Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2018 sorted by title, page: 8

» Enhanced Hydrated Lime—A Simple Solution for Acid Gas Compliance
Abstract:
The U.S. landscape of environmental regulations is complex and continues to evolve requiring more stringent acid gas emission limits than ever. Current regulations include acid gas emission requirements via the Portland Cement National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants, consent decrees, and revised operating permits, where operational modifications are made requiring additional acid gas removal. As a result of the need to comply with these increasingly stringent acid gas emission limits, there is a growing desire for a relatively simple solution. Dry sorbent injection (DSI) technology offers a low capital cost solution with a relatively small equipment footprint, low power consumption, and ease of retrofit to a majority of existing facilities. As DSI technology has matured, the systems have become more reliable and advancements in calcium based sorbents have provided new compliance solutions that were not available in past years. The optimization of the physical properties of enhanced hydrated lime products has demonstrated upward of 90% sulfur dioxide and 95+% hydrochloric acid reduction with the DSI technology over a range of applications, and has been consistently successful achieving cement plant's acid gas removal needs to meet their regulatory requirements.
Autors: Gerald Hunt;Johan J. Heiszwolf;Melissa Sewell;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 796 - 807
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Enhancement of Luminous Efficiency and Uniformity of CCT for Quantum Dot-Converted LEDs by Incorporating With ZnO Nanoparticles
Abstract:
ZnO nanoparticles were incorporated into quantum dot (QD)-silicone encapsulation materials of the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to exploit their strong scattering effect, which were proved by the ZnO-only film experiment. The novel packaging scheme led to a decrease in the radiation flux because of the conversion-energy loss of QDs and backscattering of ZnO nanoparticles. Under the similar color coordinate, the luminous flux of the ZnO-incorporated QD-LED showed a 3.37% increase compared to the conventional structure. This was attributed to the scattering effect, which enhanced the utilization of blue light and the conversion of yellow light. And the angular-dependent correlated color temperature (CCT) deviation was reduced from 862 to 712 K in the range of −70° to 70°. Moreover, the CCT monotonically decreased, and the chromaticity coordinate steadily shifted to the yellow region as the amount of ZnO nanoparticles increased. Therefore, ZnO nanoparticles can be a favorable optical performance enhancer for the future generation of QD-converted LEDs.
Autors: Yong Tang;Zhi Li;Zong-Tao Li;Jia-Sheng Li;Shu-Dong Yu;Long-Shi Rao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 158 - 164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Enhancing Detection of SSVEPs for a High-Speed Brain Speller Using Task-Related Component Analysis
Abstract:
Objective: This study proposes and evaluates a novel data-driven spatial filtering approach for enhancing steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) detection toward a high-speed brain-computer interface (BCI) speller. Methods: Task-related component analysis (TRCA), which can enhance reproducibility of SSVEPs across multiple trials, was employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of SSVEP signals by removing background electroencephalographic (EEG) activities. An ensemble method was further developed to integrate TRCA filters corresponding to multiple stimulation frequencies. This study conducted a comparison of BCI performance between the proposed TRCA-based method and an extended canonical correlation analysis (CCA)-based method using a 40-class SSVEP dataset recorded from 12 subjects. An online BCI speller was further implemented using a cue-guided target selection task with 20 subjects and a free-spelling task with 10 of the subjects. Results: The offline comparison results indicate that the proposed TRCA-based approach can significantly improve the classification accuracy compared with the extended CCA-based method. Furthermore, the online BCI speller achieved averaged information transfer rates (ITRs) of 325.33 ± 38.17 bits/min with the cue-guided task and 198.67 ± 50.48 bits/min with the free-spelling task. Conclusion: This study validated the efficiency of the proposed TRCA-based method in implementing a high-speed SSVEP-based BCI. Significance: The high-speed SSVEP-based BCIs using the TRCA method have great potential for various applications in communication and control.
Autors: Masaki Nakanishi;Yijun Wang;Xiaogang Chen;Yu-Te Wang;Xiaorong Gao;Tzyy-Ping Jung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 104 - 112
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Entropy Bounds on Abelian Groups and the Ruzsa Divergence
Abstract:
Over the past few years, a family of interesting new inequalities for the entropies of sums and differences of random variables has been developed by Ruzsa, Tao, and others, motivated by analogous results in additive combinatorics. This paper extends these earlier results to the case of random variables taking values in or, more generally, in arbitrary locally compact and Polish abelian groups. We isolate and study a key quantity, the Ruzsa divergence between two probability distributions, and we show that its properties can be used to extend the earlier inequalities to the present general setting. The new results established include several variations on the theme that the entropies of the sum and the difference of two independent random variables severely constrain each other. Although the setting is quite general, the results are already of interest (and new) for random vectors in . In that special case, we discuss quantitative bounds for the stability of the equality conditions in the entropy power inequality, a reverse entropy power inequality for log-concave random vectors, an information-theoretic analog of the Rogers–Shephard inequality for convex bodies, and consequences of some of our results to determinant inequalities for sums of positive-definite matrices. Moreover, by considering various multiplicative subgroups of the complex plane, one obtains new inequalities for the differential entropies of products and ratios of nonzero, complex-valued random variables.
Autors: Mokshay Madiman;Ioannis Kontoyiannis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 77 - 92
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Equivalent Surface Impedance-Based Mixed Potential Integral Equation Accelerated by Optimized $cal {H}$ -Matrix for 3-D Interconnects
Abstract:
The equivalent surface impedance (ESI)-based mixed potential integral equation (MPIE) is proposed in this paper for parameter extraction of 3-D interconnects. Boundary integral equations (BIEs) describing the conductor region and the nonconductor region are utilized to derive the ESI model, which incorporates with an MPIE to simplify the electromagnetic simulation. For large-scale problems, the solution of MPIE is accelerated by the hierarchical matrix (-matrix) algorithm. Since the interconnect problems usually have multiple ports, the method of moments discretization of MPIE leads to the matrix equation with multiple right-hand sides, which is efficiently solved by the -LU-based direct solution. Procedures for -matrix are optimized to improve the overall efficiency. The proposed method to optimize -matrix benefits both the -matrix construction and the -LU procedures. The complexities of the CPU time and memory cost for the construction of the optimized -matrix are of , and the complexity for the direct -LU solution is of . Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method is both acc- rate and efficient in a broadband frequency, which is suitable for modeling of 3-D interconnects and on-chip passive structures.
Autors: Yu Zhao;Junfa Mao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 22 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Equivalent-Time Direct-Sampling Impulse-Radio Radar With Rotatable Cyclic Vernier Digital-to-Time Converter for Wireless Sensor Network Localization
Abstract:
This paper presents a rotatable cyclic Vernier digital-to-time converter (DTC) with 1.8 ps timing resolution on an 80 ns time scale. The proposed DTC features high timing resolution, and can be utilized in beam-steering arrays, which is infeasible for ordinary Vernier DTCs. The proposed DTC was implemented within a passive time-equivalent direct-sampling ultra-wideband impulse-radio radar system and was fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology. This radar system is capable of quantizing direct-sampled impulse waveforms to provide full degrees of freedom for backend digital signal processing. The measured differential nonlinearity/integral nonlinearity of the DTC was +4.6/−3 and 12.4/−9.4 where the LSB was 1.8 ps, and the total power consumption was 133 mW. Also, a new method for localization between wireless sensor nodes of equivalent-time direct-sampling radar is presented in this paper; this method can theoretically achieve resolution as high as that of regular radar.
Autors: Shao-Ting Tseng;Hao-Chung Chou;Bo-Syun Hu;Yu-Hsien Kao;Yuan-Hao Huang;Ta-Shun Chu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 485 - 508
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ERFNet: Efficient Residual Factorized ConvNet for Real-Time Semantic Segmentation
Abstract:
Semantic segmentation is a challenging task that addresses most of the perception needs of intelligent vehicles (IVs) in an unified way. Deep neural networks excel at this task, as they can be trained end-to-end to accurately classify multiple object categories in an image at pixel level. However, a good tradeoff between high quality and computational resources is yet not present in the state-of-the-art semantic segmentation approaches, limiting their application in real vehicles. In this paper, we propose a deep architecture that is able to run in real time while providing accurate semantic segmentation. The core of our architecture is a novel layer that uses residual connections and factorized convolutions in order to remain efficient while retaining remarkable accuracy. Our approach is able to run at over 83 FPS in a single Titan X, and 7 FPS in a Jetson TX1 (embedded device). A comprehensive set of experiments on the publicly available Cityscapes data set demonstrates that our system achieves an accuracy that is similar to the state of the art, while being orders of magnitude faster to compute than other architectures that achieve top precision. The resulting tradeoff makes our model an ideal approach for scene understanding in IV applications. The code is publicly available at: https://github.com/Eromera/erfnet
Autors: Eduardo Romera;José M. Álvarez;Luis M. Bergasa;Roberto Arroyo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 263 - 272
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Error Vector Magnitude Analysis in Generalized Fading With Co-Channel Interference
Abstract:
In this paper, we derive the data-aided error vector magnitude (EVM) in an interference limited system when both the desired channel and interferers experience independent and nonidentically distributed shadowed fading. Then, it is analytically shown that the EVM is equal to the square root of number of interferers when the desired channel and interferers do not experience fading. Furthermore, the EVM is derived in the presence of interference and noise, when the desired channel experiences shadowed fading and the interferers experience independent and identical Nakagami fading. Moreover, using the properties of the special functions, the derived EVM expressions are also simplified for various special cases.
Autors: Sudharsan Parthasarathy;Suman Kumar;Radha Krishna Ganti;Sheetal Kalyani;K. Giridhar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 345 - 354
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Error-Free Operation in a Hybrid-Silicon Quantum Dot Comb Laser
Abstract:
We investigate amplitude noise in a wafer-bonded quantum dot laser on silicon. Error-free operation at room temperature and under continuous current injection in the three highest-power channels is observed with a signal-to-noise ratio of 11.5 dB or larger. These devices are attractive candidates as an optical engine for interconnects in next-generation data centers and exascale computers.
Autors: Geza Kurczveil;M. Ashkan Seyedi;Di Liang;Marco Fiorentino;Raymond G. Beausoleil;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 71 - 74
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Essential Measurements for Finite Element Simulations of Magnetostrictive Materials
Abstract:
We discuss which magnetoelastic material properties are essential to measure in order to model magnetostrictive materials in finite element simulations. We show knowing the magnetic constitutive relation is sufficient, if the elastic behavior without magnetic field is known a priori. We neglect hysteresis, and our starting point is to express the effect of mechanical deformation on the magnetic constitutive relation with a small strain tensor and magnetic flux density. It follows that the (energetic) state of a magnetostrictive material is independent of its history. Then, a certain choice of history allows us to keep magnetism and elasticity distinct. We demonstrate with open source software Elmer, how one can set up such magnetoelastic simulations. These simulations rely on data obtained from magnetostrictive measurements. Finally, it is discussed how a measurement setup and the finite element model should be combined in order to verify the approach with experiments.
Autors: Arto Poutala;Tuomas Kovanen;Lauri Kettunen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Estimating Error Covariance and Correlation Region in UV Irradiance Data Fusion by Combining TOMS-OMI and UVMRP Ground Observations
Abstract:
Surface ultraviolet (UV) observations can be obtained from satellite or ground observations. This paper uses one data fusion technique (similar to Kalman filter) to combine the advantages from both sources of observations, aiming at achieving a better estimate of surface UV. In this paper, new mathematical methods and algorithms were developed to estimate the error covariance and correlation region, which are the most important components in this data fusion technique. This technique was applied to the satellite data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)-Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) combined with ground measurements from UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) within the region of continental U.S. from 2005 to 2015. Numerical experiments showed that the technique is effective, and TOMS-OMI data were improved by combining UVMRP data. In addition, the innovative ensemble-based method is generic and can be applied to other fields for data fusion/assimilation.
Autors: Zhibin Sun;John Davis;Wei Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 355 - 370
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Estimating Evapotranspiration From Satellite Using Easily Obtainable Variables: A Case Study Over the Southern Great Plains, USA
Abstract:
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a critical component of the earth's water budget, a critical modulator of land–atmosphere interactions, and also plays a crucial role in managing the earth's energy balance. In this study, the feasibility of generating spatially continuous daily evaporative fraction (EF) and ET from minimal remotely sensed and meteorological inputs in a trapezoidal framework is demonstrated. A total of four variables, normalized difference vegetation index, land surface temperature (), gridded daily average temperature (), and elevation (z) are required to estimate EF. Then, ET can be estimated with the available soil heat flux (G) and net radiation (Rn) data. First, the crucial model variable is examined how well it characterizes the variation in EF using in-situ data recorded at two eddy correlation flux towers in Southern Great Plains, USA in 2011. Next, the accuracy of satellite-based is compared to ground-based . Finally, EF and ET estimates are validated. The results reveal that the model performed satisfactorily in modeling EF and ET variation at winter wheat and deciduous forest during the high evaporative months. Even though the model works best with the observed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer- as opposed to temporally interpolated , results obtai- ed from interpolated are able to close the gaps with reasonable accuracy. Due to the fact that is not a good indicator of EF outside the growing season when deciduous forest is dormant, potential improvements to the model are proposed to improve accuracy in EF and ET estimates at the expense of adding more variables.
Autors: Ali L. Yagci;Joseph A. Santanello;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 12 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» EUV lithography finally ready for fabs
Abstract:
"A fab is like an iceberg," someone tells me. I can't tell who because we're all covered head to toe in clean-room garb. A tour of GlobalFoundries' Fab 8 in Malta, N.Y., certainly reinforces that analogy: We've just come up from the "sub-fab," the 10 meters of vertical space under the floor, where pipes and wires snake down from each semiconductor-manufacturing tool above to a set of automated chemical handlers, water analyzers, power conditioners, and-in the case of the unit I've come to see-kilowatt-class lasers.
Autors: Samuel K. Moore;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 46 - 48
Publisher: IEEE
 
» EVA: Visual Analytics to Identify Fraudulent Events
Abstract:
Financial institutions are interested in ensuring security and quality for their customers. Banks, for instance, need to identify and stop harmful transactions in a timely manner. In order to detect fraudulent operations, data mining techniques and customer profile analysis are commonly used. However, these approaches are not supported by Visual Analytics techniques yet. Visual Analytics techniques have potential to considerably enhance the knowledge discovery process and increase the detection and prediction accuracy of financial fraud detection systems. Thus, we propose EVA, a Visual Analytics approach for supporting fraud investigation, fine-tuning fraud detection algorithms, and thus, reducing false positive alarms.
Autors: Roger A. Leite;Theresia Gschwandtner;Silvia Miksch;Simone Kriglstein;Margit Pohl;Erich Gstrein;Johannes Kuntner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 330 - 339
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Evaluation of Electromagnetic Exposure During 85 kHz Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
The external fields in the proximity of electric vehicle (EV) wireless power transfer (WPT) systems requiring high power may exceed the limits of international safety guidelines. This paper presents dosimetric results of an 85 kHz WPT system for EVs. A WPT system for charging EVs is designed and dosimetry for the system is evaluated for various exposure scenarios: a human body in front of the WPT system without shielding, with shielding, with alignment and misalignment between transmitter and receiver, and with a metal plate on the system for vehicle mimic floor pan. The minimum accessible distances in compliance are investigated for various transmitting powers. The maximum allowable transmitting power is also investigated with the limits of international safety guidelines and the dosimetric results.
Autors: Sangwook Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Event-Based Supervisory Control for Energy Efficient Manufacturing Systems
Abstract:
It becomes more and more critical for manufacturing enterprises to improve energy efficiency because of the escalating energy prices, increasing global competitions, and more rigorous government regulations. In this paper, a systematic method is developed to improve the energy efficiency of a multistage manufacturing system through production control. The method aims at reducing energy consumption with minimal negative impact on production. We start from the analysis of system dynamics and develop quantitative methods to estimate energy saving opportunities. A supervisory control algorithm is developed to improve system energy efficiency by periodically taking the saving opportunities. Simulation case studies are performed to validate the effectiveness of the control algorithm.

Note to Practitioners—Manufacturing systems are facing increasing pressure to reduce energy consumption, as global competition, sustainability, and green processes are becoming more prevalent. Although most of the research efforts on manufacturing energy saving have focused on developing individual energy efficient machines, it can be more cost-effective to improve energy efficiency through better control of the energy usage of the whole production system. Therefore, this paper presents a systematic method to improve system energy efficiency with a minimal negative impact on production. This paper continues the work by Chang et al. by extending the scope of energy saving opportunity theory from serial production systems to general serial–parallel production systems. It also develops analytical methods based on Markov chain models to estimate the energy saving opportunity accurately.

Autors: Yang Li;Qing Chang;Jun Ni;Michael P. Brundage;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 92 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» EventThread: Visual Summarization and Stage Analysis of Event Sequence Data
Abstract:
Event sequence data such as electronic health records, a person's academic records, or car service records, are ordered series of events which have occurred over a period of time. Analyzing collections of event sequences can reveal common or semantically important sequential patterns. For example, event sequence analysis might reveal frequently used care plans for treating a disease, typical publishing patterns of professors, and the patterns of service that result in a well-maintained car. It is challenging, however, to visually explore large numbers of event sequences, or sequences with large numbers of event types. Existing methods focus on extracting explicitly matching patterns of events using statistical analysis to create stages of event progression over time. However, these methods fail to capture latent clusters of similar but not identical evolutions of event sequences. In this paper, we introduce a novel visualization system named EventThread which clusters event sequences into threads based on tensor analysis and visualizes the latent stage categories and evolution patterns by interactively grouping the threads by similarity into time-specific clusters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of EventThread through usage scenarios in three different application domains and via interviews with an expert user.
Autors: Shunan Guo;Ke Xu;Rongwen Zhao;David Gotz;Hongyuan Zha;Nan Cao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 56 - 65
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exact Timing Analysis for Asynchronous Systems
Abstract:
Analyzing the timing properties of asynchronous systems is essential for characterizing their performance and power. Previous work on timing showed that such systems under and-causality and fixed delay exhibit periodicity properties. We give a different graph-based rigorous proof of the exact timing behavior of more general classes of such systems, and conclude their exact periodicity property, where each of the signal transition will occur with the same period after finite occurrences. We established our results under weaker assumption about system connectivity/topology, and this paper provides the theoretical foundation, for the exact periodicity property to be applied and exploited in circuits containing a combination of synchronous and asynchronous components. We provide simulation-based results for several typical asynchronous circuit topologies to quantify this time period in practical circuits. We also provide an extension of our analysis and methods to the case of bounded delay systems. A key result that is a consequence of our analysis is that asynchronous circuits can be integrated with synchronous logic via a metastability-free interface, thereby eliminating the high-overhead synchronizers when an asynchronous circuit is fully surrounded by synchronous logic.
Autors: Wenmian Hua;Rajit Manohar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 203 - 216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Experience With Online Partial-Discharge Measurement in High-Voltage Inverter-Fed Motors
Abstract:
Partial-discharge (PD) testing has long been an important tool for assessing the condition of the high-voltage insulation in motor and generator stator windings. In the past several years, many motors have been powered from inverters, which facilitate variable-speed motor operation. The most common drive used today is the voltage-source pulse-width modulation (VS-PWM) type. VS-PWM drives rated up to 13.8 kV are becoming more common in natural gas processing plants, as well as in other petrochemical facilities. Such drives generate high-voltage impulses in the kilovolt range with rise times in the submicrosecond range. These impulses are a form of severe electrical interference that can make difficult the online detection of PD (with magnitudes 1000 times smaller) due to the overlapping frequency content in PD and in the impulses. Thus, PD detection on medium-voltage VS-PWM systems has been a challenge in spite of the serious stator winding insulation aging that such drives may cause to these motors. This paper discusses the stator winding failure mechanisms that produce PD, including the insulation problems that VS-PWM drives can accelerate. A research project that lasted several years is reviewed. This project culminated in a prototype online PD monitoring system suitable for motors fed by VS-PWM drives.
Autors: Greg C. Stone;Howard G. Sedding;Connor Chan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 866 - 872
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Experimental ${g}_{m}/{I}_{{D}}$ Invariance Assessment for Asymmetric Double-Gate FDSOI MOSFET
Abstract:
Transconductance efficiency () is an essential design synthesis tool for low-power analog and RF applications. In this paper, the invariance of versus normalized drain current curve is analyzed in an asymmetric double-gate (DG) fully depleted MOSFET. This paper studies the breakdown of this invariance versus back-gate voltage, transistor length, temperature, drain-to-source voltage, and process variations. The unforeseeable invariance is emphasized by measurements of a commercial 28-nm ultrathin body and box fully depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) (FDSOI) CMOS technology, thus supporting the -based design methodologies usage in DG FDSOI transistors sizing.
Autors: Salim El Ghouli;Denis Rideau;Frederic Monsieur;Patrick Scheer;Gilles Gouget;André Juge;Thierry Poiroux;Jean-Michel Sallese;Christophe Lallement;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 11 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exploiting Parallelism for Access Conflict Minimization in Flash-Based Solid State Drives
Abstract:
Solid state drives (SSDs) have been widely deployed in personal computers, data centers, and cloud storages. In order to improve performance, SSDs are usually constructed with a number of channels with each channel connecting to a number of nand flash chips, each flash chip consisting of multiple dies and each die containing multiple planes. Based on this parallel architecture, I/O requests are potentially able to access parallel units simultaneously. Despite the rich parallelism offered by the parallel architecture, recent studies show that the utilization of flash parallel units is seriously low. This paper shows that the low parallel unit utilization is highly caused by the access conflict among I/O requests. In this paper, we propose parallel issue queueing (PIQ), a novel I/O scheduler at the host systems. PIQ groups I/O requests without conflicts into the same batch and I/O requests with conflicts into different batches. Hence, the multiple I/O requests in one batch can be fulfilled simultaneously by exploiting the rich parallelism of SSDs. Extensive experimental results show that PIQ delivers significant performance improvement especially for the applications which have heavy access conflicts.
Autors: Congming Gao;Liang Shi;Cheng Ji;Yejia Di;Kaijie Wu;Chun Jason Xue;Edwin H.-M. Sha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 168 - 181
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exploring 3-D Printing for New Applications: Novel Inkjet- and 3-D-Printed Millimeter-Wave Components, Interconnects, and Systems
Abstract:
This article outlines a number of inkjet-/threedimensional (3-D)-printed prototypes of RF and millimeter-wave (mmW) components, interconnects, and systems. We pay special attention to the major challenges related to applying current multidimensional printing technologies to the fabrication of flexible multichip modules (MCMs) and high-performance mmW components.
Autors: Ryan Bahr;Bijan Tehrani;Manos M. Tentzeris;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 57 - 66
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exploring Flexibility of DRX in LTE/LTE-A: Design of Dynamic and Adjustable DRX
Abstract:
Only two types of sleep cycles with two fixed sleep periods are defined in the standard of the discontinuous reception (DRX) mechanism in LTE/LTE-A. Explicitly, such a DRX mechanism is simple but lacks flexibility. To provide flexibility, two types of dynamic and adjustable DRX (DADRX) mechanisms are proposed and investigated in this paper. The first type of DADRX extends the number of types of sleep cycles through adding different pairs of sleep cycles with different sleep periods gradually. As for the second type of DADRX, it fixes the total number of types of sleep cycles like the first-type DADRX but further employs a set of level expanding probabilities to control probabilistically the possible pairs of sleep cycles that can be reached. To enable the analytical calculation, performance metrics for the proposed DADRX mechanisms are acquired, including average response delay and average long-term power consumption. Via both analytical and simulation approaches, we investigate the dynamics of performance for the proposed DADRX mechanisms extensively. We successfully show that these two proposed mechanisms can exhibit much more flexibility than the closely related mechanisms in the literature.
Autors: Huei-Wen Ferng;Teng-Hui Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 99 - 112
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exploring Multivariate Event Sequences Using Rules, Aggregations, and Selections
Abstract:
Multivariate event sequences are ubiquitous: travel history, telecommunication conversations, and server logs are some examples. Besides standard properties such as type and timestamp, events often have other associated multivariate data. Current exploration and analysis methods either focus on the temporal analysis of a single attribute or the structural analysis of the multivariate data only. We present an approach where users can explore event sequences at multivariate and sequential level simultaneously by interactively defining a set of rewrite rules using multivariate regular expressions. Users can store resulting patterns as new types of events or attributes to interactively enrich or simplify event sequences for further investigation. In Eventpad we provide a bottom-up glyph-oriented approach for multivariate event sequence analysis by searching, clustering, and aligning them according to newly defined domain specific properties. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach with real-world data sets including telecommunication traffic and hospital treatments.
Autors: Bram C.M. Cappers;Jarke J. van Wijk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 532 - 541
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exploring New Authentication Protocols for Sensitive Data Protection on Smartphones
Abstract:
Smartphones are increasingly becoming a tool for ubiquitous access to a number of services including, but not limited to, e-commerce and home banking, and are used more and more for sensitive data storage. If, on one hand, this makes the smartphone a powerful tool in our private and professional life, on the other hand it has brought about a series of new challenging security and privacy threats, and raised the need to protect users and their data through new secure authentication protocols. In this article, we illustrate how the security level of a human authentication system is increasing from traditional systems based on the use of passwords or badges to modern systems based on biometrics. We have moved a step forward by conceiving an authentication protocol based on the combined recognition of the human face and smartphone fingerprint. Thanks to image processing techniques, both the distinctive characteristics of the face and of the device that captures the face image can be extracted from a single photo or video frame and used for a double check of user identity. The fast technological development of smartphones allows performing sophisticated operations on the device itself. From the edge computing perspective, the burden of biometric recognition and source camera identification can be moved to the end user side.
Autors: Chiara Galdi;Michele Nappi;Jean-Luc Dugelay;Yong Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 136 - 142
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Explosion Protection of a Motor Integrated With a Compressor Using a Purging and Pressurization Technique With a Flammable Gas Above the UFL
Abstract:
This paper describes construction and test methods developed for a high-speed induction motor integrated with a compressor using the explosion protection technique of purged and pressurized by flammable gas, which is maintained above the upper flammable limit (UFL) after purging the system of air. The National Electrical Code [NEC or national fire protection agency (NFPA) 70 [1]] permits motors to be submerged in a flammable gas or vapor that is at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, and that is flammable only when mixed with air as the explosion protection means. Purging and pressurizing of electrical equipment with air or inert gas to the requirements of NFPA 496 [2] is widely known, but those requirements do not apply to a motor designed to be immersed in a flammable fluid. Specific requirements were developed for a high-speed induction motor–compressor supplied by a variable frequency power supply. This motor is directly connected to a natural gas or hydrocarbon mixture compressor, and the system is purged and pressurized with flammable gas that is maintained above the UFL and pressurized above atmospheric pressure. Though the NEC [1] has permitted this protection concept for many years, a set of construction and testing requirements needed to be developed and published for certification purposes. These types of motors have been operating safely in Europe and in North America for many years with a similar concept for the protection technique. This paper will discuss using the flammable gas above the UFL protection technique, and the development of the construction and testing requirements for it.
Autors: Bharat Mistry;Donald W. Ankele;Roberto Baldocci;Emilie Ourion;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 883 - 888
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Extended Lifetime In Vivo Pulse Stimulated Ultrasound Imaging
Abstract:
An on-demand long-lived ultrasound contrast agent that can be activated with single pulse stimulated imaging (SPSI) has been developed using hard shell liquid perfluoropentane filled silica 500-nm nanoparticles for tumor ultrasound imaging. SPSI was tested on LnCAP prostate tumor models in mice; tumor localization was observed after intravenous (IV) injection of the contrast agent. Consistent with enhanced permeability and retention, the silica nanoparticles displayed an extended imaging lifetime of 3.3±1 days (mean±standard deviation). With added tumor specific folate functionalization, the useful lifetime was extended to 12 ± 2 days; in contrast to ligand-based tumor targeting, the effect of the ligands in this application is enhanced nanoparticle retention by the tumor. This paper demonstrates for the first time that IV injected functionalized silica contrast agents can be imaged with an in vivo lifetime ~500 times longer than current microbubble-based contrast agents. Such functionalized long-lived contrast agents may lead to new applications in tumor monitoring and therapy.
Autors: James Wang;Christopher V. Barback;Casey N. Ta;Joi Weeks;Natalie Gude;Robert F. Mattrey;Sarah L. Blair;William C. Trogler;Hotaik Lee;Andrew C. Kummel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 222 - 229
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Extension of the GMMV-Based Linear Method to Quantitative Inverse Scattering
Abstract:
The linear shape reconstruction method based on the generalized multiple measurement vectors model is a newly proposed approach that is able to effectively retrieve the morphological information of dielectric/metallic scatterers with competitive imaging resolution. In this letter, we have extended this approach to quantitative inversion, with which a coarse estimation of the dielectric parameters can be obtained in an efficient way. The inversion of the transverse magnetic polarized Fresnel datasets from the year 2005 demonstrates applicability of the proposed method to real-life applications.
Autors: Shilong Sun;Bert Jan Kooij;Alexander G. Yarovoy;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 94 - 97
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Extracting and Retargeting Color Mappings from Bitmap Images of Visualizations
Abstract:
Visualization designers regularly use color to encode quantitative or categorical data. However, visualizations “in the wild” often violate perceptual color design principles and may only be available as bitmap images. In this work, we contribute a method to semi-automatically extract color encodings from a bitmap visualization image. Given an image and a legend location, we classify the legend as describing either a discrete or continuous color encoding, identify the colors used, and extract legend text using OCR methods. We then combine this information to recover the specific color mapping. Users can also correct interpretation errors using an annotation interface. We evaluate our techniques using a corpus of images extracted from scientific papers and demonstrate accurate automatic inference of color mappings across a variety of chart types. In addition, we present two applications of our method: automatic recoloring to improve perceptual effectiveness, and interactive overlays to enable improved reading of static visualizations.
Autors: Jorge Poco;Angela Mayhua;Jeffrey Heer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 637 - 646
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Extraction of the Built-in Potential for Organic Solar Cells From Current–Voltage Characteristics
Abstract:
The built-in potential () of an organic diode and solar cell is an important parameter that decides the rectification behavior of organic diodes and affects the open circuit voltage and thereby the efficiency of organic solar cells. In this paper, we propose a physics-based model and an experimental method to extract from current density–voltage (–) characteristics. The proposed model is developed by solving the carrier transport and the continuity equations to obtain the analytic equations for charge carrier profile and current density. The proposed method is thoroughly verified using numerical simulation results. Applicability of this method on experimental results is further validated for poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester solar cells. Finally, is extracted from dark – characteristics of fabricated devices.
Autors: Prashanth Kumar Manda;Saranya Ramaswamy;Soumya Dutta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 184 - 190
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Extremality Between Symmetric Capacity and Gallager’s Reliability Function $E_{0}$ for Ternary-Input Discrete Memoryless Channels
Abstract:
This paper examines the exact ranges between the symmetric capacity and Gallager’s reliability function for ternary-input discrete memoryless channels (T-DMCs) under a uniform input distribution. We first derive the two extremal ternary-input strongly symmetric channels taking the maximum and minimum values of the function among all ternary-input strongly symmetric channels with a fixed capacity. Extending the results of ternary-input strongly symmetric channels, we second derive the exact ranges between capacity and the function for ternary-input Gallager-symmetric channels. We third show that the exact ranges between the symmetric capacity and the function of T-DMCs coincide with the ranges of ternary-input Gallager-symmetric channels. In particular, we identify the extremal channels taking the maximum and minimum of among all T-DMCs with a fixed symmetric capacity. As applications of the results, we describe some bounds of error exponents for T-DMCs with a fixed symmetric capacity.
Autors: Yuta Sakai;Ken-ichi Iwata;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 163 - 191
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fabrication and Performance of a Miniaturized and Integrated Endoscope Ultrasound Convex Array for Digestive Tract Imaging
Abstract:
Objective: this work presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a miniaturized and integrated ultrasound endoscope for use as an in situ digestive diagnostic device to facilitate real-time ultrasound guidance of intervention treatments. Methods: we designed an optimal structure to integrate an auto-focus 5-megapixel camera module with an 8-MHz, 64-element curvilinear ultrasonic array in one miniaturized package. A novel three-axis auto-focusing voice coil motor (VCM) was designed and manufactured for the camera module to move the lens position for auto-focusing and to adjust the lens tilt. Results: the results showed that the array had a center frequency of 8.09 MHz and a –6-dB fractional bandwidth of 83%. At the center frequency, the two-way insertion loss was 40.6 dB. Endoscopic ultrasound imaging demonstrated satisfactory performance for imaging an anthropomorphic phantom of the esophagus. By slightly adjusting the tilt angle of the optical axis of the lens, the optical image captured by the auto-focusing lens obtained improved definition regardless of changes in the view angle of the camera with respect to the objects being captured. Conclusion: the integrated convex ultrasound endoscope, possessing minimal size, improved optical imaging definition, and good ultrasound imaging performance, can become a useful tool in digestive tract imaging. Significance: the miniaturized and integrated convex ultrasound endoscope can facilitate real-time ultrasound intervention guidance, reducing risks associated with the operation.
Autors: Jue Peng;Xiaojian Peng;Hu Tang;Xiaozhen Li;Ruimin Chen;Yang Li;Tianfu Wang;Siping Chen;K. Kirk Shung;Qifa Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 140 - 148
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fabrication of Bragg Gratings in Random Air-Line Clad Microstructured Optical Fiber
Abstract:
Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are written using an infrared (IR) femtosecond laser and a phase mask into pure silica microstructured optical fiber having a cladding region comprised of random air-lines (RAL). Scanning electron microscopy measurements of the IR irradiated RAL fiber samples shows the presence of subwavelength nanograting structures associated with thermally stable type II Bragg gratings. High temperature annealing testing shows that although the RAL FBGs have a high degree of stability even at 1000 °C, they are less stable than similar FBGs made in single mode telecom fiber (SMF-28).
Autors: Stephen J. Mihailov;Cyril Hnatovsky;Dan Grobnic;Kevin Chen;Ming-Jun Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 209 - 212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast AC Power Flow Optimization Using Difference of Convex Functions Programming
Abstract:
An effective means for analyzing the impact of novel operating schemes on power systems is time-domain simulation, for example, for investigating optimization-based curtailment of renewables to alleviate voltage violations. Traditionally, interior-point methods are used for solving the non-convex AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems arising in this type of simulation. This paper presents an alternative algorithm that better suits the simulation framework, because it can more effectively be warm started, has linear computational and memory complexity in the problem size per iteration and globally converges to Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) points with a linear rate if they exist. The algorithm exploits a difference-of-convex-functions reformulation of the OPF problem, which can be performed effectively. Numerical results are presented comparing the method to state-of-the-art OPF solver implementations in MATPOWER, leading to significant speedups compared to the latter for smaller systems and comparable performance for larger cases.
Autors: Sandro Merkli;Alexander Domahidi;Juan L. Jerez;Manfred Morari;Roy S. Smith;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 363 - 372
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Amplitude Estimation of Harmonics Using Undecimated Wavelet Packet Transform and Its Hardware Implementation
Abstract:
Accurate and fast estimation of time-varying harmonics are essential requirements for online monitoring, analysis, and control of electrical power system. This paper presents a fast algorithm based on the undecimated wavelet packet transform (UWPT) to estimate the amplitude of fundamental and harmonic components of stationary as well as a time-varying power signal. The UWPT uses only one cycle of the fundamental frequency for precise measurement of time-varying harmonics while their amplitude has been determined accurately utilizing the time-invariant property of the UWPT. The robustness and accuracy of the proposed technique have been investigated on synthetic as well as experimental test signals using MATLAB tool. Further, the UWPT algorithm has also been implemented on the Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA ML-605 board, using XSG/ISE design suite 14.2 and its performance, in terms of hardware accuracy, resource utilization as well as timing requirements have been tested using the experimental test signal.
Autors: Vinay K. Tiwari;Amod C. Umarikar;Trapti Jain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 65 - 77
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast and Stable Signal Deconvolution via Compressible State-Space Models
Abstract:
Objective: Common biological measurements are in the form of noisy convolutions of signals of interest with possibly unknown and transient blurring kernels. Examples include EEG and calcium imaging data. Thus, signal deconvolution of these measurements is crucial in understanding the underlying biological processes. The objective of this paper is to develop fast and stable solutions for signal deconvolution from noisy, blurred, and undersampled data, where the signals are in the form of discrete events distributed in time and space. Methods: We introduce compressible state-space models as a framework to model and estimate such discrete events. These state-space models admit abrupt changes in the states and have a convergent transition matrix, and are coupled with compressive linear measurements. We consider a dynamic compressive sensing optimization problem and develop a fast solution, using two nested expectation maximization algorithms, to jointly estimate the states as well as their transition matrices. Under suitable sparsity assumptions on the dynamics, we prove optimal stability guarantees for the recovery of the states and present a method for the identification of the underlying discrete events with precise confidence bounds. Results: We present simulation studies as well as application to calcium deconvolution and sleep spindle detection, which verify our theoretical results and show significant improvement over existing techniques. Conclusion: Our results show that by explicitly modeling the dynamics of the underlying signals, it is possible to construct signal deconvolution solutions that are scalable, statistically robust, and achieve high temporal resolution. Significance: Our proposed methodology provides a framework for modeling and deconvolution of noisy, blurred, and undersampled measurements in a fast and stable fashion, with potential application to a wide range - f biological data.
Autors: Abbas Kazemipour;Ji Liu;Krystyna Solarana;Daniel A. Nagode;Patrick O. Kanold;Min Wu;Behtash Babadi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 74 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Correction of Network Parameter Errors
Abstract:
In this letter, a fast network parameter error correction scheme is proposed based on recent findings on parameter error identification. Compared to the widely applied augmented state estimation approach, it is computationally very efficient and numerically stable, and requires very modest coding effort. Simulation results in the New England power system show that it produces reliable results in the presence of both strongly correlated errors and Gaussian measurement noise.
Autors: Yuzhang Lin;Ali Abur;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1095 - 1096
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Dynamic Fault Tree Analysis by Model Checking Techniques
Abstract:
This paper presents a new state-space generation approach for dynamic fault trees (DFTs) that exploits several successful reduction techniques from the field of model checking. The key idea is to aggressively exploit the DFT structure—detecting symmetries, spurious nondeterminism, and don't cares. Benchmarks show a gain of more than two orders of magnitude in terms of state-space generation and analysis time. This fast, scalable approach is complemented by an approximative technique that determines bounds on DFT measures by a partial state-space generation. This is shown to yield another order of magnitude gain while guaranteeing tight error bounds.
Autors: Matthias Volk;Sebastian Junges;Joost-Pieter Katoen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 370 - 379
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Evaluation of Commutation Failure Risk in Multi-Infeed HVDC Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a fast and reliable method to evaluate risk of single or multiple commutation failures for multi-infeed HVDC systems following faults occurring at the receiving-end ac system. First, a fast calculation method of multi-infeed interaction factor, describing the interactivity and mutual impact between two inverter AC buses on is proposed. It is then refined to being the AC–DC system voltage interaction factor (ADVIF) to represent the relationship in bus voltages between inverter and AC buses at the re-ceiving-end systems. Then, a critical AC–DC system voltage interaction factor (CADVIF) based on the minimum extinction angle criteria is proposed. By calculating and comparing ADVIFs and CADVIFs, which can be obtained quickly, it is possible to identify AC buses that, if a fault occurs, would cause commutation failures at one or more HVDC systems. The validity and accuracy of the proposed approach are demonstrated by comparing with simulations results using a two-infeed HVDC test system and an actual large power grid.
Autors: Yao Shao;Yong Tang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 646 - 653
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Linear Quaternion Attitude Estimator Using Vector Observations
Abstract:
As a key problem for multisensor attitude determination, Wahba's problem has been studied for almost 50 years. Different from existing methods, this paper presents a novel linear approach to solve this problem. We name the proposed method the fast linear attitude estimator (FLAE) because it is faster than known representative algorithms. The original Wahba's problem is extracted to several 1-D equations based on quaternions. They are then investigated with pseudoinverse matrices establishing a linear solution to n-D equations, which are equivalent to the conventional Wahba's problem. To obtain the attitude quaternion in a robust manner, an eigenvalue-based solution is proposed. Symbolic solutions to the corresponding characteristic polynomial are derived, showing higher computation speed. Simulations are designed and conducted using test cases evaluated by several classical methods, e.g., Shuster's quaternion estimator, Markley's singular value decomposition method, Mortari's second estimator of the optimal quaternion, and some recent representative methods, e.g., Yang's analytical method and Riemannian manifold method. The results show that FLAE generates attitude estimates as accurate as that of several existing methods, but consumes much less computation time (about 50% of the known fastest algorithm). Also, to verify the feasibility in embedded application, an experiment on the accelerometer-magnetometer combination is carried out where the algorithms are compared via C++ programming language. An extreme case is finally studied, revealing a minor improvement that adds robustness to FLAE, inspired by Cheng et al.
Autors: Jin Wu;Zebo Zhou;Bin Gao;Rui Li;Yuhua Cheng;Hassen Fourati;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 307 - 319
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Near-Optimal Heuristic for the Short-Term Hydro-Generation Planning Problem
Abstract:
Short-term hydro-generation planning can be efficiently modeled as a mixed integer linear program (MILP). Depending on the size of the system and the time horizon, the resulting MILP may be too large to be solved in reasonable time with commercial solvers. This paper presents a three-phase approach based on price decomposition that yields quickly near-optimal solutions to large-scale real-world instances. For any partition of the production system into subsystems, the first phase solves a linear program to estimate the marginal cost of electricity in each subsystem. The second phase solves local MILPs corresponding to each subsystem, and gives a solution that is almost feasible. The final phase slightly perturbs the solution to obtain a feasible solution that is proven to be near-optimal. Our method is tested on real instances corresponding to Hydro-Québec's production system.
Autors: Alexia Marchand;Michel Gendreau;Marko Blais;Grégory Emiel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 227 - 235
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Online Tracking With Detection Refinement
Abstract:
Most of the existing multiple object tracking (MOT) methods employ the tracking-by-detection framework. Among them, the min-cost network flow optimization techniques become the most popular and standard ones. In these methods, the graph structure models the MOT problem and finds the optimal flow in a connected graph of detections to encode the accurate track trajectories. However, the existing network flow is not suitable for directly online tracking, where the tracking results depend too much on the initial detections. To solve these problems, we present a fast online MOT algorithm by introducing the minimum output sum of squared error filter. The proposed method can adaptively refine the tracking targets according to the proposed rules of correcting the detection mistakes. Furthermore, we introduce an alternative targets hypotheses to reduce the dependence on detections and adaptively refine the object detection boxes. The experimental results on the MOT 2015 benchmark demonstrate that our method achieves comparable or even better results than previous approaches.
Autors: Jianbing Shen;Dajiang Yu;Leyao Deng;Xingping Dong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 162 - 173
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Operations for a Gabor-Frame-Based Integral Equation With Equidistant Sampling
Abstract:
We consider the computation time of a three-dimensional Gabor-frame-based spatial–spectral integral equation solver for scattering from dielectric objects embedded in a multilayer medium. Based on the Gabor frame, a new set of basis functions is proposed, together with a set of equidistant Dirac-delta test functions. Using this construction, we approximate the operations of Fourier transformation and pointwise multiplication by a method that is significantly faster than the original method. A numerical example is included where the computation time is reduced by a factor of 15, while preserving accuracy.
Autors: Roeland J. Dilz;Martijn C. van Beurden;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 82 - 85
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Quantitative Microwave Imaging With Scattered-Power Maps
Abstract:
A new direct-inversion method, scattered-power mapping (SPM), for fast quantitative microwave imaging is introduced. It builds on a recently proposed inversion strategy that demonstrated quantitative direct reconstruction with experimentally acquired system point-spread functions. In comparison with this initial work, SPM features a drastic improvement in the computational time along with reduced number of calibration measurements. Moreover, SPM is versatile allowing a forward model of scattering cast either as a linearized Born model or as a Rytov model. SPM is intended as a tool to solve weak-scattering problems or as a linear-inversion module within nonlinear iterative reconstruction.
Autors: Denys S. Shumakov;Natalia K. Nikolova;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 439 - 449
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Stability Scanning for Future Grid Scenario Analysis
Abstract:
Future grid scenario analysis requires a major departure from conventional power system planning, where only a handful of most critical conditions is typically analyzed. To capture the interseasonal and temporal variations in the renewable generation of a future grid scenario necessitates the use of computationally intensive time-series analysis. In this paper, we propose a framework for fast stability scanning of future grid scenarios using an improved feature selection and self-adaptive PSO-k-means clustering algorithm. To achieve the computational speedup, the stability analysis is performed only on small number of representative cluster centroids instead of on the full set of operating conditions. As a case study, we perform small-signal stability and steady-state voltage stability scanning of a simplified model of the Australian national electricity market with significant penetration of renewable generation. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Compared to an exhaustive time series scanning, the proposed framework reduced the computational burden up to ten times, with an acceptable level of accuracy.
Autors: Ruidong Liu;Gregor Verbič;Jin Ma;David J. Hill;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 514 - 524
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast-Response MoS2-Based Humidity Sensor Braced by SiO2 Microsphere Layers
Abstract:
In this letter, a MoS2-based humidity sensor braced by SiO2 microsphere layers with rapid response was developed. The results demonstrated that the humidity sensor can exhibit a subsecond response. A mechanism based on the morphology and structure of the sensing film was proposed to explain the rapid response behavior of humidity sensors. In addition, the effect of film thickness on response time was discussed. This letter demonstrated that the MoS2-based humidity sensor braced by SiO2 microspheres is suitable for the miniature drip infusion rate detection device.
Autors: Ning Li;Xiang-Dong Chen;Xin-Peng Chen;Xing Ding;Xuan Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 115 - 118
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control Operation of Nonisolated DC–DC Converters
Abstract:
This paper proposes a fault diagnosis and identification method for nonisolated dc–dc converters. The method can detect the fault, and identify the faulty switch and the switch fault type in less than one switching cycle. The main idea is to apply the derivative of the inductor current based on the modulation of the particular dc–dc converter to provide a predictive current emulator model. The measured inductor current and its corresponding predicted current are used to diagnose the switch fault. The method, implemented in a digital signal processor, is robust to common converter asymmetry such as load variations, input disturbances, etc. The proposed fault diagnosis method has been analyzed, tested, and validated for a boost converter.
Autors: Elham Pazouki;Yilmaz Sozer;J. Alexis De Abreu-Garcia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 310 - 320
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fault Investigations on Die-Cast Copper Rotors
Abstract:
It has been known for a long time that replacement of aluminum by copper, which has an advantage in high conductivity, can be an economic solution for various applications including electric vehicle in the development of energy efficient motors. In comparison to aluminum, copper die-casting is difficult to perform due to its high density, viscosity, and melting point. Owing to these reasons, the copper die-cast rotors evince several manufacturing problems. The objective of this work is to identify the various defects in the manufacturing of copper die-cast rotor, and identify the lamination coating condition that sustains copper die-cast pressure and temperature. It evaluates the effectiveness of lamination coating on limiting the eddy current loss and the recoating process to improve in case the eddy current loss is in excess due to copper die-casting.
Autors: Soby T. Varghese;Bhim Singh;K. R. Rajagopal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 184 - 194
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Faultprog: Testing the Accuracy of Binary-Level Software Fault Injection
Abstract:
Off-The-Shelf (OTS) software components are the cornerstone of modern systems, including safety-critical ones. However, the dependability of OTS components is uncertain due to the lack of source code, design artifacts and test cases, since only their binary code is supplied. Fault injection in components’ binary code is a solution to understand the risks posed by buggy OTS components. In this paper, we consider the problem of the accurate mutation of binary code for fault injection purposes. Fault injection emulates bugs in high-level programming constructs (assignments, expressions, function calls, ...) by mutating their translation in binary code. However, the semantic gap between the source code and its binary translation often leads to inaccurate mutations. We propose Faultprog, a systematic approach for testing the accuracy of binary mutation tools. Faultprog automatically generates synthetic programs using a stochastic grammar, and mutates both their binary code with the tool under test, and their source code as reference for comparisons. Moreover, we present a case study on a commercial binary mutation tool, where Faultprog was adopted to identify code patterns and compiler optimizations that affect its mutation accuracy.
Autors: Domenico Cotroneo;Anna Lanzaro;Roberto Natella;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 40 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FDTD Modeling of Nonlinear Phenomena in Wave Transmission Through Graphene
Abstract:
A novel finite-difference time-domain modeling method is proposed to simulate the nonlinear electrodynamic responses of graphene at terahertz frequencies. The relation between currents in graphene and electromagnetic waves is governed by a characteristic formula at the frequencies where the conductivity of graphene exhibits resonant behavior. Simulation results demonstrate nonlinear phenomena in wave transmission through graphene including odd-harmonic generation and frequency-mixing effect. The proposed modeling method can be used as a full-wave solution to the design of nonlinear graphene-based structures.
Autors: Liang Yang;Jing Tian;Khalid Z. Rajab;Yang Hao;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 126 - 129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Feasible Device Architectures for Ultrascaled CNTFETs
Abstract:
Feasible device architectures for ultrascaled carbon nanotubes field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) are studied down to 5.9 nm using a multiscale simulation approach covering electronic quantum transport simulations and numerical device simulations. Schottky-like and ohmiclike contacts are considered. The simplified approach employed in the numerical device simulator is critically evaluated and verified by means of comparing the results with electronic quantum simulation results of an identical device. Different performance indicators, such as the switching speed, switching energy, the subthreshold slope, -ratio, among others, are extracted for different device architectures. These values guide the evaluation of the technology for different application scenarios. For high-performance logic applications, the buried gate CNTFET is claimed to be the most suitable structure.
Autors: Anibal Pacheco-Sanchez;Florian Fuchs;Sven Mothes;Andreas Zienert;Jörg Schuster;Sibylle Gemming;Martin Claus;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 100 - 107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Feasible Region of Optimal Power Flow: Characterization and Applications
Abstract:
The feasible region plays a fundamental role in solving optimal power flow (OPF) problems. In this paper, a mathematical characterization of the feasible region is presented. An equivalence is established between the feasible region of an OPF problem and the union of regular stable equilibrium manifolds of a quotient gradient system (QGS) that is derived from the set of equality and inequality constraints of the OPF problem. It is further shown that the QGS is completely stable and that each trajectory converges to an equilibrium manifold, making the QGS trajectories useful in locating feasible OPF solutions. The theoretical results developed in this paper have been numerically verified in several OPF problems. Finally, the notion of a local feasible region is proposed and discussed.
Autors: Hsiao-Dong Chiang;Chu-Yang Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 236 - 244
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Feature Profiles from Attribute Filtering for Classification of Remote Sensing Images
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel extension of morphological attribute profiles (APs) for classification of remote sensing data. In standard AP-based approaches, an input image is characterized by a set of filtered images achieved from the sequential application of attribute filters based on the image tree representation. Hence, only pixel values (i.e. gray levels) are employed to form the output profiles. In this paper, during the attribute filtering process, instead of outputting the gray levels, we propose to extract both statistical and geometrical features from the connected components (w.r.t. tree nodes) to build the so-called feature profiles (FPs). These features are expected to better characterize the object or region encoded by each connected component. They are then exploited to classify remote sensing images. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, supervised classification using the random forest classifier is conducted on the panchromatic Reykjavik image as well as the hyperspectral Pavia University data. Experimental results show the FPs provide a competitive performance compared against standard APs and thus constitute a promising alternative.
Autors: Minh-Tan Pham;Erchan Aptoula;Sébastien Lefèvre;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 249 - 256
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Feature-Driven Active Learning for Hyperspectral Image Classification
Abstract:
Active learning (AL) has obtained a great success in supervised remotely sensed hyperspectral image classification, since it is able to select highly informative training samples. As an intrinsically biased sampling approach, AL generally favors the selection of samples following discriminative distributions, which are located in low-density areas. However, hyperspectral data are often highly class-mixed, i.e., most samples fluctuate in the overlapping regions of distributions of different classes. In this case, the potential of AL to select effective training samples is more limited. As AL strongly depends on the features, a possibility to increase its capabilities is to transfer the data into a highly discriminative feature space, in which the mixture of distributions that different classes of data follow tends to reduce. Based on this observation, in this paper, we introduce the concept of feature-driven AL, namely, the sample selection is going to be conducted in a given optimized feature space whose superiority is measured by an overall error probability. For illustrative purposes, we used Gabor filtering and morphological profiles for instantiation. Our experimental results, obtained on three real hyperspectral data sets, indicate that the proposed approach can significantly improve the potential of AL for hyperspectral image classification.
Autors: Chenying Liu;Lin He;Zhetao Li;Jun Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 341 - 354
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Feedforward Strategies for Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Heterogeneous Vehicle Strings
Abstract:
String stability is an essential property to ensure that the fluctuations are attenuated along vehicle strings. This paper focuses on the fulfillment of string stability in the practical case of heterogeneous vehicle strings that comprise vehicles with different dynamic properties. Using the idea of predecessor following, acceleration feedforward, predicted acceleration feedforward, and input signal feedforward are considered as different possible feedforward strategies. For all strategies, the parameter ranges of predecessor vehicles that ensure string stability of a given vehicle are characterized, computed, and validated by simulation.
Autors: Ahmed M. H. Al-Jhayyish;Klaus Werner Schmidt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 113 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ferroelectric Gate AlGaN/GaN E-Mode HEMTs With High Transport and Sub-Threshold Performance
Abstract:
This letter demonstrated AlGaN/GaN enhancement-mode (E-mode) high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with 30-nm Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric gate dielectric. The high-quality interface and polarization coupling resulted in the initial pre-poled ferroelectric polarization toward surface. Then, ferroelectric polarization engineering and gate poling were studied, realizing E-mode HEMTs with very high field-effect mobility of 1819 cm2/, ON/OFF current ratio larger than , and the low sub-threshold slope of 90 mV/decade. Owing to the undestroyed 2-D electron gases channel, ferroelectric gate GaN-based E-mode HEMTs with high transport performance are promising candidates for high-speed logic circuit applications.
Autors: Jiejie Zhu;Lixiang Chen;Jie Jiang;Xiaoli Lu;Ling Yang;Bin Hou;Min Liao;Yichun Zhou;Xiaohua Ma;Yue Hao;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 79 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FFAST: An Algorithm for Computing an Exactly $ k$ -Sparse DFT in $O( klog k)$ Time
Abstract:
It is a well-known fact that the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of an arbitrary -length input signal , can be computed from all the time-domain samples in operations via a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. If the spectrum is -sparse (where ), can we do better? We show that asymptotically in and , when is sub-linear in (precisely, ), where ), and the support of the non-zero DFT coefficients is uniformly random, the fast fourier aliasing-based sparse transform (FFAST) algorithm, proposed in this paper, computes, with asymptotically high probability, the non-zero DFT coefficients of from in arithmetic operations. Further, the constants in the big Oh notation for both sample and computational cost are small, e.g., when , which essentially covers a wide range of sub-linear sparsity cases, the sample cost is less than . Although, in this paper we assume that the samples of the signal observed by the FFAST are noise-free, a noise-robust extension of the FFAST is provided in a companion (Part II) paper [1]. Our approach is based on filter-less sub-sampling of the input signal using a set of carefully chosen uniform sub-sampling patterns guided by the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT). The idea is to cleverly exploit, rather than avoid, the resulting aliasing artifacts induced by sub-sampling. Specifically, the sub-sampling operation on the time-domain signal is designed to create aliasing patterns of the non-zero coefficients of the spectrum to “look like” parity-check constraints of a good erasure-correcting sparse-graph code. Next, we show that computing the sparse DFT is equivalent to decoding of an appropriate sparse-graph code. The sparse-graph codes further permit a fast peeling-style decoding. Consequently, the resulting DFT computation is
Autors: Sameer Pawar;Kannan Ramchandran;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 429 - 450
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fiber Splicer Convertible–Mini Preform Fabrication System
Abstract:
We downscale a lab-sized preform fabrication system to a benchtop miniature preform, hence a short-length fiber fabrication system. The system, which is a large-diameter fiber splicer convertible, is compact, low cost, fast, and flexible as compared with standard preform fabrication processes. Using the proposed system incorporating with a solution doping technique, we have successfully fabricated several ~ 1-mm-thick, 40 ± 10 mm long thulium-doped silica and germania–silica preforms. The preforms were drawn to diameter, submeter length low NA thulium-doped fibers. Encouraging absorption and emission behaviors were obtained. The technique is promising and suitable for rapid specialty optical fiber prototyping.
Autors: W. J. Lai;L. Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 201 - 204
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fine-Grained Scheduling in Cloud Gaming on Heterogeneous CPU-GPU Clusters
Abstract:
Cloud gaming is a promising approach to provide high-quality gaming services to mobile devices. However, existing cloud gaming systems fail to fully exploit hardware resources due to coarse-grained resource scheduling based on virtual machine migration. In this article, we propose a novel cloud gaming design, referred to as FGCG, with fine-grained scheduling to maximize resource utilization on a heterogeneous CPU-GPU cluster. Specifically, we decompose game workloads into small and independent render tasks that can be freely dispatched to different machines. Trace-driven simulation results show that FGCG can significantly improve resource utilization compared to existing cloud gaming systems.
Autors: Wei Zhang;Xiaofei Liao;Peng Li;Hai Jin;Li Lin;Bing Bing Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 172 - 178
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finite Blocklength and Moderate Deviation Analysis of Hypothesis Testing of Correlated Quantum States and Application to Classical-Quantum Channels With Memory
Abstract:
Martingale concentration inequalities constitute a powerful mathematical tool in the analysis of problems in a wide variety of fields ranging from probability and statistics to information theory and machine learning. Here, we apply techniques borrowed from this field to quantum hypothesis testing, which is the problem of discriminating quantum states belonging to two different sequences, and . We obtain achievability bounds on the finite blocklength type II Stein- and Hoeffding errors which, for i.i.d. states, are in general tighter than the corresponding bounds obtained by Audenaert, Mosonyi, and Verstraete. We also derive finite blocklength bounds and moderate deviation results for pairs of sequences of correlated states satisfying a (non-homogeneous) factorization property. Examples of such sequences include Gibbs states of spin chains with translation-invariant finite range interaction, as well as finitely correlated quantum states. We apply our results to find bounds on the capacity of a certain class of classical-quantum channels with memory, which satisfy a so-called channel factorization property—both in the finite blocklength and moderate deviation regimes.
Autors: Cambyse Rouzé;Nilanjana Datta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 593 - 612
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finite Frequency $H_{infty }$ Deconvolution With Application to Approximated Bandlimited Signal Recovery
Abstract:
This paper investigates a finite frequency deconvolution problem for single-input–single-output discrete-time systems. Motivated by the fact that many practical signals are located in a finite frequency range, this paper is focused on developing a design method for achieving better deconvolution performance over a finite frequency range. First, a finite frequency deconvolution problem is formulated such that the deconvolution specification is characterized by a modified index associated with the corresponding finite frequency range. By an adapted generalized Kalman–Yakubovich–Popov lemma and an auxiliary vector approach, a matrix inequality condition is obtained for parameterizing a required deconvolution filter, based on which a simple iterative algorithm is then constructed for optimizing the filter performance. Multiobjective deconvolution is further discussed in the same framework. Compared with the traditional frequency weighting strategy, the proposed method can directly analyze and synthesize the deconvolution performance within finite frequency ranges, the advantage of which is demonstrated in a bandlimited signal recovery example.
Autors: Huijun Gao;Xianwei Li;Jianbin Qiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 203 - 210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finite-Difference Time-Domain Modeling of Space–Time-Modulated Metasurfaces
Abstract:
A finite-difference time-domain modeling of finite-size zero thickness space–time-modulated Huygens’ metasurfaces based on generalized sheet transition conditions is proposed and numerically demonstrated. A typical all-dielectric Huygens’ unit cell is taken as an example and its material permittivity is modulated in both space and time, to emulate a traveling-type spatio-temporal perturbation on the metasurface. By mapping the permittivity variation onto the parameters of the equivalent Lorentzian electric and magnetic susceptibility densities, and , the problem is formulated into a set of second-order differential equations in time with nonconstant coefficients. The resulting field solutions are then conveniently solved using an explicit finite-difference technique and integrated with a Yee-cell-based propagation region to visualize the scattered fields taking into account the various diffractive effects from the metasurface of finite size. Several examples are shown for both linear and space–time varying metasurfaces which are excited with normally incident plane and Gaussian beams, showing detailed scattering field solutions. While the time-modulated metasurface leads to the generation of new collinearly propagating temporal harmonics, these harmonics are angularly separated in space, when an additional space modulation is introduced in the metasurface.
Autors: Scott A. Stewart;Tom. J. Smy;Shulabh Gupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 281 - 292
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finite-Length Analysis of BATS Codes
Abstract:
BATS codes were proposed for communication through networks with packet loss. A BATS code consists of an outer code and an inner code. The outer code is a matrix generation of a fountain code, which works with the inner code that comprises random linear coding at the intermediate network nodes. In this paper, the performance of finite-length BATS codes is analyzed with respect to both belief propagation (BP) decoding and inactivation decoding. Our results enable us to evaluate efficiently the finite-length performance in terms of the number of batches used for decoding ranging from 1 to a given maximum number, and provide new insights on the decoding performance. Specifically, for a fixed number of input symbols and a range of the number of batches used for decoding, we obtain recursive formulae to calculate the stopping time distribution of BP decoding and the inactivation probability in inactivation decoding. We also find that both the failure probability of BP decoding and the expected number of inactivations in inactivation decoding can be expressed in a power-sum form where the number of batches appears only as the exponent. This power-sum expression reveals clearly how the decoding failure probability and the expected number of inactivation decrease with the number of batches. When the number of batches used for decoding follows a Poisson distribution, we further derive recursive formulas with potentially lower computational complexity for both decoding algorithms. For the BP decoder that consumes batches one by one, three formulae are provided to characterize the expected number of consumed batches until all the input symbols are decoded.
Autors: Shenghao Yang;Tsz-Ching Ng;Raymond W. Yeung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 322 - 348
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FinSAL: FinFET-Based Secure Adiabatic Logic for Energy-Efficient and DPA Resistant IoT Devices
Abstract:
With the emergence of Internet of Things (IoT), there is an urgent need to design energy-efficient and secure IoT devices. For example, IoT devices such as radio frequency identification tags and wireless sensor nodes employ AES cryptographic module that are susceptible to differential power analysis (DPA) attacks. With the scaling of technology, leakage power in the cryptographic device increases, which increases their vulnerability to DPA attack. This paper presents a novel FinFET-based secure adiabatic logic (FinSAL), that is energy-efficient and DPA-immune. The proposed adiabatic FinSAL is used to design logic gates such as buffers, XOR, and NAND. Further, the logic gates based on adiabatic FinSAL are used to implement a positive polarity Reed Muller architecture-based S-box circuit. SPICE simulations at 12.5 MHz show that adiabatic FinSAL (20-nm FinFET technology) S-box circuit saves up to 81% of energy per cycle as compared to the conventional S-box circuit implemented using FinFET (20-nm FinFET technology). Further, the security of adiabatic FinSAL S-box circuit has been evaluated by performing the DPA attack through SPICE simulations. We proved that the FinSAL S-box circuit is resistant to a DPA attack through a developed DPA attack flow applicable to SPICE simulations. Further, the impact of FinSAL on hardware security at different technology nodes of FinFETs (7, 10, 14, and 16 nm) are evaluated. From the simulation results, FinSAL gates at 14-nm FinFET offer superior security with optimum power consumption, therefore is the best candidate to design low-power secure IoT devices.
Autors: S. Dinesh Kumar;Himanshu Thapliyal;Azhar Mohammad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 110 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fixed-Latency Gigabit Serial Links in a Xilinx FPGA for the Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer at the ATLAS Experiment
Abstract:
We present an implementation of fixed-latency gigabit serial links in a low-cost Xilinx field-programmable gate array. The implementation is targeted for a data packet router in the upgrade of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The router serves as a packet switch. It handles up to 12 serial inputs at 4.8 Gbps from on-detector electronics and four 4.8-Gbps outputs to the trigger processing circuits. The input serial streams are deserialized and aligned to a common clock domain for NULL suppression and data packet forwarding. Gigabit transceivers are used in the processing, and a scheme is developed to maintain low and fixed-latency packet multiplexing through the router. We analyze the latency of the scheme and demonstrate its performance in a setup similar to that of the final detector arrangement.
Autors: Jinhong Wang;Xueye Hu;Reid Pinkham;Suen Hou;Thomas Schwarz;Junjie Zhu;J. W. Chapman;Bing Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 656 - 664
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flat-Top CWDM (De)Multiplexer Based on MZI With Bent Directional Couplers
Abstract:
A low-crosstalk and flat-top 4-channel coarse wavelength-division multiplexing (de)multiplexer is proposed and demonstrated. The cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers are used to provide flat pass-bands. By utilizing the power splitters based on the bent directional couplers, the crosstalk of the Mach-Zehnder interferometers could be ultra-low for all four channels. The measurement results of the fabricated device show that the crosstalk is <−20 dB over a 12-nm wavelength range, the 0.5-, 1-, and 3-dB bandwidths are ~13, ~16, and ~19 nm for all four channels, which agree well with the simulations. Furthermore, the device footprint can be as small as .
Autors: Hongnan Xu;Yaocheng Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 169 - 172
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flexible and Portable Textile-Reflectarray Backed by Frequency Selective Surface
Abstract:
A center fed C-band portable and rollable textile-reflectarray (TRA) using frequency selective surface (FSS) is presented. The radiating elements are embroidered on the textile samples using conductive thread. The TRA is made of elements ( at 5.8 GHz) for broadside radiations. The embroidered flexible FSS aims to replace the solid ground plane. The element size variation backed by the FSS provides a phase variation, which is adequate to design the TRA. Wideband multilayer stacked circular patches are utilized as a feed for the TRA. The antenna provides a measured 7.3% of 0.5 dB gain bandwidth, 15 dB sidelobe level, 25 dB cross polarization, and 29% maximum aperture efficiency.
Autors: Muhammad M. Tahseen;Ahmed A. Kishk;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 46 - 49
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays Driven by Inkjet-Printed High-Mobility Organic Thin-Film Transistors
Abstract:
A 3.2-in flexible color display, with a resolution of 50 ppi and composed of bottom-emission multiphoton organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and inkjet-printed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with a bottom-gate/bottom-contact structure on a color filter, was developed. The device could successfully display color videos while being bent, and achieved a maximum luminance of 125 cd/m2 with white light emission. The gate dielectrics of the OTFTs used on the backplane were bilayers of cardo polymer and Parylene, and the material used for the organic semiconductors was dithieno [2,3-d;2’,3’-d’]benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b’]dithiophene blended with polystyrene in tetralin solvent, which was coated using inkjet printing to sufficiently fill the banks composed of a fluorine-based polymer. OTFTs with a channel length of 5 were created using the above process, and the structure achieved a high mobility of 1.2 ), making it suitable for flexible color OLED displays. The mobility was about three times as high as that obtained using solution shearing methods.
Autors: Makoto Mizukami;Seung-Il Cho;Kaori Watanabe;Miho Abiko;Yoshiyuki Suzuri;Shizuo Tokito;Junji Kido;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 39 - 42
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flow Field Imaging With Ultrasonic Guided Waves for Exploring Metallic Melts
Abstract:
Ultrasonic guided waves enable flow measurements under harsh conditions, which are important, for instance, to monitor and optimize industrial solidification processes. The usage of single mode waveguides overcomes the problem of overheating the transducers, but requires a mechanical scanning for imaging. A multimode waveguide can carry the information of an image, but a scrambling of the signals occurs due to multiple reflections at the waveguide’s boundaries. We propose a new approach to overcome the scrambling and enable flow imaging through a short waveguide: the time-reversal virtual array (TRVA) method. The time invariance of the wave equation in a linear medium allows the refocusing on a limited set of calibrated points, which form the virtual array. This virtual array can conceptually be treated as a phased array. In this paper, the TRVA has been characterized theoretically, numerically, and experimentally. For the first time, a planar velocity measurement of a rotating flow in liquid gallium–indium–tin is demonstrated through a borosilicate waveguide at room temperature. A comparison with reference measurements showed good agreement.
Autors: Mantvydas Kalibatas;Richard Nauber;Christian Kupsch;Jürgen Czarske;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 112 - 119
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fluid Dynamic Models for Bhattacharyya-Based Discriminant Analysis
Abstract:
Classical discriminant analysis attempts to discover a low-dimensional subspace where class label information is maximally preserved under projection. Canonical methods for estimating the subspace optimize an information-theoretic criterion that measures the separation between the class-conditional distributions. Unfortunately, direct optimization of the information-theoretic criteria is generally non-convex and intractable in high-dimensional spaces. In this work, we propose a novel, tractable algorithm for discriminant analysis that considers the class-conditional densities as interacting fluids in the high-dimensional embedding space. We use the Bhattacharyya criterion as a potential function that generates forces between the interacting fluids, and derive a computationally tractable method for finding the low-dimensional subspace that optimally constrains the resulting fluid flow. We show that this model properly reduces to the optimal solution for homoscedastic data as well as for heteroscedastic Gaussian distributions with equal means. We also extend this model to discover optimal filters for discriminating Gaussian processes and provide experimental results and comparisons on a number of datasets.
Autors: Yung-Kyun Noh;Jihun Hamm;Frank Chongwoo Park;Byoung-Tak Zhang;Daniel D. Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 40, issue:1, pages: 92 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flux–Charge Memristor Model for Phase Change Memory
Abstract:
Phase-change memory (PCM) is one of the most promising non-volatile memory technologies and is finding applications in areas such as storage-class memory and emerging non-von Neumann computing systems. Even though powerful physics-based models have been developed for these devices, there is a lack of simple and accurate circuit models to describe these elements. In this brief, we exploit memristor theory to obtain a simple and reliable circuit model based on electrical variables such as charge and flux. This model is based on experimental measurements of PCM devices fabricated in the 90 nm technology node.
Autors: Jacopo Secco;Fernando Corinto;Abu Sebastian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 111 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FMCW SAR System for Near-Distance Imaging Applications—Practical Considerations and Calibrations
Abstract:
A combination of frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) technology with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technique is a highly sought after method, which leads to a compact and cost-effective imaging system, for near-distance target imaging. One of the limiting factors of FMCW radars is that the ramp signal modulates the received signal, which limits the minimum achievable range resolution. In addition, the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) adds a certain degree of phase noise and nonlinearity to the transmitted signal that degrades the signal-to-noise ratio, range accuracy, and image resolution. This paper presents a signal processing procedure with system calibration methods to mitigate the effect of deramp, phase noise, and nonlinearity of the VCO on the beat spectrum. Additionally, the effect of phase noise of the received signal on the SAR image resolution in both range and cross-range directions is comprehensively studied. To improve the range accuracy, different calibration methods are proposed. An -band homodyne FMCW radar system, using off-the-shelf components, is designed for near-distance target imaging using linear and circular SAR techniques. The reconstructed images show the improvement of image quality and accuracy in target position.
Autors: Jui-Wen Ting;Daniel Oloumi;Karumudi Rambabu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 450 - 461
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Focus and Blurriness Measure Using Reorganized DCT Coefficients for an Autofocus Application
Abstract:
In this paper, two metrics for measuring image sharpness are presented and used for an autofocus (AF) application. Both measures exploit reorganized discrete cosine transform (DCT) representation. The first metric is a focus measure, which involves optimal high- and middle-frequency coefficients to evaluate relative sharpness. It is robust to noise while remaining sensitive to the best focus position. A psychometric function-based metric is introduced to quantify the focus measure. The second metric is a no-reference blurriness metric, which is used to measure absolute blurriness. It first constructs multiscale DCT edge maps using directional energy information and then determines image blurriness by combining change information in edge structures with image contrast. This metric gives predictions that are closely correlated with subjective perceived scores and shows performance comparable with that of state-of-the-art methods, especially for noisy images. For noisy situations, the two metrics are adjusted adaptively according to the estimated noise level. To prevent the introduction of extra computational load, an efficient noise-level estimation algorithm based on median absolute deviation is presented. This algorithm exploits only the available reorganized DCT coefficients. With the focus and blurriness measures, an AF method for which the two metrics play an important role was developed. Because of their high-quality performance, the realized AF function is able to locate the best focus position swiftly and reliably.
Autors: Zheng Zhang;Yu Liu;Zhihui Xiong;Jing Li;Maojun Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 15 - 30
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Forced Decryption and the Fifth Amendment: A Technical Perspective
Abstract:
It is not sufficient to do justice by obtaining a proper result by irregular or improper means. Chief Justice Earl Warren Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966)
Autors: Stephen B. Wicker;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 106, issue:1, pages: 3 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Forecast-Based Anticipatory Frequency Control in Power Systems
Abstract:
The imbalance of load and generation can be significant when large amounts of renewable generation are being integrated in power systems. If not dealt effectively, this uncertainty can result in excessive deviations of frequency and tie-line flows. A model predictive control method, termed anticipatory frequency control, is used with predicted disturbances (e.g., from solar or wind generation) within the conventional automatic generation control (AGC) framework to minimize system frequency and tie-line deviations. The controller is shown to reduce the frequency and tie-line deviations over time in a multiarea test power system when compared with conventional control methods. In addition, the impact of imperfect forecasts and controller objective function weighting on the performance of anticipatory control is carefully examined.
Autors: David Ganger;Junshan Zhang;Vijay Vittal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1004 - 1012
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Forecasting Functional Time Series with a New Hilbertian ARMAX Model: Application to Electricity Price Forecasting
Abstract:
A functional time series is the realization of a stochastic process where each observation is a continuous function defined on a finite interval. These processes are commonly found in electricity markets and are gaining more importance as more market data become available and markets head toward continuous-time marginal pricing approaches. Forecasting these time series requires models that operate with continuous functions. This paper proposes a new functional forecasting method that attempts to generalize the standard seasonal ARMAX time series model to the Hilbert space. The structure of the proposed model is a linear regression where functional parameters operate on functional variables. The variables can be lagged values of the series (autoregressive terms), past observed innovations (moving average terms), or exogenous variables. In this approach, the functional parameters used are integral operators whose kernels are modeled as linear combinations of sigmoid functions. The parameters of each sigmoid are optimized using a Quasi-Newton algorithm that minimizes the sum of squared errors. This novel approach allows us to estimate the moving average terms in functional time series models. The new model is tested by forecasting the daily price profile of the Spanish and German electricity markets and it is compared to other functional reference models.
Autors: José Portela González;Antonio Muñoz San Roque;Estrella Alonso Pérez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 545 - 556
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FPGA-Based Hardware Implementation of Real-Time Optical Flow Calculation
Abstract:
Optical flow calculation algorithms are hard to implement on the hardware level in real-time, due to their complexity and high computational load. Therefore, presented works in the literature focusing on the hardware implementation are limited. In this paper, we present a hierarchical block matching-based optical flow algorithm suitable for real-time hardware implementation. The algorithm estimates the initial optical flow with block matching and refines the vectors with local smoothness constraints in each level. We evaluate the proposed algorithm with novel data sets and provide results compared with the ground truth optical flow. Furthermore, we present a reconfigurable hardware architecture of the proposed algorithm for calculating the optical flow in real-time. The presented system can process resolution frames at 39 frames/s.
Autors: Kerem Seyid;Andrea Richaud;Raffaele Capoccia;Yusuf Leblebici;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 206 - 216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fractal Characteristics Analysis of Blackouts in Interconnected Power Grid
Abstract:
The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their subgrids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG. The distribution characteristics of blackouts in various subgrids are demonstrated based on the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) test. The fractal dimensions (FDs) of the IPG and its subgrids are then obtained by using the KS test and the maximum likelihood estimation. The blackouts data in China were used to demonstrate the similarity of distribution characteristics and FDs of the IPG and its subgrids. The results are consistent with the development of the power grids.
Autors: Feng Wang;Lijuan Li;Canbing Li;Qiuwei Wu;Yijia Cao;Bin Zhou;Baling Fang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1085 - 1086
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Free-Surface Time-Series Generation for Wave Energy Applications
Abstract:
Finite-length, numerical simulations of Gaussian seas are widely used in the wave energy sector. The most common method consists of adding up harmonic sinusoidal components, with random phases and deterministic amplitudes derived from the target wave spectrum [deterministic amplitude scheme (DAS)]. In another approach, the component amplitudes are chosen randomly with a variance depending on the spectrum [random amplitude scheme (RAS)]. It is now generally accepted that only the latter method reproduces the true statistical properties of a Gaussian sea. Compared to previous works, this study clarifies the exact nature of the “statistical properties” that should be represented in the simulation process. Further analysis is carried out to address unanswered questions highlighted in the existing literature, especially with respect to the statistical relationships between discrete successive simulation points, and the probability law governing the average power estimator of a wave energy converter (WEC) simulated with the generated wave time series. It is shown that RAS exactly reflects how the WEC performance, considered over a finite duration, varies with respect to its long-term average, whereas DAS has the advantage of providing accurate estimates of the long-term average values using fewer, or shorter, simulations; in particular, it is demonstrated that only one simulation is sufficient when the WEC model is linear. Furthermore, it is shown why alternative methods, based on nonharmonic superposition of sinusoids, are not recommended. The effects of the simulation method (RAS or DAS) upon the statistics of individual oscillations in the time domain are also explored experimentally. Finally, a table is provided that gives recommendations, depending on the objective of the simulations.
Autors: Alexis Mérigaud;John V. Ringwood;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 19 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Domain Analysis and Optimal Design of Isolated Bidirectional Series Resonant Converter
Abstract:
This paper presents an optimal design approach for a dual-active-bridge series resonant converter (DABSRC) based on frequency domain analysis. The proposed design technique ensures efficient performance of DABSRC over a wide range of voltage gain and load variations. The operating principle of the converter is detailed to illustrate both zero voltage switching (ZVS) and zero current switching operations during bidirectional power transfer. Modeling the current-dependent power loss components as an equivalent series resistance, the converter is analyzed in frequency domain to derive amplitude and phase of the state variables accurately. Performing the power loss analysis in a normalized form, the characteristic equations for bidirectional power transfer, tank current, converter efficiency, and ZVS criteria are derived. Using these characteristics, the design of DABSRC is formulated as an efficiency optimization problem. Particle swarm optimization technique is adopted to determine the optimal tank parameters and transformer turns-ratio. Converter performance is evaluated on a 120-W lab-prototype, and peak efficiency of 95.2% and California energy commission efficiency of 92.1% are achieved. Close agreement among analytical predictions, numerical simulation, and experimental results validate the proposed design technique.
Autors: Utsab Kundu;Bhavit Pant;Supratik Sikder;Ashok Kumar;Parthasarathi Sensarma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 356 - 366
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Limited Model Reduction Techniques With Error Bounds
Abstract:
The main issue with the pioneer frequency limited interval Gramian-based technique by Gawronski and Jaung is that it yields unstable reduced order models. There exist some techniques in literature that yield stable reduced order models, however, these techniques yield relatively more frequency response errors. In this brief, three frequency limited interval Gramians-based model order reduction techniques are proposed. The proposed techniques ensure the stability of the reduced order models, produce relatively lower frequency response error (as compared with existing stability preserving techniques) and yield the frequency response error bounds. Numerical examples along with comparison among different techniques are presented which show the effectiveness (relatively low approximation error as compared with other existing stability preserving model order reduction techniques) of the proposed techniques.
Autors: Muhammad Imran;Abdul Ghafoor;Muhammad Imran;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 86 - 90
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Mixer Based on Doppler Effect
Abstract:
In this letter, we have proposed and demonstrated a novel mixer that requires no local oscillator (LO), but mixes the radio frequency (RF) with its Doppler shifted frequencies on a nonlinear reconfigurable composite right/left-handed transmission line, on which a moving reflective surface is controlled by an external digital circuit. An incident RF encounters a frequency shift when reflected from this moving surface and a difference frequency between the incident frequency and Doppler shifted frequency is generated on this nonlinear transmission line. This kind of mixer has the advantage in high frequency and cognitive radio applications since an LO is not required, meanwhile the intermediate frequency is also tunable electronically.
Autors: Jia Ran;Yewen Zhang;Xiaodong Chen;Hong Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 43 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Scanning Radiation by Decoupling Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons via Phase Gradient Metasurface
Abstract:
On the basis of generalized Snell’s law of reflection, we propose to achieve frequency scanning radiation by decoupling spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) from a corrugated metallic strip (CMS). Phase gradient metasurface (PGM) is utilized to modulate the dispersion behavior of the CMS. Since the phase gradient of the PGM is contrary to the wave vector of SSPPs, the dispersion curve of SSPPs can be translated into the fast wave zone, leading to frequency scanning radiation. As an example, we demonstrate a frequency scanning antenna operating at 8.8–10.7 GHz. A prototype was designed, fabricated, and measured. The measured results show that the prototype can realize continuous beam scanning from 4.8° to 37.2°, with realized gain varying from 8 to 13.1 dB. Owing to surface confinement of SSPPs, the proposed method can be readily extended to the design of conformal frequency scanning antennas on curved faces.
Autors: Ya Fan;Jiafu Wang;Yongfeng Li;Jieqiu Zhang;Shaobo Qu;Yajuan Han;Hongya Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 203 - 208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Synchronization for Uplink Massive MIMO Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a frequency synchronization scheme for multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing uplink with a large-scale uniform linear array at base station (BS) by exploiting the angle information of users. Considering that the incident signal at BS from each user can be restricted within a certain angular spread, the proposed scheme could perform carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation for each user individually through a joint spatial-frequency alignment procedure and can be completed efficiently with the aid of fast Fourier transform. A multi-branch receive beamforming is further designed to yield an equivalent single user transmission model for which the conventional single-user channel estimation and data detection can be carried out. To make the study complete, theoretical performance analysis of the CFO estimation is also conducted. We further develop a user grouping scheme to deal with the unexpected scenarios that some users may not be separated well from the spatial domain. Finally, various numerical results are provided to verify the proposed studies.
Autors: Weile Zhang;Feifei Gao;Shi Jin;Hai Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 235 - 249
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency-Dependent Admittance Analysis of the Metal–Semiconductor Structure With an Interlayer of Zn-Doped Organic Polymer Nanocomposites
Abstract:
The capacitance-voltage (–) and conductance-voltage (–) data for Al/(0.07Zn-doped polyvinyl alcohol)/p-Si structure have been performed (at ±6-V biases) in a frequency interval of 1–400 kHz at room temperature. Utilizing form conductance method, values were specified from admittance measurements. The reason of higher and values obtained at lower frequencies was ascribed to the surface states located at MS interface and insulator layer. The increment at capacitance and conductance was occurred in consequence of the ac signal that followed easily by the surface states at these lower frequencies. The surface states existence also generates peaks at conductance versus logarithm of frequency (-log) plots under distinct voltage values. The acquired values of and relaxation time are in the interval of – eV and – s, respectively.
Autors: Hüseyin Tecimer;Serhat Orkun Tan;Şemsettin Altındal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 231 - 236
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency-Polarization-Diverse Aperture for Coincidence Imaging
Abstract:
A wideband frequency-polarization-diverse reflection aperture (WFPRA) for coincidence imaging is proposed in this letter. The reflection aperture is composed of polarization sensitive metamaterial cells with different resonant frequencies and different rotation directions. The cross-polarization information can also be used to generate test modes (uncorrelated spatial gain distributions) based on the cross-polarization conversion of the basic cell of the WFPRA. The number of uncorrelated test modes can be significantly increased compared with the traditional case based on only one statistical dimension of frequency. The WFPRA is designed, which is assisted by the optimization method. The linear frequency modulation signal is used to improve the quality of the test signal. Simulations and experiments validate the proposed aperture.
Autors: Shitao Zhu;Xiaoli Dong;Yuchen He;Mengran Zhao;Guoxiang Dong;Xiaoming Chen;Anxue Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 82 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frog: Asynchronous Graph Processing on GPU with Hybrid Coloring Model
Abstract:
GPUs have been increasingly used to accelerate graph processing for complicated computational problems regarding graph theory. Many parallel graph algorithms adopt the asynchronous computing model to accelerate the iterative convergence. Unfortunately, the consistent asynchronous computing requires locking or atomic operations, leading to significant penalties/overheads when implemented on GPUs. As such, the coloring algorithm is adopted to separate the vertices with potential updating conflicts, guaranteeing the consistency/correctness of the parallel processing. Common coloring algorithms, however, may suffer from low parallelism because of a large number of colors generally required for processing a large-scale graph with billions of vertices. We propose a light-weight asynchronous processing framework called Frog with a preprocessing/hybrid coloring model. The fundamental idea is based on the Pareto principle (or 80-20 rule) about coloring algorithms as we observed through masses of real-world graph coloring cases. We find that a majority of vertices (about 80 percent) are colored with only a few colors, such that they can be read and updated in a very high degree of parallelism without violating the sequential consistency. Accordingly, our solution separates the processing of the vertices based on the distribution of colors. In this work, we mainly answer three questions: (1) how to partition the vertices in a sparse graph with maximized parallelism, (2) how to process large-scale graphs that cannot fit into GPU memory, and (3) how to reduce the overhead of data transfers on PCIe while processing each partition. We conduct experiments on real-world data (Amazon, DBLP, YouTube, RoadNet-CA, WikiTalk, and Twitter) to evaluate our approach and make comparisons with well-known non-preprocessed (such as Totem, Medusa, MapGraph, and Gunrock) and preprocessed (Cusha) approaches, by testing four classical algorithms (BFS, PageRank, SSSP, and CC). On all the tested appl- cations and datasets, Frog is able to significantly outperform existing GPU-based graph processing systems except Gunrock and MapGraph. MapGraph gets better performance than Frog when running BFS on RoadNet-CA. The comparison between Gunrock and Frog is inconclusive. Frog can outperform Gunrock more than 1.04X when running PageRank and SSSP, while the advantage of Frog is not obvious when running BFS and CC on some datasets especially for RoadNet-CA.
Autors: Xuanhua Shi;Xuan Luo;Junling Liang;Peng Zhao;Sheng Di;Bingsheng He;Hai Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 29 - 42
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From Brexit to Trump: Social Media’s Role in Democracy
Abstract:
The ability to share, access, and connect facts and opinions among like-minded (and not so) citizens has encouraged wholesale political adoption of platforms like Twitter and Facebook. Yet our ability to understand the impact that social networks have had on the democratic process is currently very limited. The authors analyze the role social media played in the outcome of the 2016 US presidential election and the Brexit referendum.
Autors: Wendy Hall;Ramine Tinati;Will Jennings;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 51, issue:1, pages: 18 - 27
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From Software-Defined to Human-Defined Networking: Challenges and Opportunities
Abstract:
The SDN paradigm is still in an early stage of development. Considering full automatization and effortless management as the main objective of these networks, we believe diverse challenges need to be tackled. For this purpose, this article reviews the SDN architecture from top to bottom, paying attention to components yet under standardization or that demand enhancement from a network operator's perspective. The main conclusion is that the SDN area requires a significant amount of research to reach its full potential, which we consider a huge opportunity to innovate toward a truly human-defined networking.
Autors: Elisa Rojas;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 179 - 185
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From the editors' desk
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Robert Fleming;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 5 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From Voice of Evidence to Redirections
Abstract:
The Voice of Experience department is being relaunched as Redirections, which will focus on the surprises in software engineering.
Autors: Rafael Prikladnicki;Tim Menzies;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 11 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fronthaul-Aware Software-Defined Wireless Networks: Resource Allocation and User Scheduling
Abstract:
Software-defined networking (SDN) provides an agile and programmable way to optimize radio access networks via a control-data plane separation. Nevertheless, reaping the benefits of wireless SDN hinges on making optimal use of the limited wireless fronthaul capacity. In this paper, the problem of fronthaul-aware resource allocation and user scheduling is studied. To this end, a two-timescale fronthaul-aware SDN control mechanism is proposed in which the controller maximizes the time-averaged network throughput by enforcing a coarse correlated equilibrium in the long timescale. Subsequently, leveraging the controller’s recommendations, each base station schedules its users using Lyapunov stochastic optimization in the short timescale, i.e., at each time slot. Simulation results show that significant network throughput enhancements and up to 40% latency reduction are achieved with the aid of the SDN controller. Moreover, the gains are more pronounced for denser network deployments.
Autors: Chen-Feng Liu;Sumudu Samarakoon;Mehdi Bennis;H. Vincent Poor;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 533 - 547
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frontiers of Science of Information: Shannon Meets Turing
Abstract:
The authors’ vision for a Science of Information integrates key elements of Shannon and Turing postulates into an overarching framework for data analytics, privacy, and security that provides the critically needed formal basis for data science.
Autors: Wojciech Szpankowski;Ananth Grama;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 51, issue:1, pages: 28 - 38
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FSO-Based Vertical Backhaul/Fronthaul Framework for 5G+ Wireless Networks
Abstract:
The presence of a super high rate, but also cost-efficient, easy-to-deploy, and scalable, backhaul/ fronthaul framework, is essential in the upcoming 5G wireless networks and beyond. Motivated by the mounting interest in unmanned flying platforms of various types, including UAVs, drones, balloons, and HAPs/MAPs/LAPs, which we refer to as networked flying platforms (NFPs), for providing communications services, and by the recent advances in free space optics (FSO), this article investigates the feasibility of a novel vertical backhaul/fronthaul framework where the NFPs transport the backhaul/fronthaul traffic between the access and core networks via pointto- point FSO links. The performance of the proposed innovative approach is investigated under different weather conditions and a broad range of system parameters. Simulation results demonstrate that the FSO-based vertical backhaul/ fronthaul framework can offer data rates higher than the baseline alternatives, and thus can be considered a promising solution to the emerging backhaul/fronthaul requirements of the 5G+ wireless networks, particularly in the presence of ultra-dense heterogeneous small cells. This article also presents the challenges that accompany such a novel framework and provides some key ideas toward overcoming these challenges.
Autors: Mohamed Alzenad;Muhammad Z. Shakir;Halim Yanikomeroglu;Mohamed-Slim Alouini;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 218 - 224
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fuel-Efficient En Route Formation of Truck Platoons
Abstract:
The problem of how to coordinate a large fleet of trucks with a given itinerary to enable fuel-efficient platooning is considered. Platooning is a promising technology that enables trucks to save significant amounts of fuel by driving close together and thus reducing air drag. A setting is considered in which each truck in a fleet is provided with a start location, a destination, a departure time, and an arrival deadline from a higher planning level. Fuel-efficient plans should be computed. The plans consist of routes and speed profiles that allow trucks to arrive by their arrival deadlines. Hereby, trucks can meet on common parts of their routes and form platoons, resulting in decreased fuel consumption. We formulate a combinatorial optimization problem that combines plans involving only two vehicles. We show that this problem is difficult to solve for large problem instances. Hence, a heuristic algorithm is proposed. The resulting plans are further optimized using convex optimization techniques. The method is evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations in a realistic setting. We demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can compute plans for thousands of trucks and that significant fuel savings can be achieved.
Autors: Sebastian van de Hoef;Karl Henrik Johansson;Dimos V. Dimarogonas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 102 - 112
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full Bandwidth Wavelength Division Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Based on MMI
Abstract:
In this letter, we design and experimentally demonstrate a four-channel full-band wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) device based on multimode interference in the silicon dioxide material platform. The simulation and performance analysis of WDM devices are carried out by the beam propagation method and finite-difference time-domain method. With a simple structure, the device is in small size, and easy to implement in process. The experimental results show that the device achieves a wavelength separation of 1.28, 1.34, 1.52, and . The insertion losses and a contrast between two channels are also displayed.
Autors: Shicheng Zhang;Wei Ji;Rui Yin;Xiao Li;Zisu Gong;Lingyu Lv;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 107 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Duplex Relaying With Improper Gaussian Signaling Over Nakagami- $m$ Fading Channels
Abstract:
We study the potential employment of improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) in full-duplex relaying (FDR) with non-negligible residual self-interference (RSI) under Nakagami- fading. IGS is recently shown to outperform traditional proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) in several interference-limited settings. In this paper, IGS is employed as an attempt to alleviate RSI. We use two performance metrics, namely, the outage probability and the ergodic rate. First, we provide upper and lower bounds for the system performance in terms of the relay transmit power and circularity coefficient, a measure of the signal impropriety. Then, we numerically optimize the relay signal parameters based only on the channel statistics to improve the system performance. Based on the analysis, IGS allows FDR to operate even with high RSI. The results show that IGS can leverage higher power budgets to enhance the performance, meanwhile it relieves RSI impact via tuning the signal impropriety. Interestingly, 1-D optimization of the circularity coefficient, with maximum relay power, offers a similar performance as the joint optimization, which reduces the optimization complexity. From a throughput standpoint, it is shown that IGS-FDR can outperform not only PGS-FDR, but also half-duplex relaying with/without maximum ratio combining over certain regions of the target source rate.
Autors: Mohamed Gaafar;Mohammad Galal Khafagy;Osama Amin;Rafael F. Schaefer;Mohamed-Slim Alouini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 64 - 78
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Duplex Secure Communications in Cellular Networks With Downlink Wireless Power Transfer
Abstract:
This paper investigates full-duplex (FD) secure transmissions with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) on downlink (DL), where an FD base station, with multiple transmit antennas and multiple receive antennas, serves a group of single-antenna users on both DL and uplink (UL). An optimization problem with non-convex form is formulated for minimizing the system power under constraints on energy harvesting (EH) and security rates. In order to efficiently solve it, the original non-convex problem is first approximated to a convex one and then casted into a form of second-order cone programming (SOCP). Iterative solving algorithms are presented with the computational complexity analysis. Simulation results show that the proposed FD secure scheme is more power-efficient than conventional one, and the SOCP formulation is more computationally efficient than its semi-definite programming alternative. Compared with half-duplex schemes, the FD scheme is also advantageous in power performance especially under high DL and low UL security rate requirements.
Autors: Dong-Hua Chen;Yu-Cheng He;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 265 - 277
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Fledged 10Base-T Ethernet Underwater Optical Wireless Communication System
Abstract:
Marine researchers and operators during their daily work need consistent data from the underwater environment to constantly monitor the habitat’s probes and the robots condition. For underwater applications, wireless communication is of paramount importance. Today, the needs for high-speed communication has prompted the exploration of the Underwater Optical Wireless Communications (UOWCs) method. This paper presents the design and validation aspects of the optical layer of a bidirectional UOWC system developed in the framework of the European Project SUNRISE, able to provide wireless connectivity compliant to 10Base-T Ethernet protocol (Manchester-coded signal with 10 Mb/s data rate). The designed modems are made of two similar optical transceivers, each including a transmitter, a receiver unit, and an optical power monitor part. The transmitter is based on an array of blue Light Emitting Diodes; the receiver exploits a commercially available Avalanche Photodiode (APD) and the monitoring relies on a pin-photodiode. The modems, after a deep characterization in controlled environments, were proved to work with the required 10Base-T Ethernet, up to 7.5 m distance in shallow harbor waters. The complete optical system is intended to become a node of the SUNRISE infrastructure.
Autors: Giulio Cossu;Alessandro Sturniolo;Alessandro Messa;David Scaradozzi;Ernesto Ciaramella;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 194 - 202
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Rate Cooperative Spectrum Sharing Scheme for Cognitive Radio Communications
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose full-rate cooperative spectrum sharing protocol for bandwidth efficient cognitive networks. Cooperative communication is a newly emerging protocol for multiple-input multiple-output, which offers diversity and hence improves the link performance. We show that the proposed scheme enhances the spectral efficiency of the primary user and improves the spectrum usage of the secondary user through cooperative multiplexing. We present an analytical derivation for the average bit error rate of a proposed scheme with maximum likelihood receiver.
Autors: Senthilkumar Dhanasekaran;T. Reshma;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 97 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 

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