third-order intermodulation cancellation techniques, a very linear device is created with a capacitance tuning range as large as 9 : 1 over a control voltage range from 0 to 15 V. Its third-order output intercept point is 57 dBm; the average quality factor is 50, and the breakdown voltage is 28 V. These measured results represent the current state-of-the-art in tuning range, linearity, and quality factor among all existing continuously tunable elements.
Autors: Huang, C.;Zampardi, P. J.;Buisman, K.;Cismaru, C.;Sun, M.;Stevens, K.;Fu, J.;Marchetti, M.;de Vreede, L. C. N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 108 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A generalization of the Poincaré-Miranda theorem with an application to the controllability of nonlinear repetitive processes
Abstract:
In the paper, we prove a generalization of the classical finite-dimensional Poincaré-Miranda theorem to the case of system of a denumerable number of equations. Next, we use the obtained theorem to prove some result on the controllability of nonlinear repetitive processes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley and Sons Asia Pte Ltd and Chinese Automatic Control Society
Autors: D. Idczak, M. Majewski
Appeared in: Asian Journal of Control
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Generalized Formulation for Permittivity Extraction of Low-to-High-Loss Materials From Transmission Measurement
Abstract:
We have derived a one-variable metric function for fast computations of the relative complex permittivity of low-to-high-loss materials from measurement at one frequency. We present how this function can be applied for different applications (e.g., relative complex permittivity measurement of a thin low-loss material). In addition, it can be applied as a measurement tool in broadband applications for samples with substantiate lengths, which demonstrate low-loss property at lower frequency bands and high-loss property at higher frequency bands. The derived expressions can work very well in limited frequency-band applications or for dispersive materials since it is based on point-by-point (or frequency-by-frequency) extraction. We measured the relative complex permittivity of two test samples (a low- and high-loss sample) for validation of the derived expressions.
Autors: Hasar, U. C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 411 - 418
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Gramian-Based Approach to Model Reduction for Uncertain Systems
Abstract:
The technical note considers a problem of model reduction for a class of uncertain systems with structured norm bounded uncertainty. The technical note introduces controllability and observability Gramians in terms of certain parameterized algebraic Riccati inequalities. Based on these Gramians, three model reduction approaches are investigated for the underlying uncertain systems.
Autors: Li, L.;Petersen, I. R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 508 - 514
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A GSPN-Based Approach to Stacked Chips Scheduling Problem
Abstract:
This paper discusses scheduling characteristics unique in stacked chips [including multichip package (MCP) and multidie package (MDP)] production process such as reentrant work flow and synchronization constraint. It also proposes a modeling and analytical framework for stacked chips assembly operations, which is based on the formal framework of generalized stochastic Petri net. This approach allows the seamless integration of the logical and timed dynamics of stacked chip assembly operations in a single representation. Furthermore, the proposed framework supports the analytical representation of the stacked chips scheduling problem as a mathematical programming formulation, which can be effectively solved to optimality through enumerative techniques. The framework presentation and its capabilities are elucidated by detailed application on a small system configuration for MCP.
Autors: Han, Y.-H.;Choi, J. Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 4 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hidden Markov Model With Binned Duration Algorithm
Abstract:
The hidden Markov model with duration (HMMD) is critically important when the distributions on state intervals deviate significantly from the geometric distribution, such as for multimodal distributions and heavy-tailed distributions. Heavy-tailed distributions, in particular, are widespread in describing phenomena across the sciences, where the log-normal, student's-T, and Pareto distributions are heavy-tailed distributions that are almost as common as the normal and geometric distributions in descriptions of physical phenomena or man-made phenomena. The standard hidden Markov model (HMM) constrains state occupancy durations to be geometrically distributed, while HMMD avoids this limitation, but at significant computational expense. We propose a new algorithm, hidden Markov model with binned duration, whose result shows no loss of accuracy compared to the HMMD decoding performance and a computational expense that only differs from the much simpler and faster HMM decoding by a constant factor.
Autors: Winters-Hilt, S.;Jiang, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 948 - 952
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hierarchical RBF Online Learning Algorithm for Real-Time 3-D Scanner
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel real-time online network model is presented. It is derived from the hierarchical radial basis function (HRBF) model and it grows by automatically adding units at smaller scales, where the surface details are located, while data points are being collected. Real-time operation is achieved by exploiting the quasi-local nature of the Gaussian units: through the definition of a quad-tree structure to support their receptive field local network reconfiguration can be obtained. The model has been applied to 3-D scanning, where an updated real-time display of the manifold to the operator is fundamental to drive the acquisition procedure itself. Quantitative results are reported, which show that the accuracy achieved is comparable to that of two batch approaches: batch HRBF and support vector machines (SVMs). However, these two approaches are not suitable to real-time online learning. Moreover, proof of convergence is also given.
Autors: Ferrari, S.;Bellocchio, F.;Piuri, V.;Borghese, N. A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 275 - 285
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A high-current light-ion injector for tandem accelerators
Abstract:
A dual-source injector for tandem accelerators to produce negative ion currents of H, D, and He has been developed and built. The system consists of a central vacuum enclosure that accommodates two multicusp ion sources. Beam currents of several mA of H- and D- have been obtained by direct negative extraction of one of the multicusp ion sources. The yield for He- was optimized applying differentially pumped vacuum sections that support space compensation in the He+ transport section a well as low neutralization loss of He- after charge exchange. In addition, an optimized extraction geometry and beam transport system enabled in excess of 10 mA He+ within the low acceptance of the charge exchange canal. Early measurements yielded ∼50 μA for He- using Li as a charge exchange medium, but currents over 100 μA are anticipated if Na would be used.
Autors: Quax, G. W. W.;Gottdang, A.;Mous, D. J. W.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 81, issue:2, pages: 02A701 - 02A701-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Efficiency Dimmable LED Driver for Low-Power Lighting Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a dimmable light-emitting diode (LED) driver with adaptive feedback control for low-power lighting applications. An improved pulsewidth modulation dimming technique is studied for regulating the LED current and brightness. Under universal input voltage operation, high efficiency and high power factor can be achieved by a coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter power factor correction (PFC) converter with a simple commercial transition-mode PFC controller. The operation principles and design considerations of the studied LED driver are analyzed and discussed. A laboratory prototype is also designed and tested to verify the feasibility.
Autors: Chiu, H.-J.;Lo, Y.-K.;Chen, J.-T.;Cheng, S.-J.;Lin, C.-Y.;Mou, S.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 57, issue:2, pages: 735 - 743
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Linearity Wideband Power Amplifier With Cascaded Third-Order Analog Predistorters
Abstract:
A high-linearity wideband analog predistortion power amplifier (PA) is presented. The memory effects of the PA are reduced by a high drain bias voltage as well as a wide bias line and several decoupling capacitors. The simple cascaded third-order analog predistorters (CTAPDs) are used to cancel the third- and fifth-order intermodulations (IM3s and IM5s) of the low-memory PA. For verification, the 45 W class-AB PA is implemented and tested using a two-tone signal and a four-carrier wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) signals at 2.14 GHz. From the measured results, the low-memory PA with the CTAPDs delivers significant IM3 and IM5 cancellation and superior ACLR improvement.
Autors: Lee, Y.-S.;Lee, M.-W.;Kam, S.-H.;Jeong, Y.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 112 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Temperature Superconducting Magnetic Helix Transmission Mechanism
Abstract:
A novel high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic helix transmission mechanism is introduced to overcome the inevitable friction and wear of a traditional mechanical helix transmission mechanism. It is based on the principle that a high-temperature superconductor can move in one direction with a uniform magnetic field without any resistance. The mechanical property of this mechanism is theoretically studied. Results show that the driving torque and axial carrying capacity are closely dependent on the lead angle of the magnetic bolt.
Autors: Lin, Q;Wang, J;Deng, Z;Ma, G;Jiang, D;Wang, S;Li, F;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 20, issue:1, pages: 8 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid ARIMA and Neural Network Model for Short-Term Price Forecasting in Deregulated Market
Abstract:
In the framework of competitive electricity markets, power producers and consumers need accurate price forecasting tools. Price forecasts embody crucial information for producers and consumers when planning bidding strategies in order to maximize their benefits and utilities, respectively. The choice of the forecasting model becomes the important influence factor on how to improve price forecasting accuracy. This paper provides a hybrid methodology that combines both autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting short-term electricity prices. This method is examined by using the data of Australian national electricity market, New South Wales, in the year 2006. Comparison of forecasting performance with the proposed ARIMA, ANN, and hybrid models are presented. Empirical results indicate that a hybrid ARIMA-ANN model can improve the price forecasting accuracy.
Autors: Areekul, P.;Senjyu, T.;Toyama, H.;Yona, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 524 - 530
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid FLC-EKF Scheme for Temperature Control of a Refinery Debutanizer Column
Abstract:
A nonlinear feedback linearizing control (FLC) strategy is proposed within the differential geometric framework for temperature control of a refinery debutanizer column. The distillation model is verified by real data. The FLC control algorithm usually consists of a transformer, a state estimator and an external linear controller. Here, two state estimators, namely extended Kalman filter (EKF) and short-cut model-based open-loop estimator (SMBOLE), have been developed to device the hybrid FLC-EKF and FLC-SMBOLE control systems, respectively. In order to avoid estimator design complexity as well as computational burden, an ideal binary distillation model [light key (LK)/heavy key (HK)] has been used as an EKF predictor and open-loop estimator (OLE). In this article, a comparative study has been conducted between the FLC-EKF, FLC-SMBOLE and a classical dual-loop proportional integral derivative (PID) control structure. Simulation results show that despite the significant process/model mismatch, the proposed FLC controllers perform better than the PID control scheme.
Autors: Jana, A. K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 6, issue:1, pages: 25 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Network Model for Small Signal Stability Analysis of Power Systems
Abstract:
Small signal stability analysis in a power system is typically concerned with electromechanical oscillations. For this purpose, it is adequate to model the transmission system using a constant admittance matrix. For torsional oscillations and HVDC interactions, the frequency of interest is much higher and the constant admittance representation is not sufficient. This paper proposes a hybrid model, which allows the parts of the transmission network in the vicinity of HVDC converters or any other dynamic devices to be modeled with their dynamics and the remaining parts to be modeled as constant admittances. The proposed hybrid methodology for small signal stability assessment is the main contribution of this paper. The proposed methodology is validated against an electromagnetic transient simulation program (PSCAD/EMTDC) using time responses. The proposed model and two other small signal models are compared against each other in the frequency domain using modal analysis.
Autors: Karawita, C.;Annakkage, U. D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 443 - 451
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A joint early detection-early stopping scheme for short-frame turbo decoding
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel simplified iterative decoding scheme based on the so-called joint early detection-early stopping (JEDES) technique, is investigated for short-frame turbo coding applications. The proposed scheme attains a lower complexity than existing schemes by carefully integrating two known techniques: early detection and associated built-in cyclic redundancy check. Our analysis and simulation results show that for a frame size of 49bits, the proposed JEDES scheme can achieve a complexity saving of over 30% with little performance loss at practical bit and frame error rates compared with previous results. For a longer frame size 169, the proposed JEDES scheme...
Autors: Zheng, Ma , Pingzhi, Fan , Wai Ho, Mow , Qingchun, Chen
Appeared in: AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Li-Ion Battery Charger With Smooth Control Circuit and Built-In Resistance Compensator for Achieving Stable and Fast Charging
Abstract:
A built-in resistance compensator (BRC) technique is presented to speed up the charging time of a lithium-ion battery. A smooth control circuit (SCC) is proposed to ensure the stable transition from the constant-current (CC) to the constant-voltage (CV) stage. Due to the external parasitic resistance of the Li-ion battery-pack system, the charger circuit switches from the CC to the CV stage without fully charging the cell. The BRC technique dynamically estimates the external resistance to extend the CC stage. The experimental results show that the period of the CC stage can be extended to 40% of that of the original design. The charging time is effectively reduced.
Autors: Lin, C.-H.;Hsieh, C.-Y.;Chen, K.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 57, issue:2, pages: 506 - 517
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Life Is Short, a Half-Life Is Forever
Abstract:
What we know about immunization of people against infections has a lot in common with immunization of computers, especially when you ask "What can go wrong?"
Autors: Geer Jr., Daniel E.;Conway, Daniel G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Security & Privacy
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 8, issue:1, pages: 86 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Lightweight Innovation Process for Software-Intensive Product Development
Abstract:
An innovation process using face-to-face screening and idea refinement with heterogeneous audition teams can enhance the longterm perspective of product planning and development.
Autors: Gorschek, T.;Fricker, S.;Palm, K.;Kunsman, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 37 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Loss High Isolation DC-60 GHz SPDT Traveling-Wave Switch With a Body Bias Technique in 90 nm CMOS Process
Abstract:
In this letter, a low loss high isolation broadband single-port double-throw (SPDT) traveling-wave switch using 90 nm CMOS technology is presented. A body bias technique is utilized to enhance the circuit performance of the switch, especially for the operation frequency above 30 GHz. The parasitic capacitance between the drain and source of the NMOS transistor can be further reduced using the negative body bias technique. Moreover, the insertion loss, the input 1 dB compression point ( ), and the third-order intermodulation (IMD3) of the switch are all improved. With the technique, the switch demonstrates an insertion loss of 3 dB and an isolation of better than 48 dB from dc to 60 GHz. The chip size of the proposed switch is 0.68 0.87 with a core area of only 0.32 0.21 .
Autors: Chang, H.-Y.;Chan, C.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 82 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A low noise all-fiber interferometer for high resolution frequency modulated atomic force microscopy imaging in liquids
Abstract:
We have developed a low noise all-fiber interferometer for use as the deflection sensor in liquid environment frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). A detailed description and rationale for the choice of the critical components are provided along with the design of a simple alignment assembly. The optimization of the deflection sensor toward achieving the highest possible sensitivity and lowest deflection noise density is discussed in the context of an ideal interference cavity. Based on the provided analysis we have achieved deflection noise densities of
2 fm/
 Hz
on commercially available cantilevers in both ambient and liquid environments. The low noise interferometer works without the need for differential detection, special focusing lenses, or polarization sensitive optics, dramatically simplifying measurements. True atomic resolution imaging of muscovite mica by FM-AFM in water is demonstrated using the developed deflection sensor.
Autors: Rasool, Haider I.;Wilkinson, Paul R.;Stieg, Adam Z.;Gimzewski, James K.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 81, issue:2, pages: 023703 - 023703-10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A low profile post-type monopole antenna with a ring and four small posts
Abstract:
This article presents a low profile wideband top-loading monopole antenna with a ring and four small post-shape plates. And an inserted ring-shaped plate makes a gap from the post element and leads to enhance wider and higher gain than the conventional top-loading monopole. Four small post-shape plates also lead to obtain higher antenna gain, uniformity radiation patterns. Moreover, top-load also leads to reduce the height of antenna (a small antenna size). The experimental impedance bandwidth is approximately 1.55-2.73 GHz (% bandwidth is 55.14%) below with VSWR [le]2.0. This antenna also presents a wideband, a uniformity radiation patterns characteristic, respectively. The proposed antenna can be applied PCS, DCS, IMT-2000, WLL. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52:910-912, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25086
Autors: Yong-Woong Jang, Hyun-Chul Go, Sang-Woo Lee
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A low-power 2.45GHz WPAN modulator/demodulator
Abstract:
This paper presents the architecture as well as the circuit implementation of a wireless personal area networks (WPAN) modulator/demodulator using 2.45GHz band compliant with the physical layer standard of IEEE 802.15.4. A noncoherent demodulation scheme is employed to resolve the complexity and power dissipation problem, where a phase-shift down sampling method is adopted to detect the maximum phase accumulation which is the location of the correct data. A prototypical system on silicon with core area of 0.39mm2 has been realized by using CMOS process. The packet error rate (PER) is measured to be <1% given the SNR of 9dB....
Autors: Chua-Chin, Wang , Gang-Neng, Sung , Jian-Ming, Huang , Lung-Hsuan, Lee , Chih-Peng, Li
Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Low-Power Linear SiGe BiCMOS Low-Noise Amplifier for Millimeter-Wave Active Imaging
Abstract:
This letter presents a low-power linear and wideband two-stage millimeter-wave low-noise amplifier (LNA) fabricated in a low-cost 0.18 SiGe BiCMOS technology. Design techniques utilized to optimize the gain and NF and to achieve high linearity and wideband at W-band are addressed. The LNA achieves a peak power gain of 14.5 dB at 77 GHz with a 3 dB bandwidth of 14.5 GHz from 69 to 83.5 GHz. The measured NF is 6.9 dB at 77 GHz and is lower than 8 dB from 64 to 81 GHz. Both input and output return losses are better than 11 dB and 17 dB at 77 GHz, respectively. The measured input 1 dB compression point is 11.4 dBm at 77 GHz with low power consumption of only 37 mW.
Autors: Chen, A. Y.-K.;Baeyens, Y.;Chen, Y.-K.;Lin, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 103 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Low-Cost Fully-Integrated 60-GHz Transceiver System With OOK Modulation and On-Board Antenna Assembly
Abstract:
A fully-integrated 60-GHz transceiver system with on-board antenna assembly is presented. Incorporating on-off keying (OOK) and low-cost antenna designs, this prototype demonstrates a low-power solution for multi-Gb/s wireless communication. The enhanced OOK modulator/demodulator obviates baseband and interface circuitry, revealing a compact solution. Two antenna structures, folded dipole and patch array, are employed to fully examine the performance. Designed and fabricated in 90-nm CMOS technology, the transmitter and the receiver consume 183 and 103 mW and occupy 0.43 and 0.68 , respectively. With 4 3 patch antenna array, the transceiver achieves error-free operation for PRBS of 1 Gb/s over a distance of 60 cm.
Autors: Lee, J.;Chen, Y.;Huang, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 45, issue:2, pages: 264 - 275
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Self-Forward-Body-Bias CMOS LNA for 3–6.5-GHz UWB Receivers
Abstract:
A low-power low-noise amplifier (LNA) implemented in 0.18 m CMOS technology utilizing a self-forward-body-bias (SFBB) technique is proposed for UWB low-frequency band system. By using the SFBB technique, it reduces supply voltage as well as saves additional bias circuits, which leads to low power consumption of 4.5 mW with low supply voltage of 1.06 V for two drain-to-source voltage drops. The complementary architecture and direct coupling technique between the first two stages also save bias circuits. The measurement result shows that the proposed LNA presents a maximum power gain of 16 dB with a good input impedance matching ( dB) and an average noise figure of 2.65 dB in the frequency range of 3–6.5 GHz.
Autors: Li, C.-M.;Li, M.-T.;He, K.-C.;Tarng, J.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 100 - 102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A matrix game model for analyzing FTR bidding strategies in deregulated electric power markets
Abstract:
Suppliers in deregulated electric power markets compete for financial transmission rights (FTRs) to hedge against congestion charges. The system operator receives the bids for FTRs submitted by the suppliers and develops an allocation strategy by solving an optimization model. Each FTR bid is defined by a path, a quantity indicating the amount of FTRs the supplier is bidding for in that path, and the price that the supplier is willing to pay for each FTR. The FTR revenue is calculated only after the electricity market has been cleared by computing the differences in the LMPs at the pair of nodes...
Autors: Tapas K., Das , Patricio, Rocha , Cihan, Babayigit
Appeared in: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Mechanism for Dependence of Refresh Time on Data Pattern in DRAM
Abstract:
We measured the refresh time (tREF) according to data patterns for several dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips. The measured tREF depends on the cell data pattern; moreover, these have their own dependences, which differ for several DRAM chips. We analyzed these phenomena in terms of both refresh and offset measurements, and our novel result was that tREF dependence on data patterns is determined by both a cell leakage mechanism and an offset by sensing noise.
Autors: Lee, M. J.;Park, K. W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 168 - 170
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A MEMS micromirror driven by electrostatic force
Abstract:
A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micromirror is demonstrated in this paper. The micromirror is actuated by an electrostatic force and can achieve a large out of plane stroke by eliminating the electrostatic pull-in effect. The micromirror consists of a mirror of 400 ?m by 400 ?m in the center, a spring and three fixed bottom electrodes each side. Design principles and the analytical model are both developed, and they are verified by finite element analysis (FEA). The resonant frequency for the piston movement of the designed micromirror is about 2.5 kHz by FEA simulation. The micromirror prototype has been fabricated by a surface micromachining...
Autors: Fangrong, Hu , Jun, Yao , Chuankai, Qiu , Hao, Ren
Appeared in: Journal of Electrostatics
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Merged CMOS Digital Near-End Crosstalk Canceller and Analog Equalizer for Multi-Lane Serial-Link Receivers
Abstract:
A digital near-end crosstalk (NEXT) canceller merged with an analog equalizer for multi-lane serial-link receivers has been realized in 0.13 CMOS technology. By applying the proposed sign-sign block least-mean-square (SSB-LMS) circuit, a 5 Gb/s pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) of 2 1 suffered from both the channel loss and NEXT over 10- and 20-inch FR4 traces with the width of 5-mil and the spacing of 7-mil is successfully equalized. The measured bit error rate (BER) is 10 and the measured maximum peak-to-peak jitter is 49.7 ps. This chip occupies 0.56 0.76 and the whole circuit including buffers consumes 177 mW from a 1.2 V supply.
Autors: Lu, J.-H.;Liu, S.-I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 45, issue:2, pages: 433 - 446
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Metal-Only-ECO Solver for Input-Slew and Output-Loading Violations
Abstract:
To reduce the time-to-market and photomask cost for advanced process technologies, metal-only economic cooperation organization (ECO) has become a practical and attractive solution to handle incremental design changes. Due to limited spare cells in metal-only ECO, the new added netlist may often violate the input-slew and output-loading constraints and, in turn, delay or even fail the timing closure. This paper presents a framework, named metal-only ECO slew/cap solver (MOESS), to resolve the input-slew and output-loading violations by connecting spare cells onto the violated nets as buffers. MOESS performs two buffer-insertion schemes in a sequential manner to first minimize the number of inserted buffers and then resolve timing violations, if any. The experimental results based on industrial designs demonstrate that MOESS can resolve more violations with fewer inserted buffers and less central processing unit runtime compared to an electronic design automation vendor's solution.
Autors: Lu, C.-P.;Chao, M. C.-T.;Lo, C.-H.;Chang, C. W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 240 - 245
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Compact Image Representation Using Sparse Matrix and Tensor Projections Onto Exemplar Orthonormal Bases
Abstract:
We present a new method for compact representation of large image datasets. Our method is based on treating small patches from a 2-D image as matrices as opposed to the conventional vectorial representation, and encoding these patches as sparse projections onto a set of exemplar orthonormal bases, which are learned a priori from a training set. The end result is a low-error, highly compact image/patch representation that has significant theoretical merits and compares favorably with existing techniques (including JPEG) on experiments involving the compression of ORL and Yale face databases, as well as a database of miscellaneous natural images. In the context of learning multiple orthonormal bases, we show the easy tunability of our method to efficiently represent patches of different complexities. Furthermore, we show that our method is extensible in a theoretically sound manner to higher-order matrices (“tensors”). We demonstrate applications of this theory to compression of well-known color image datasets such as the GaTech and CMU-PIE face databases and show performance competitive with JPEG. Lastly, we also analyze the effect of image noise on the performance of our compression schemes.
Autors: Gurumoorthy, K. S.;Rajwade, A.;Banerjee, A.;Rangarajan, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Publication date: Feb 2010, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 322 - 334
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A method for operation of a residential fuel cell system with super capacitor storage and its application to an energy network
Abstract:
We propose electric double-layer capacitor storage, which has quick response in the output or input of electricity but has a smaller capacity than normal secondary batteries, by application to a residential fuel cell cogeneration system to reduce spike-shaped electric power consumption. The method is expected to enhance the system utilization rate and to moderate the burdens on a power grid connected to fuel cells or other distributed generators. A low-pass filter method was introduced for balancing the power supply and demand, and leveling the power input from the grid. According to simulations performed using practically measured load patterns, the appropriate storage capacity is about 500 Wh for a household, and the fuel cell utilization rate or the grid burden improvement is increased by around 40% in comparison with the case of a system without storage capacity. It has been shown that, in an energy network method of five or more households, the storage capacity can be reduced to approximately 40% with extreme burden improvement of less than 90% of the stand-alone condition. We have also verified the practical operation and the performance of the method by using an experimental system. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 171(3): 16-27, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (). DOI 10.1002/eej.20913
Autors: Yusuke Doi, Masayoshi Ishida, Hirohisa Aki
Appeared in: Electrical Engineering in Japan
Publication date: Feb 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 

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  2009:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

 
0-C     D-L     M-R     S-Z