Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2018 sorted by title, page: 7

» Divergence-Conforming Constrained Basis Functions for Hexahedral Volume Elements
Abstract:
This communication presents an algebraic method for constructing arbitrary-order, divergence-conforming basis functions on hexahedral volume elements. The appropriate constraints within and on the boundaries of elements are provided. In particular, the handling of faces where quantities are discontinuous is discussed. The resulting bases are numerically characterized in terms of error convergence and system conditioning for a moment method discretization of the electric field volume integral equation for dielectric scatterers. Results show the accuracy of the proposed method as well as the low system matrix condition number that can be maintained as the basis order and mesh discretization are increased.
Autors: Robert A. Pfeiffer;John C. Young;Robert J. Adams;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 501 - 504
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Diversity-Promoting Deep Structural Metric Learning for Remote Sensing Scene Classification
Abstract:
Deep models with multiple layers have demonstrated their potential in learning abstract and invariant features for better representation and classification of remote sensing images. Moreover, metric learning (ML) is usually introduced into the deep models to further increase the discrimination of deep representations. However, the usual deep ML methods treat the training samples in each training batch in the stochastic gradient descent-based learning procedure independently, and thus, they neglect the important contextual (structural) information in the training samples. In this paper, we first introduce deep structural ML (DSML) into the literature of remote sensing scene classification and specifically capture and use the structural information during the training on the remote sensing images. Further analysis demonstrates that DSML usually makes many learned metric parameters similar. This similarity leads to obvious model redundancy and thus decreases the representational ability of the model. To address this problem, this paper proposes a new diversity-promoting DSML (D-DSML) method by regularizing the learning procedure by a diversity-promoting prior over the parameter factors. The proposed D-DSML encourages the parameter factors to be uncorrelated, such that each factor can model unique information, and thus, the model’s description ability and classification performance would be significantly improved. Experiments over six real-world remote sensing scene data sets demonstrate that the proposed method obtains much better results than those obtained by the original deep models and has comparable or even better performances when compared with state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Zhiqiang Gong;Ping Zhong;Yang Yu;Weidong Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 371 - 390
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DIY for Engineers [MicroBusiness]
Abstract:
Reports on the concept of DIY (do-it-yourself) as it applies to microwave engineers.
Autors: Fred Schindler;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 14 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DNA-GA: A Tractable Approach for Performance Analysis of Uplink Cellular Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a tractable semi-analytical approach for the network performance analysis of uplink (UL) cellular networks, which is based on a deterministic network analysis using a Gaussian approximation (DNA-GA). The key contribution of this paper is to investigate the UL signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) performance using the DNA-GA analysis. In particular, the SIR is modeled as a ratio of two random variables (RVs), representing the signal power and the aggregate interference power, respectively. The signal power is further characterized by a product of two RVs, i.e., a lognormal RV and an RV with an arbitrary distribution. The former RV comes from a common assumption of lognormal shadow fading, and the latter one takes the rest of random factors into account, such as random user positions, arbitrary types of multi-path fading, and so on. The aggregate interference power is approximated by an RV with a power lognormal distribution. The proposed DNA-GA analysis has several desirable features: 1) it naturally considers lognormal shadow fading; 2) it can treat arbitrary shape and/or size of cell coverage areas; 3) it can handle non-uniform user distributions; 4) it can cope with any type of multi-path fading; and 5) it can be applied to multi-antenna base stations. These features make the DNA-GA analysis very useful for the network performance analysis of the 5th generation systems with general cell deployment and user distribution.
Autors: Ming Ding;David López-Pérez;Guoqiang Mao;Zihuai Lin;Sajal K. Das;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 355 - 369
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Do Convolutional Neural Networks Learn Class Hierarchy?
Abstract:
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) currently achieve state-of-the-art accuracy in image classification. With a growing number of classes, the accuracy usually drops as the possibilities of confusion increase. Interestingly, the class confusion patterns follow a hierarchical structure over the classes. We present visual-analytics methods to reveal and analyze this hierarchy of similar classes in relation with CNN-internal data. We found that this hierarchy not only dictates the confusion patterns between the classes, it furthermore dictates the learning behavior of CNNs. In particular, the early layers in these networks develop feature detectors that can separate high-level groups of classes quite well, even after a few training epochs. In contrast, the latter layers require substantially more epochs to develop specialized feature detectors that can separate individual classes. We demonstrate how these insights are key to significant improvement in accuracy by designing hierarchy-aware CNNs that accelerate model convergence and alleviate overfitting. We further demonstrate how our methods help in identifying various quality issues in the training data.
Autors: Alsallakh Bilal;Amin Jourabloo;Mao Ye;Xiaoming Liu;Liu Ren;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 152 - 162
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Document Summarization for Answering Non-Factoid Queries
Abstract:
We formulate a document summarization method to extract passage-level answers for non-factoid queries, referred to as answer-biased summaries. We propose to use external information from related Community Question Answering (CQA) content to better identify answer bearing sentences. Three optimization-based methods are proposed: (i) query-biased, (ii) CQA-answer-biased, and (iii) expanded-query-biased, where expansion terms were derived from related CQA content. A learning-to-rank-based method is also proposed that incorporates a feature extracted from related CQA content. Our results show that even if a CQA answer does not contain a perfect answer to a query, their content can be exploited to improve the extraction of answer-biased summaries from other corpora. The quality of CQA content is found to impact on the accuracy of optimization-based summaries, though medium quality answers enable the system to achieve a comparable (and in some cases superior) accuracy to state-of-the-art techniques. The learning-to-rank-based summaries, on the other hand, are not significantly influenced by CQA quality. We provide a recommendation of the best use of our proposed approaches in regard to the availability of different quality levels of related CQA content. As a further investigation, the reliability of our approaches was tested on another publicly available dataset.
Autors: Evi Yulianti;Ruey-Cheng Chen;Falk Scholer;W. Bruce Croft;Mark Sanderson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 15 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Double ErrP Detection for Automatic Error Correction in an ERP-Based BCI Speller
Abstract:
Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a useful device for people with severe motor disabilities. However, due to its low speed and low reliability, BCI still has a very limited application in daily real-world tasks. This paper proposes a P300-based BCI speller combined with a double error-related potential (ErrP) detection to automatically correct erroneous decisions. This novel approach introduces a second error detection to infer whether wrong automatic correction also elicits a second ErrP. Thus, two single-trial responses, instead of one, contribute to the final selection, improving the reliability of error detection. Moreover, to increase error detection, the evoked potential detected as target by the P300 classifier is combined with the evoked error potential at a feature-level. Discriminable error and positive potentials (response to correct feedback) were clearly identified. The proposed approach was tested on nine healthy participants and one tetraplegic participant. The online average accuracy for the first and second ErrPs were 88.4% and 84.8%, respectively. With automatic correction, we achieved an improvement around 5% achieving 89.9% in spelling accuracy for an effective 2.92 symbols/min. The proposed approach revealed that double ErrP detection can improve the reliability and speed of BCI systems.
Autors: Aniana Cruz;Gabriel Pires;Urbano J. Nunes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 26 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Double-Stage Delay Multiply and Sum Beamforming Algorithm: Application to Linear-Array Photoacoustic Imaging
Abstract:
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging medical imaging modality capable of providing high spatial resolution of Ultrasound (US) imaging and high contrast of optical imaging. Delay-and-Sum (DAS) is the most common beamforming algorithm in PAI. However, using DAS beamformer leads to low resolution images and considerable contribution of off-axis signals. A new paradigm namely delay-multiply-and-sum (DMAS), which was originally used as a reconstruction algorithm in confocal microwave imaging, was introduced to overcome the challenges in DAS. DMAS was used in PAI systems and it was shown that this algorithm results in resolution improvement and sidelobe degrading. However, DMAS is still sensitive to high levels of noise, and resolution improvement is not satisfying. Here, we propose a novel algorithm based on DAS algebra inside DMAS formula expansion, double stage DMAS (DS-DMAS), which improves the image resolution and levels of sidelobe, and is much less sensitive to high level of noise compared to DMAS. The performance of DS-DMAS algorithm is evaluated numerically and experimentally. The resulted images are evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using established quality metrics including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) and contrast ratio (CR). It is shown that DS-DMAS outperforms DAS and DMAS at the expense of higher computational load. DS-DMAS reduces the lateral valley for about 15 dB and improves the SNR and FWHM better than 13% and 30%, respectively. Moreover, the levels of sidelobe are reduced for about 10 dB in comparison with those in DMAS.
Autors: Moein Mozaffarzadeh;Ali Mahloojifar;Mahdi Orooji;Saba Adabi;Mohammadreza Nasiriavanaki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 31 - 42
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Downlink Cellular Network Analysis With LOS/NLOS Propagation and Elevated Base Stations
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the downlink performance of dense cellular networks with elevated base stations (BSs) using a channel model that incorporates line-of-sight (LOS)/non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation into both small-scale and large-scale fading. Modeling LOS fading with Nakagami- fading, we provide a unified framework based on stochastic geometry that encompasses both closest and strongest BS association. This paper is particularized to two distance-dependent LOS/NLOS models of practical interest. Considering the effect of LOS propagation alone, we derive closed-form expressions for the coverage probability with Nakagami- fading, showing that the performance for strongest BS association is the same as in the case of Rayleigh fading, whereas for closest BS association it monotonically increases with the shape parameter . Then, focusing on the effect of elevated BSs, we show that network densification eventually leads to near-universal outage even for moderately low BS densities: in particular, the maximum area spectral efficiency is proportional to the inverse of the square of the BS height.
Autors: Italo Atzeni;Jesús Arnau;Marios Kountouris;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 142 - 156
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DPPDL: A Dynamic Partial-Parallel Data Layout for Green Video Surveillance Storage
Abstract:
Video surveillance requires storing massive amounts of video data, which results in the rapid increasing of storage energy consumption. With the popularization of video surveillance, green storage for video surveillance is very attractive. The existing energy-saving methods for massive storage mostly concentrate on the data centers, mainly with random access, whereas the storage of video surveillance has inherent workload characteristics and access pattern, which can be fully exploited to save more energy. A dynamic partial-parallel data layout (DPPDL) is proposed for green video surveillance storage. It adopts a dynamic partial-parallel strategy, which dynamically allocates the storage space with an appropriate degree of partial parallelism according to performance requirement. Partial parallelism benefits energy conservation by scheduling only partial disks to work; a dynamic degree of parallelism can provide appropriate performances for various intensity workloads. DPPDL is evaluated by a simulated video surveillance consisting of 60–300 cameras with pixels. The experiment shows that DPPDL is most energy efficient, while tolerating single disk failure and providing more than 20% performance margin. On average, it saves 7%, 19%, 31%, 36%, 56%, and 59% more energy than a CacheRAID, Semi-RAID, Hibernator, MAID, eRAID5, and PARAID, respectively.
Autors: Zhizhuo Sun;Quanxin Zhang;Yuanzhang Li;Yu-An Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 193 - 205
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Drain Current Saturation in Line Tunneling-Based TFETs: An Analog Design Perspective
Abstract:
This paper highlights the output current saturation in a line tunneling-based tunnel FET (LT-TFET). Thereafter, a novel method to extract the onset of saturation voltage () for LT-TFET is proposed for the first time. A soft saturation state is attained when the electron density in the epitaxial layer over the source region saturates with the drain bias () and the conduction band energy () gets pinned. In addition, at the onset of deep saturation, the electron density in the epitaxial layer over the channel region drops below its doping level and becomes invariant for any further increase in . The difference between gate–drain bias () is found to be a constant at the onset of saturation and remains independent of the gate–source overlap lengths (). A shift in and is also observed with change in the thickness and doping of the epitaxial layer. The transconductance and output resistance are reasonably good in the soft saturation regime. Furthermore, a nominal change of ~5% in the voltage gain ( ${A}_{textsf {V}}$ - /inline-formula>) of a common source amplifier is observed when the n-device is biased in the either soft or deep saturation regime, without any tradeoff in the bandwidth.
Autors: Abhishek Acharya;Abhishek B. Solanki;Sudeb Dasgupta;Bulusu Anand;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 322 - 330
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Drone-Aided Communication as a Key Enabler for 5G and Resilient Public Safety Networks
Abstract:
Wireless networks comprising unmanned aerial vehicles can offer limited connectivity in a cost-effective manner to disaster-struck regions where terrestrial infrastructure might have been damaged. While these drones offer advantages such as rapid deployment to far-flung areas, their operations may be rendered ineffective by the absence of an adequate energy management strategy. This article considers the multi-faceted applications of these platforms and the challenges thereof in the networks of the future. In addition to providing an overview of the work done by researchers in determining the features of the air-to-ground channel, the article explores the use of drones in fields as diverse as military surveillance and network rehabilitation for disaster-struck areas. It also presents a case study that envisages a scenario in which drones operate alongside conventional wireless infrastructure, thereby allowing a greater number of users to establish a line-of-sight link for communication. This study investigates a power allocation strategy for the microwave base station and the small base stations operating at 28 GHz frequency band. The self-adaptive power control strategy for drones is dependent on the maximum allowable interference threshold and minimum data rate requirements. This study highlights the importance of incorporating the drones in the multi-tier heterogeneous network to extend the network coverage and capacity.
Autors: Syed Ahsan Raza Naqvi;Syed Ali Hassan;Haris Pervaiz;Qiang Ni;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 36 - 42
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DTN-Based Nanosatellite Architecture and Hot Spot Selection Algorithm for Remote Areas Connection
Abstract:
To extend the network coverage to rural and remote areas, there are different solutions with their advantages and disadvantages. We propose to use a nanosatellite network and to exploit the ability to cope with large delays and disruptions provided by the delay- and disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) paradigm. The connection from remote areas is managed through ground stations called cold spots that collect data from rural nodes and address them to the nanosatellites. Nanosatellites carry and download data to hot spots that address them to the Internet destinations. On the reverse direction, Internet data are addressed to hot spots, uploaded on nanosatellites and delivered to the rural destinations through cold spots. The problem of choosing the “optimal’’ hot spot to address data from the Internet source is important because a wrong choice could lead to large delivery delays. In this paper, we propose “gRANteD’’: a Nanosatellite-DTN Network for rural and remote areas. gRANteD includes “HotSel,’’ a hot spot selection algorithm to minimize the delivery time of all data destined to rural users. The performance evaluation is carried out through a DTN module which implements gRANteD and HotSel, within the framework of Network Simulator 3.
Autors: Mario Marchese;Fabio Patrone;Marco Cello;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 689 - 702
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dual-Band Coil Module With Repeaters for Diverse Wireless Power Transfer Applications
Abstract:
Dual-band coil modules facilitate efficient access to distinct-band, high-power, or rapid-charging wireless power transfer (WPT) systems. However, they do not function efficiently when the frequency ratio between two operating frequencies is large. To overcome this problem, we propose enhanced dual-band coil modules that adopt repeaters in the WPT system. We present a circuit-based analysis of repeaters in various dual-band coil modules compared with those in a single-band WPT system. The analytical results provide a design methodology applicable to diverse types of dual-band coil modules with a repeater in the WPT system. Our experimental results are consistent with the circuit-based analysis: coil power transfer efficiencies of 55% at 200 kHz and 74% at 6.78 MHz were obtained concurrently in the dual-band WPT system with a dual-band repeater. This paper reduced the application constraint of dual-band coil modules and facilitated the realization and application of multiband WPT systems.
Autors: Ming-Lung Kung;Ken-Huang Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 332 - 345
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dual-Core Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers With a General Pump Configuration
Abstract:
In this letter, we study a dual-core fiber optical parametric amplifier with its pumps having the arbitrary power and phase distributions. A full analytical model is derived for such a general pumping scheme based on the rotating wave approximation, which is valid under the relatively strong coupling assumption. It is found that the parametric gain is not dependent on the coupling strength between the cores in such a dual-core fiber amplifier especially in the strong coupling regime. Based on the model and the corresponding observations, it is possible to provide an efficient analytical tool for the dual-core fiber optical parametric amplifier design and performance evaluation.
Autors: Junhe Zhou;Qinsong Hu;Jianjie Wu;Wei Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 19 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dual-Loop Digital Control of a Three-Phase Power Supply Unit With Reduced Sensor Count
Abstract:
Widespread deployment of voltage source inverter units in high penetration applications such as distributed generation and stand-alone renewable energy conditioning imposes stringent demands on reliability and output voltage regulation. Reported literature provides numerous solutions for output voltage regulation, which includes twin aspects of command tracking and output impedance control. Most of these methods rely on the measurement of at least two separate variables per phase, which compromises overall reliability. This paper focuses on a dual-loop voltage regulation approach requiring only output voltage measurement. The outer loop of a control scheme is used to assure prompt tracking of the inverter output voltage, whereas the inner derivative feedback loop improves system stability by damping the output filter resonance. Digital realization of this derivative term is generally a challenge with many methods currently developed for resolving it. These methods are, however, still facing drawbacks, which have inclusively been explained in this paper. Subsequently, a new digital derivative is proposed whose performance is predicted analytically and then validated through experimental results with a 7.5-kVA inverter prototype.
Autors: Sanjay Tolani;Sridhar Joshi;Parthasarathi Sensarma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 367 - 375
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dualfunction Dielectric Resonator as Antenna and Phase-Delay-Line Load: Designs of Compact Circularly Polarized/Differential Antennas
Abstract:
Dualfunction cylindrical dielectric resonator (DR) used as the load of a broadband phase delay line (PDL) and as a DR antenna (DRA) is presented for the first time. In the broadband PDL design, the cylindrical DR is used as the load to improve impedance match and phase shift. At the same time, the delay line is used to feed the same DR for the antenna part. By designing 90° and 180° PDLs, circularly polarized (CP) and differential DRAs can be obtained, respectively. As compared with those using a hybrid coupler, the new CP and differential DRAs can be made much more compact. Also, the external load required by the hybrid coupler can now be avoided. For demonstration, two CP and differential cylindrical DRAs for 2.4 GHz WLAN applications are designed, fabricated, and tested. Good agreement between the measured and simulated results is observed. The CP design has an overlapping axial ratio and impedance passband of 24.2%. For the differential design, a broadside radiation mode with very low cross-polarization level is obtained.
Autors: Yu-Xiang Sun;Kwok Wa Leung;Jun-Fa Mao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 414 - 419
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Duality of Channels and Codes
Abstract:
For any given channel with classical inputs and possibly quantum outputs, a dual classical-input channel can be defined by embedding the original into a channel with quantum inputs and outputs. Here, we give new uncertainty relations for a general class of entropies that lead to very close relationships between the original channel and its dual. Moreover, we show that channel duality can be combined with duality of linear codes, whereupon the uncertainty relations imply that the performance of a given code over a given channel is entirely characterized by the performance of the dual code on the dual channel. This has several applications. In the context of polar codes, it implies that the rates of polarization to ideal and useless channels must be identical. Duality also relates the tasks of channel coding and privacy amplification, implying that the finite blocklength performance of extractors and codes is precisely linked, and those optimal rate extractors can be transformed into capacity-achieving codes, and vice versa. Finally, duality also extends to the EXIT function of any channel and code. Here, it implies that for any channel family, if the EXIT function for a fixed code has a sharp transition, then it must be such that the rate of the code equals the capacity at the transition. This gives a different route to proving a code family achieves capacity by establishing sharp EXIT function transitions.
Autors: Joseph M. Renes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 577 - 592
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dynamic Analysis of Small Wind Turbines Frequency Support Capability in a Low-Power Wind-Diesel Microgrid
Abstract:
When wind power accounts for a large portion of the islanded microgrid power, it may need to support the ac bus frequency regulation. The increasing penetration of variable speed wind turbines (WTs) in microgrids leads to a lower inertia, as the rotational speed of the turbine and the grid is decoupled by power electronic converters. Lower system inertia results in a larger and faster frequency deviation after occurrence of abrupt variations on generation and load. It is possible to implement control loops in the WT converters to provide a virtual inertia and support frequency regulation in the microgrid. This paper investigates the variables related to the frequency compensation capability of WT, such as kinetic energy, dc-link capacitance, turbine size, wind penetration, number of turbines, operating region along the power curve, power reserve and droop control gain, etc. The analysis is structured as a design of experiment (DOE) to have a clear and organized comparison of multiple system configurations. An optimal control technique is applied to provide fair comparison among the system variables. A flowchart explaining how the DOE and controllers gains were defined is provided.
Autors: Raffael Engleitner;Ademir Nied;Mariana Santos Matos Cavalca;Jean Patric da Costa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 102 - 111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dynamic Choke Sensing for Timing Error Resilience in NTC Systems
Abstract:
Process variation (PV) is a conspicuous predicament for submicrometer VLSI circuits. In this paper, we illustrate “choke points” as a vital consequence of PV in the near-threshold computing domain. Choke points are PV affected sensitized logic gates with increased delay deviation. They dominate the choice of critical paths postfabrication. To mitigate the timing errors induced thereby, we propose dynamic choke sensing (DCS). This technique senses the timing error causing opcode sequences, and uses the knowledge to prevent similar sequences from causing errors in the future. We propose two variants of our scheme. Our techniques provide ~55% improvement in performance and ~73% improvement in energy efficiency as compared with popular timing error mitigation scheme, Razor, with minimal area and power overheads.
Autors: Aatreyi Bal;Shamik Saha;Sanghamitra Roy;Koushik Chakraborty;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dynamic Compression of the Signal in a Charge Sensitive Amplifier: Experimental Results
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the experimental characterization of a charge sensitive amplifier featuring dynamic signal compression, fast recovery time, low noise, and reduced area occupancy. The device takes the advantage of the nonlinear characteristic of a feedback transistor that behaves like a voltage-controlled capacitance. This property has been exploited to fit a wide input dynamic range into the available output swing. The charge amplifier can be operated in synchronous mode at high frame rates, of the order of few megahertz, thanks to a wide bandwidth, an improved output stage, and a fast reset network. Thanks to the small area occupancy, the amplifier is suitable for integration in a pixel area. All these features make the device a good candidate for applications where a fast front end with a nonlinear response is required, such as in imaging instrumentation for free electron laser experiments. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss the experimental results coming from the characterization of the first prototype of the circuit, which has been designed in a 65-nm CMOS technology. This paper has been carried out in the frame of the PixFEL Project funded by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy.
Autors: Massimo Manghisoni;Daniele Comotti;Luigi Gaioni;Lodovico Ratti;Valerio Re;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 636 - 644
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dynamic Data Transmission Technology Designed for Expendable Current Profiler
Abstract:
The dynamic data transmission technology of an expendable current profiler is proposed in this paper. Two parallel varnished wires are employed as the data transmission medium. By testing the transmission properties of the varnished wires, a baseband transmission system is studied and designed. An optocoupler is used as the physical layer for data transmission. The data transmission protocol is modified and optimized in accordance with the RS232 protocol, and the Manchester code is superimposed. According to the results of indoor and marine tests, the data transmission distance of the designed system, which employed a 0.1-mm-diameter varnished wire, extends to 2 km with high accuracy for data transmission, exhibiting excellent performance. Moreover, this data transmission technology could be used for other expendable marine-environment parametric measuring instruments such as an expendable bathythermograph and expendable conductivity temperature depth profiler.
Autors: Shu-Han Li;Qi-Sheng Zhang;Xiao Zhao;Sheng-Hui Liu;Xin-Yue Zhang;Zhen-Zhong Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 66 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dynamic Determination of the Baseline Level in Microwave Links for Rain Monitoring From Minimum Attenuation Values
Abstract:
In recent years, the use of commercial microwave links (CMLs) as tools for remote sensing of the environment has attracted special interest. However, in order to use attenuation measurements taken by microwave links for estimating the rain, one needs to determine the baseline attenuation level. Existing methods frequently use the low attenuation values that are observed during the periods prior to the onset of the rain that have been identified as dry for determining the baseline attenuation level during rainy periods. In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis that justifies the use of the lower attenuation values and propose a systematic method for estimating the baseline attenuation level on the fly that does not need a dry/wet classification. Thus, the proposed method produces a dynamic baseline, which is continuously updated. This method can be implemented on measurements taken from a single CML, in real time, without using either historic or side information. We implemented this method on actual CMLs based measurements and demonstrated its capability to estimate monthly, daily, and hourly rainfall. The resultant estimates were validated by measurements from dedicated weather sensor and rain gauges and are shown to produce accurate estimates of the hourly, daily, and monthly cumulative rain depths.
Autors: Jonatan Ostrometzky;Hagit Messer;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 24 - 33
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dynamic Influence Networks for Rule-Based Models
Abstract:
We introduce the Dynamic Influence Network (DIN), a novel visual analytics technique for representing and analyzing rule-based models of protein-protein interaction networks. Rule-based modeling has proved instrumental in developing biological models that are concise, comprehensible, easily extensible, and that mitigate the combinatorial complexity of multi-state and multi-component biological molecules. Our technique visualizes the dynamics of these rules as they evolve over time. Using the data produced by KaSim, an open source stochastic simulator of rule-based models written in the Kappa language, DINs provide a node-link diagram that represents the influence that each rule has on the other rules. That is, rather than representing individual biological components or types, we instead represent the rules about them (as nodes) and the current influence of these rules (as links). Using our interactive DIN-Viz software tool, researchers are able to query this dynamic network to find meaningful patterns about biological processes, and to identify salient aspects of complex rule-based models. To evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, we investigate a simulation of a circadian clock model that illustrates the oscillatory behavior of the KaiC protein phosphorylation cycle.
Autors: Angus G. Forbes;Andrew Burks;Kristine Lee;Xing Li;Pierre Boutillier;Jean Krivine;Walter Fontana;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 184 - 194
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dynamic Load Balancing Based on Constrained K-D Tree Decomposition for Parallel Particle Tracing
Abstract:
We propose a dynamically load-balanced algorithm for parallel particle tracing, which periodically attempts to evenly redistribute particles across processes based on k-d tree decomposition. Each process is assigned with (1) a statically partitioned, axis-aligned data block that partially overlaps with neighboring blocks in other processes and (2) a dynamically determined k-d tree leaf node that bounds the active particles for computation; the bounds of the k-d tree nodes are constrained by the geometries of data blocks. Given a certain degree of overlap between blocks, our method can balance the number of particles as much as possible. Compared with other load-balancing algorithms for parallel particle tracing, the proposed method does not require any preanalysis, does not use any heuristics based on flow features, does not make any assumptions about seed distribution, does not move any data blocks during the run, and does not need any master process for work redistribution. Based on a comprehensive performance study up to 8K processes on a Blue Gene/Q system, the proposed algorithm outperforms baseline approaches in both load balance and scalability on various flow visualization and analysis problems.
Autors: Jiang Zhang;Hanqi Guo;Fan Hong;Xiaoru Yuan;Tom Peterka;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 954 - 963
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dynamic Modeling and Feasibility Analysis of a Solid-State Transformer-Based Power Distribution System
Abstract:
This paper presents a comprehensive state-space dynamic model of a future power distribution system for plug-and-play interface of distributed renewable energy resources and distributed energy storage devices. The system, called the future renewable electric energy delivery and management (FREEDM) system, comprises of multiple solid-state transformers (SSTs), and load, generation, and storage connected to each SST in a distributed network. The system allows for high penetration of renewable generation with energy storage at the distribution level. A physics-based 70th-order state-space average model is first developed considering the physical and controller properties of a single-SST FREEDM system along with its distribution components. This fundamental model is then extended to build a multi-SST FREEDM system for feasibility and dynamics behavior analysis of the entire system, which is essential to ensure system power balance. The full average model with multiple SSTs has been incorporated in an IEEE 34 bus distribution testbed for a scaled analysis of the system.
Autors: Md Tanvir Arafat Khan;Alireza Afiat Milani;Aranya Chakrabortty;Iqbal Husain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 551 - 562
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dynamic Power Management and Control of a PV PEM Fuel-Cell-Based Standalone ac/dc Microgrid Using Hybrid Energy Storage
Abstract:
In this paper, a dynamic power management scheme (PMS) is proposed for a standalone hybrid ac/dc microgrid, which constitutes a photovoltaic (PV)-based renewable energy source, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (FC) as a secondary power source, and a battery and a supercapacitor as hybrid energy storage. The power management algorithm accounts for seamless operation of the microgrid under various modes and state-of-charge limit conditions of hybrid energy storage when all the sources, storages, and loads are connected directly at the dc link. The PMS generates current references for dc converter current controllers of the FC, the battery, and the supercapacitor. The average and fluctuating power components are separated using a moving average filter. The dc-link voltage regulation under dynamic changes in load and source power variation is proposed. Also, PV power curtailment through control is formulated. The proposed power management is modified and extended to multiple PV generation systems and batteries, with all the sources and storages geographically distributed and operating under multitime-scale adaptive-droop-based control with supervisory control for mode transition. The proposed PMS is validated using simulation results. Also, field programmable gate array/Labview-based laboratory-scale experimental results are presented to validate the PMS under various critical conditions.
Autors: Rishi Kant Sharma;Sukumar Mishra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 526 - 538
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dynamic State Estimation With Model Uncertainties Using $H_infty$ Extended Kalman Filter
Abstract:
When implementing Kalman filters to track system dynamic state variables, the dynamical model is assumed to be accurate. However, this assumption may not hold true as power system dynamical model is subjected to various uncertainties, such as varying generator transient reactance in different operation conditions, uncertain inputs, or noise statistics. As a result, the performance of Kalman-type filters can be degraded significantly. To bound the influence of these uncertainties, this letter proposes an extended Kalman filter (HEKF) based on the robust control theory. An approach to tune the parameter of HEKF is presented as well. Numerical results on the IEEE 39-bus system demonstrate the effectiveness of the HEKF.
Autors: Junbo Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1099 - 1100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» EABS: An Event-Aware Backpressure Scheduling Scheme for Emergency Internet of Things
Abstract:
The backpressure scheduling scheme has been applied in Internet of Things, which can control the network congestion effectively and increase the network throughput. However, in large-scale Emergency Internet of Things (EIoT), emergency packets may exist because of the urgent events or situations. The traditional backpressure scheduling scheme will explore all the possible routes between the source and destination nodes that cause a superfluous long path for packets. Therefore, the end-to-end delay increases and the real-time performance of emergency packets cannot be guaranteed. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes EABS, an event-aware backpressure scheduling scheme for EIoT. A backpressure queue model with emergency packets is first devised based on the analysis of the arrival process of different packets. Meanwhile, EABS combines the shortest path with backpressure scheme in the process of next-hop node selecting. The emergency packets are forwarded in the shortest path and avoid the network congestion according to the queue backlog difference. The extensive experiment results verify that EABS can reduce the average end-to-end delay and increase the average forwarding percentage. For the emergency packets, the real-time performance is guaranteed. Moreover, we compare EABS with two existing backpressure scheduling schemes, showing that EABS outperforms both of them.
Autors: Tie Qiu;Ruixuan Qiao;Dapeng Oliver Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 72 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» EAPC: Energy-Aware Path Construction for Data Collection Using Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Data collection is one of the paramount concerns in wireless sensor networks. Many data collection algorithms have been proposed for collecting data in particular monitoring regions. However, the efficiency of the paths for such data collection can be improved. This paper proposes an energy-aware path construction (EAPC) algorithm, which selects an appropriate set of data collection points, constructs a data collection path, and collects data from the points burdened with data. EAPC is intended to prolong the network lifetime, it accounts for the path cost from its current data collection point to the next point and the forwarding load of each sensor node. Performance evaluation reveals that the proposed EAPC has more efficient performance than existing data collection mechanisms in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption, fairness index, and efficiency index.
Autors: Weimin Wen;Shenghui Zhao;Cuijuan Shang;Chih-Yung Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 890 - 901
Publisher: IEEE
 
» EDFA Wavelength Dependent Gain Spectrum Measurement Using Weak Optical Probe Sampling
Abstract:
Wavelength dependent gain is a critical parameter in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and is the primary determinant of the channel power divergence and excursions in optical transmission systems, each of which varies with channel loading in wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems. In an optical transmission system, measurements of the wavelength dependent gain between two locations can be used to obtain estimates of optical power excursions that occur in optical circuit switching. Non-intrusive sampling of just 10% of the WDM channel positions using weak probe signals achieves less than 0.15 dB error for the gain spectrum estimation of the amplifier with 5 dB tilt. In a two-span node-to-node network with a 3 dB peak-to-peak channel power difference, the weak probe approach further shows to provide less than 0.2 dB error in optical channel power excursion prediction for changes in channel loading.
Autors: Weiyang Mo;Shengxiang Zhu;Yao Li;Daniel C. Kilper;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 177 - 180
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Edge Computing for the Internet of Things
Abstract:
Autors: Ju Ren;Yi Pan;Andrzej Goscinski;Raheem A. Beyah;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 6 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Edge Computing Gateway of the Industrial Internet of Things Using Multiple Collaborative Microcontrollers
Abstract:
An Internet of Things gateway serves as a key intermediary between numerous smart things and their corresponding cloud networking servers. A typical conventional gateway system uses a high-level embedded microcontroller (MCU) as its core; that MCU performs low-level perception-layer device network management, upper-level cloud server functions, and remote mobile computation services. However, in edge computing, many factors need to be considered when designing an IoT gateway, such as minimizing the response time, the power consumption, and the bandwidth cost. Regarding system scalability, computational efficiency, and communication efficiency, solutions that use a single MCU cannot deliver IoT functionality such as big data collection, management, real-time communication, expandable peripherals, and various other services. Therefore, this article proposes an innovative multi-MCU system framework combining a field-programmable- gate-array-based hardware bridge and multiple scalable MCUs to realize an edge gateway of a smart sensor fieldbus network. Through distributed and collaborative computing, the multi-MCU edge gateway can efficiently perform fieldbus network management, embedded data collection, and networking communication, thereby considerably reducing the real-time power consumption and improving scalability compared to the existing industrial IoT solutions.
Autors: Ching-Han Chen;Ming-Yi Lin;Chung-Chi Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 24 - 32
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Editor's Note
Abstract:
Autors: Nei Kato;Mohsen Guizani;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Editorial
Abstract:
At its core, a technical publication represents a community or a community of communities that share an interest in solving commonly understood technical problems, often with an understanding of the nature of methods that must be invented. As communities go, IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (TCAD) represents a very diverse community spread across a large number of technical areas spanning very large scale integration (VLSI), CAD, circuits, embedded systems, formal methods, etc., and internationally spanning nearly all regions of the IEEE.
Autors: Rajesh K. Gupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 1 - 2
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Editorial A New Beginning Within a Solid Tradition
Abstract:
Autors: A. Astolfi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 1 - 2
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Editorial Addition of New Material After Peer Review
Abstract:
This editorial addresses a serious concern of author misconduct that must be addressed at the editorial level. The problem is not new, but the frequency of occurrences in the last few months has brought the matter to the forefront of our attention. We are talking about the many instances of authors adding new material to their papers after the peer-review process has been completed. To provide the background about the problem, when the paper under review has been recommended for publication by an Associate Editor, the peer-review process has been completed. In the decision letter, the authors are requested to submit a final version that will be sent to the IEEE for typesetting. The final version of the paper is checked carefully at the editorial office as a matter of quality control.
Autors: Mandar Chitre;N. Ross Chapman;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 2 - 2
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Editorial from the New Editor in Chief
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Nenad Medvidović;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 44, issue:1, pages: 3 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Editorial Hello From Your New EIC
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Mandar Chitre;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 1 - 1
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Educating Next-Gen Computer Scientists
Abstract:
Six panelists (Phillip A. Laplante, Michael Lewis, Keith Miller, Jeff Offutt, Jon George Rokne, and Shiuhpyng Shieh) debate whether university computer science education is leading technology forward, or commercial technology demands are leaving these programs in the dust.
Autors: Jeffrey Voas;Rick Kuhn;Celia Paulsen;Kim Schaffer;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 51, issue:1, pages: 80 - 88
Publisher: IEEE
 
» EdWordle: Consistency-Preserving Word Cloud Editing
Abstract:
We present EdWordle, a method for consistently editing word clouds. At its heart, EdWordle allows users to move and edit words while preserving the neighborhoods of other words. To do so, we combine a constrained rigid body simulation with a neighborhood-aware local Wordle algorithm to update the cloud and to create very compact layouts. The consistent and stable behavior of EdWordle enables users to create new forms of word clouds such as storytelling clouds in which the position of words is carefully edited. We compare our approach with state-of-the-art methods and show that we can improve user performance, user satisfaction, as well as the layout itself.
Autors: Yunhai Wang;Xiaowei Chu;Chen Bao;Lifeng Zhu;Oliver Deussen;Baoquan Chen;Michael Sedlmair;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 647 - 656
Publisher: IEEE
 
» EEG-Based Affect and Workload Recognition in a Virtual Driving Environment for ASD Intervention
Abstract:
Objective: To build group-level classification models capable of recognizing affective states and mental workload of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during driving skill training. Methods: Twenty adolescents with ASD participated in a six-session virtual reality driving simulator-based experiment, during which their electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded alongside driving events and a therapist's rating of their affective states and mental workload. Five feature generation approaches including statistical features, fractal dimension features, higher order crossings (HOC)-based features, power features from frequency bands, and power features from bins () were applied to extract relevant features. Individual differences were removed with a two-step feature calibration method. Finally, binary classification results based on the k-nearest neighbors algorithm and univariate feature selection method were evaluated by leave-one-subject-out nested cross-validation to compare feature types and identify discriminative features. Results: The best classification results were achieved using power features from bins for engagement (0.95) and boredom (0.78), and HOC-based features for enjoyment (0.90), frustration (0.88), and workload (0.86). Conclusion: Offline EEG-based group-level classification models are feasible for recognizing binary low and high intensity of affect and workload of individuals with ASD in the context of driving. However, while promising the applicability of the models in an online adaptive driving task requires further development. Significance: The developed models provide a basis for an EEG-based passive brain computer interface system that has the potential to benefit individuals with ASD w- th an affect- and workload-based individualized driving skill training intervention.
Autors: Jing Fan;Joshua W. Wade;Alexandra P. Key;Zachary E. Warren;Nilanjan Sarkar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 43 - 51
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Effect of Motor Voltage Unbalance on Motor Vibration: Test and Evaluation
Abstract:
There have been many discussions on the importance of balanced power supply for both best performance and for lower vibration during operation of industrial motors in petrochemical duty and related installations. Results of tests that were conducted on several low-voltage IEEE 841 motors to observe the effect on vibration due to unbalanced power supply will be presented. Various increments of voltage imbalance from 1% up to 10% were tested and monitored on several pole speeds. This paper will present actual test data collected, along with a discussion on how these results relate and impact the various vibration testing and operational conditions provided within industry standards.
Autors: Matthew Campbell;Gabriel Arce;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 905 - 911
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Effect of Nonlinear Screening on a Complex Plasma Phase State
Abstract:
Applicability limit of the well-known phase diagram of dusty plasmas in – plane ( is structural parameter and is parameter of Coulomb nonideality) is under discussion. Existence of extensive domains with violation of plasma thermodynamic stability conditions (i.e., with negative isothermal compressibility) was also claimed if one uses well-known nonideal equations of state by (Hamaguchi S. et al., Phys. Rev. E, 1997) and (Khrapak S. et al., Phys. Rev. E, 2014). This paper is devoted to analysis of a range of applicability for basic assumption in Hamaguchi’s phase diagram, i.e., linearized (Debye) screening of macroions by microions, which leads to the Yukawa form for effective interactions between macroions. Parameters of nonlinear screening for macroions were calculated within differential Poisson–Boltzmann equation. Two effects were revealed as a result of such calculations: 1) decomposition of all microions onto two subclasses, free and bound ones, and 2) significant reduction of effective charge of initial bare macroion Z under nonlinear screening by small high-density envelope of bound ions. This effect leads to a renormalization of initial and into and (, ). The main physical assumption is phase states of complex plasma under nonlinear screening, which are still the same as on the initial phase diagram, but in – plane instead of – one. Corresponding calculated shifts of phase states are discussed and illustrated.
Autors: Inna A. Martynova;Igor L. Iosilevskiy;Andrey A. Shagayda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 14 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Effect of Precursor Concentration on Structural, Morphological, and Optical Properties of ZnO Thin-Filmed Sensor for Ethanol Detection
Abstract:
Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructured thin films with precursor concentration variation of 0.025 M (1Z), 0.075 M (2Z), and 0.125 M (3Z) were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates using a simple hydrothermal technique. X-ray diffraction confirmed Wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO. Changes in the lattice constant in accordance with the variation in precursor concentrations were observed. It was manifested by bond length, unit cell volume, micro strain, and dislocation density. Optical band gap, diameter, and photoluminance peak intensity ratios of each sensor were determined. The field emitting scanning electron microscope image of 1Z, 2Z, and 3Z sensors revealed massive changes in the morphology of the nanostructures grown on the substrate. The ethanol sensing behavior of ZnO thin-film sensors toward different ethanol concentration under varied operating temperatures were experimented and recorded. The results demonstrated highest sensitivity of 58.5% by 1Z sensor with response and recovery time of 40 and 45 s, respectively. Particularly, 2Z sensor outperformed other two sensors with a fast response time and quick recovery time of 25 and 15 s, respectively, with moderate sensitivity.
Autors: Sudha Murugesan;Radha Shankararajan;Kirubaveni Savarimuthu;Kiruthika Ramany;Govindaraj Rajamanickam;Santhosh Narendhiran;Ramasamy Perumalsamy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 169 - 176
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Effect of Silicon Content on Iron Loss and Magnetic Domain Structure of Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel Sheet
Abstract:
Increasing the silicon content in non-grain-oriented (NO) electrical steel sheets is known to decrease iron loss by changing electrical resistivity and magnetostriction behavior. However, few studies on the effect of high silicon contents in grain-oriented (GO) electrical steel have been reported. One of the major differences in the iron loss of GO and NO is that excess eddy current loss, which has a strong relationship with the magnetic domain structure, is more dominant in total iron loss in GO. In this paper, high silicon GO was prepared by the CVD siliconizing method, which has the advantage that the silicon content can be changed without changing the crystal grain size and crystallographic texture of the specimen. It was found that iron loss was reduced as the silicon content was increased, and 6.5 mass% silicon steel showed about half the hysteresis loss of conventional 3 mass% silicon steel, but the eddy current loss in 6.5 mass% silicon steel was equivalent to or slightly larger than that in 3 mass% silicon steel. Magnetic domain observation and calculations suggested that this difference was a result of coarsening of the magnetic domains in the high silicon steel.
Autors: S. Takajo;T. Hiratani;T. Okubo;Y. Oda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Effect of the Deformation State on the Response of a Flexible H2S Sensor Based on a Ph5T2 Single-Crystal Transistor
Abstract:
Flexible H2S sensors were fabricated based on ultrathin dinaphtho [3, 4-d:3’, 4’-d’] benzo [1, 2-b:4, 5b’] dithiophene (Ph5T2) single-crystal organic field-effect transistors, and response performances at different deformation states were investigated. The flexible devices exhibited strikingly different sensing behaviors under different deformation states toward H2S at room temperature. In a tensile state with mm, the flexible sensor presented an unprecedented response as high as 400% at 1 ppm H2S, which is almost one order of magnitude higher than the response in a flat state and surpasses all reported flexible H2S sensors. Such a surprising improvement provides an effective way to enhance the response of gas sensors and shows the potential advantage of using flexible sensors in tensile states.
Autors: Kunpeng Tang;Zhiqi Song;Qingxin Tang;Hongkun Tian;Yanhong Tong;Yichun Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 119 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Effective Uyghur Language Text Detection in Complex Background Images for Traffic Prompt Identification
Abstract:
Text detection in complex background images is a challenging task for intelligent vehicles. Actually, almost all the widely-used systems focus on commonly used languages while for some minority languages, such as the Uyghur language, text detection is paid less attention. In this paper, we propose an effective Uyghur language text detection system in complex background images. First, a new channel-enhanced maximally stable extremal regions (MSERs) algorithm is put forward to detect component candidates. Second, a two-layer filtering mechanism is designed to remove most non-character regions. Third, the remaining component regions are connected into short chains, and the short chains are extended by a novel extension algorithm to connect the missed MSERs. Finally, a two-layer chain elimination filter is proposed to prune the non-text chains. To evaluate the system, we build a new data set by various Uyghur texts with complex backgrounds. Extensive experimental comparisons show that our system is obviously effective for Uyghur language text detection in complex background images. The F-measure is 85%, which is much better than the state-of-the-art performance of 75.5%.
Autors: Chenggang Yan;Hongtao Xie;Shun Liu;Jian Yin;Yongdong Zhang;Qionghai Dai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 220 - 229
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Effects of Continuous Kinaesthetic Feedback Based on Tendon Vibration on Motor Imagery BCI Performance
Abstract:
Background and objectives: Feedback plays a crucial role for using brain computer interface systems. This paper proposes the use of vibration-evoked kinaesthetic illusions as part of a novel multisensory feedback for a motor imagery (MI)-based BCI and investigates its contributions in terms of BCI performance and electroencephalographic (EEG) correlates. Methods: sixteen subjects performed two different right arm MI-BCI sessions: with the visual feedback only and with both visual and vibration-evoked kinaesthetic feedback, conveyed by the stimulation of the biceps brachi tendon. In both conditions, the sensory feedback was driven by the MI-BCI. The rich and more natural multisensory feedback was expected to facilitate the execution of MI, and thus to improve the performance of the BCI. The EEG correlates of the proposed feedback were also investigated with and without the performing of MI. Results and Conclusions: the contribution of vibration-evoked kinaesthetic feedback led to statistically higher BCI performance (Anova, F(1,14) = 18.1, p < .01) and more stable EEG event-related-desynchronization. Obtained results suggest promising application of the proposed method in neuro-rehabilitation scenarios: the advantage of an improved usability could make the MI-BCIs more applicable for those patients having difficulties in performing kinaesthetic imagery.
Autors: Michele Barsotti;Daniele Leonardis;Nicola Vanello;Massimo Bergamasco;Antonio Frisoli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 105 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Effects of Stacked Mo–Ti/Cu Source and Drain Electrodes on the Performance of Amorphous In–Ga–Zn-O Thin-Film Transistors
Abstract:
In this letter, the performance of amorphous In–Ga–Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) is investigated using the stacked Mo–Ti/Cu source (S) and drain (D) electrodes. The test samples A and B of the a-IGZO TFT have interlayers with Mo/Ti ratios of 2.29 and 1.15, respectively, for the SD electrodes, and each has a core layer of Cu stacked on the top of the interlayers. They were fabricated and measured to compare their performance in terms of the transfer characteristic and mobility. The measurement results showed that the sample B with a lower Mo/Ti ratio exhibited better performance than the sample A: higher field-effect mobility by 4.4 cm2/V-s, higher saturation mobility by 3.2 cm2/V-s, smaller sub-threshold slope by 0.91 V/decade, and lower threshold voltage by 1.4 V. In addition, the material properties of samples A and B were obtained using the line scan of the energy dispersive spectroscopy and analyzed with technology computer-aided design simulation. As a result, the performance of a-IGZO TFTs can be optimized by tuning the Mo/Ti ratios of the interlayer in the stacked SD electrodes.
Autors: Lee-Young Kim;Oh-Kyong Kwon;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 43 - 46
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Effects of Suspended Sediment on Salinity Measurements
Abstract:
Widely used conductivity-based salinity measurements may be affected by suspended sediments. Two sets of experiments were carried out to analyze the effects of sediment concentration and grain size on salinity measurements. The results show that the salinities measured by conductivity-temperature-depth probes in turbid saltwater are all lower than those measured in clear water. The absolute values of the difference in salinity between turbid saltwater and clear saltwater increase with increasing reference salinity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC). Moreover, the finer the sediment particles are, generally, the greater is their influence upon salinity measurement. For an SSC of 70 g/L and a reference salinity of 30 g/kg, the absolute values of salinity difference were 1.882, 1.675, and 1.285 PSU for the fine, median, and coarse sediment particles, respectively. These differences are attributed to blocking, occupying, adsorption, and flocculation effects.
Autors: Zhi-Lin Sun;Jian-Ge Jiao;Sen-Jun Huang;Yang-Yang Gao;Hao-Che Ho;Dan Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 56 - 65
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Efficacy of Filtering Techniques in Improving Landsat SLC-Off Thermal Infrared Data
Abstract:
In 2003, Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus encountered a defect in its Scan Line Corrector (SLC) mechanism resulting in the loss of about 22% pixels in each image. Thermal Infrared band is used in applications such as temperature estimation and requires a single source image for estimation of dead pixels. This analysis tests the efficacy of various Radar and Morphological filters in reconstruction of dead pixels and improving the quality of Landsat SLC-off image. Efficacy has been based on visual analysis, histogram, and image quality metrics, namely, histogram error, root mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio, and Structural SIMilarity. Of all the experimented filters, nonlinear filters—Median, Local Region, and Morphological perform better. However, Morphological filter is able to eliminate dead pixels using a 7 * 7 kernel window while Median filter is able to do so with a 29 * 29 window. All four functions—Open, Close, Erode, and Dilate of Morphological filter are able to suppress noise (fill dead pixel gaps) while preserving edges and details resulting in sharp output images. On the basis of image quality metrics, use of Open Morphological filter is suggested.
Autors: Madhavi Jain;A. P. Dimri;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 271 - 284
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Efficiency of an Exciplex DBD Lamp Excited Under Different Methods
Abstract:
Three different electrical generators have been designed and used to supply an exciplex dielectric barrier discharge lamp in order to elucidate the influence of each one of these supplying strategies over the system performance; the first method consists on supplying the lamp with short bipolar voltage pulses; the second and third methods are based on semiresonant converters were current pulses, of controlled duration and magnitude, are injected into the lamp. For each one of the generators, measurements of the lamp and supply efficiency, are performed and analyzed, at different levels of power (up to 130 W) and operating frequencies (60–90 kHz). From the experimental results, the pulsed voltage-mode approach has allowed obtaining the highest lamp efficiency (7%), yet the maximum supply efficiency is offered by the resonant mode supplies. On the basis of the lamp and the supply efficiencies, the whole system performance is analyzed.
Autors: David Florez;Dmitry Schitz;Hubert Piquet;Rafael Diez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 140 - 147
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Efficient Analog Circuits for Boolean Satisfiability
Abstract:
Efficient solutions to nonpolynomial (NP)-complete problems would significantly benefit both science and industry. However, such problems are intractable on digital computers based on the von Neumann architecture, thus creating the need for alternative solutions to tackle such problems. Recently, a deterministic, continuous-time dynamical system (CTDS) was proposed [1] to solve a representative NP-complete problem, Boolean Satisfiability (SAT). This solver shows polynomial analog time-complexity on even the hardest benchmark -SAT () formulas, but at an energy cost through exponentially driven auxiliary variables. This paper presents a novel analog hardware SAT solver, AC-SAT, implementing the CTDS via incorporating novel, analog circuit design ideas. AC-SAT is intended to be used as a coprocessor and is programmable for handling different problem specifications. It is especially effective for solving hard -SAT problem instances that are challenging for algorithms running on digital machines. Furthermore, with its modular design, AC-SAT can readily be extended to solve larger size problems, while the size of the circuit grows linearly with the product of the number of variables and the number of clauses. The circuit is designed and simulated based on a 32-nm CMOS technology. Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) simulation results show speedup factors of ~104 on even the hardest 3-SAT problems, when compared with a state-of-the-art SAT solver on digital computers. As an example, for hard problems with clauses, solutions are found within from a few nanoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds.
Autors: Xunzhao Yin;Behnam Sedighi;Melinda Varga;Mária Ercsey-Ravasz;Zoltán Toroczkai;Xiaobo Sharon Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 155 - 167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Outsourced Calculation of Rational Numbers
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a framework for efficient and privacy-preserving outsourced calculation of rational numbers, which we refer to as POCR. Using POCR, a user can securely outsource the storing and processing of rational numbers to a cloud server without compromising the security of the (original) data and the computed results. We present the system architecture of POCR and the associated toolkits required in the privacy preserving calculation of integers and rational numbers to ensure that commonly used outsourced operations can be handled on-the-fly. We then prove that the proposed POCR achieves the goal of secure integer and rational number calculation without resulting in privacy leakage to unauthorized parties, and demonstrate the utility and the efficiency of POCR using simulations.
Autors: Ximeng Liu;Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo;Robert H. Deng;Rongxing Lu;Jian Weng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 27 - 39
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Efficient Image Preprocessing of Digital Holograms of Marine Plankton
Abstract:
A set of image preprocessing approaches are developed for processing plankton images reconstructed from digital holograms. First, a threshold-based algorithm of image segmentation is proposed and applied to extract the regions of plankton from the original digital images. To improve the performance of image segmentation, an appropriate filter is adopted to reduce the background noise from the image and the image gray level is adjusted to enhance the image contrast. Second, we develop a novel and efficient edge detection method purposefully for the binary images. Third, we propose and use a simple chain-code-based algorithm to eliminate the single-pixel branches along the shape boundary, which will help boundary tracing work stably. Then, an algorithm is improved and applied to trace the boundaries of the plankton regions. This algorithm is optimized based on the relationship between two consecutive chain-codes such that it is fast on implementation. Finally, break points of the shape boundary are efficiently detected based on chain-codes and the boundary is represented compactly by a polygon comprised of those points. After images are preprocessed by these approaches, some redundant information of shape is reduced that will accelerate the running speeds of further image processing and aid identification and classification of plankton at species level. We analyze the accuracy and efficiency of our algorithms. The results show that our algorithm of image segmentation has a good performance in accuracy. Our edge detection method also outperforms the commonly used edge detection methods in terms of localization performance and the running time.
Autors: Zonghua Liu;John Watson;Alastair Allen;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 83 - 92
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Efficient Multi-Rate Video Encoding for HEVC-Based Adaptive HTTP Streaming
Abstract:
Adaptive HTTP streaming requires a video to be encoded at multiple representations, that is, different qualities. Encoding these multiple representations is a computationally complex process, especially when using the recent High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. In this paper, we consider a multi-rate HEVC encoder and identify four types of encoding information that can be reused from a high-quality reference encoding to speed up lower quality-dependent encodings. We show that the encoding decisions from the reference cannot be directly reused, as this would harm the overall rate-distortion (RD) performance. Thus, we propose methods to use the encoding information to constrain the RD optimization of the dependent encodings so that the encoding complexity is reduced while the RD performance is kept high. We additionally show that the proposed methods can be combined, leading to an efficient multi-rate encoder that exhibits high RD performance and substantial complexity reduction. Results show that the encoding time for 12 representations at different spatial resolutions and signal qualities can be reduced on average by 38%, while the average bitrate increases by less than 1%.
Autors: Damien Schroeder;Adithyan Ilangovan;Martin Reisslein;Eckehard Steinbach;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 143 - 157
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Efficient Multi-View 3D Video Multicast with Depth-Image-Based Rendering in LTE-Advanced Networks with Carrier Aggregation
Abstract:
With the recent emergence of naked-eye 3D mobile devices and various 3D-enabled laptops, service providers now afford the opportunity to provide mobile 3D video streaming in LTE-Advanced networks. Differing from traditional single-view 3D videos, multi-view 3D videos allow users to choose preferred view angles and thus are promising for new applications, such as free-viewpoint television (FTV). Nevertheless, enabling multi-view 3D video services may overwhelm the network resource when transmitting all views of every video. Fortunately, Depth-Image-Based Rendering (DIBR) allows each mobile client to synthesize the desired view from a nearby left view and right view, so that not all views of a video are necessarily transmitted. A new challenge with DIBR, however, is to carefully choose the transmitted views to limit the video distortion and minimize the bandwidth consumption. In this paper, therefore, we first formulate a new optimization problem, called View and MCS Selection (VMS) Problem, to minimize the bandwidth consumption for multi-view 3D video multicast in LTE networks. An algorithm, called View and MCS Aggregation (VMAG) is proposed to find the optimal solution to VMS. For Carrier Aggregation (CA) in LTE-Advanced networks, we formulate a new View, MCS and Carrier Selection (VMCS) Problem and prove that the problem is NP-Hard. We first design a dynamic programming algorithm, called the View Assignment with MCS and Carrier (VAMC) algorithm, to find the optimal solution for small instances. We then propose the View and MCS Aggregation with Carrier (VMAGC) algorithm based on VMAG to effectively find the near-optimal solution to VMCS. The simulation results show that bandwidth consumption can be effectively reduced by over 30 percent in VMS and VMCS.
Autors: Ji-Tang Lee;De-Nian Yang;Yu-Chun Chen;Wanjiun Liao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 85 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Efficient Performance of MLSSM-MLFMA Algorithm Using Adaptive Grouping Technique for Electromagnetic Problems
Abstract:
In this communication, an adaptive grouping technique-based multilevel simply sparse method multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLSSM-MLFMA) scheme is proposed to analyze objects with local fine structures efficiently. The MLSSM-MLFMA algorithm utilizes MLFMA to accelerate dealing with the boxes whose size is larger than 0.2 wavelength and uses MLSSM to decompose the boxes whose size is less than 0.2 wavelength. Meanwhile, the adaptive grouping technique is applied to improve the performance of MLSSM-MLFMA algorithm. The conventional octree-based grouping scheme divides the target into boxes with the same size at each level. It leads to some boxes that contain a large number of discrete unknowns, while some boxes contain fewer unknowns to simulate the object with local fine structures. Therefore, the computational efficiency of MLSSM-MLFMA algorithm will be improved. By using the proposed grouping technique, the memory requirements and computational times are much less than those of conventional octree-based grouping scheme for analyzing the objects with local fine structures.
Autors: Caiping Wang;Zhaoneng Jiang;Xuguang Qiao;Ting Wan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 493 - 496
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Efficient Planar Caging Test Using Space Mapping
Abstract:
This paper presents an efficient algorithm to test whether a planar object can be caged by a formation of point agents (point fingertips or point mobile robots). The algorithm is based on a space mapping between the 2-D work space ( space) and the 3-D configuration space ( space) of the given agent formation. When performing caging test on a planar object, the algorithm looks up the space mapping to recover the space of the given agent formation, labels the recovered space, and counts the number of labeled surfaces to judge the success of caging. The algorithm is able to work with various planar shapes, including objects with convex boundaries, concave boundaries, or holes. It can also respond quickly to varying agent formations and different object shapes. Experiments and analysis on different objects and fingertip formations demonstrate the completeness, robustness, and efficiency of our proposal.

Note to Practitioners—This paper proposes an algorithm to solve a geometric problem—find whether a given formation of planar points can constrain (or cage) a planar shape. Users can use the proposed algorithm to actuate a formation of robotic fingertips to perform caging-based grasping tasks or use the proposed algorithm to actuate a formation of mobile robots to perform cooperative transportation tasks. The algorithm inherits the merits of caging and helps users to avoid explicit force analysis. It offers robustness to avoid uncertainty in the tasks. The code of our work is in the supplementary material.

Autors: Weiwei Wan;Rui Fukui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 278 - 289
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Efficient Seafloor Classification and Submarine Cable Route Design Using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
Abstract:
This work presents an efficient method for designing submarine cable routes using online seafloor classification based on sidescan sonar scanlines, collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Currently, the cable routes are designed manually by experienced experts. Online seafloor classification and an automated route planning method using an AUV can improve the efficiency of construction of submarine cables. Sidescan sonar is a device commonly used for mapping the seafloor and detecting obstacles. An AUV equipped with a sidescan sonar is used to gather sonar scanlines to perform online seafloor classification and mapping. As the AUV operates, the gathered scanlines are analyzed to classify the seafloor using a probabilistic classifier based on Bayes' theorem with the naïve assumption. Based on the seafloor classification map, a probabilistic roadmap is generated. Then, an A* algorithm is applied to determine appropriate cable routes along the cable corridor, using the following five factors: seafloor classification, bathymetry, steepness of slope, angle of change of course, and cable length. Compared with an existing route planning method, the presented method of using an AUV with automatic decision making algorithm can efficiently support submarine cable construction. The favored route determined by the presented method was as acceptable as the route designed by experts.
Autors: Sheng-Wei Huang;Edward Chen;Jenhwa Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 7 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Efficient Use of Space-Time Clustering for Underwater Acoustic Communications
Abstract:
Underwater acoustical communication channels are characterized by the spreading of received signals in space (direction of arrival) and in time (delay). The spread is often limited to a small number of space-time clusters. In this paper, the space-time clustering is exploited in a proposed receiver designed for guard-free orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing with superimposed data and pilot signals. For separation of space clusters, the receiver utilizes a vertical linear array (VLA) of hydrophones, whereas for combining delay-spread signals within a space cluster, a time-domain equalizer is used. We compare a number of space-time processing techniques, including a proposed reduced-complexity spatial filter, and show that techniques exploiting the space-time clustering demonstrate an improved detection performance. The comparison is done using signals transmitted by a moving transducer, and recorded on a 14-element nonuniform VLA in sea trials at distances of 46 and 105 km.
Autors: Jianghui Li;Yuriy V. Zakharov;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 173 - 183
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Eight-Band Antenna With A Small Ground Clearance for LTE Metal-Frame Mobile Phone Applications
Abstract:
This letter presents a compact eight-band monopole antenna whose size is 70 mm × 7 mm × 6 mm for LTE metal-frame mobile phones. The mainly radiating part of the proposed antenna is the metal frame. There are three gaps with the same size of 1 mm in the frame, and these gaps divide the antenna into two parts. Besides, a match circuit is used to enlarge the bandwidth and make the lower band matched. The advantage of the proposed antenna is that eight bands can be covered with a metal frame under the condition of only a 7 mm ground clearance. A prototype is manufactured and tested. The measured –6 dB impedance bandwidths are 375 MHz (0.675–1.05 GHz) and 1.2 GHz (1.6–2.8 GHz). The LTE700, GSM850, GSM900, GSM1800, GSM1900, UMTS, LTE2300, and LTE2500 bands are covered. The measured efficiencies are 52.7%–78.7% at the lower band and 45.6%–81% at the higher band. The measured gains are 0–2.1 dBi at the lower band and 1.6–3.6 dBi at the higher band.
Autors: Daiwei Huang;Zhengwei Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 34 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Electric Power Network State Tracking From Multirate Measurements
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel tracking state estimator to process both fast-rate synchronized phasor and slow-rate supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) measurements. The former are assumed to be in limited number. The latter are exploited as and when they arrive to the control center. In order to restore observability, after each execution of the tracking state estimator, forecast SCADA measurements are used as pseudo-measurements in the next estimation. An event detection analysis allows assessing if the system is in quasi-steady-state. If so, an innovation analysis is performed to identify and eliminate erroneous SCADA measurements. The system state is computed by Hachtel’s augmented matrix method. The option of exploiting time-tagged SCADA measurements is also considered. The method is illustrated through detailed dynamic simulations of a test system evolving toward voltage collapse, with and without emergency control.
Autors: Boris A. Alcaide-Moreno;Claudio R. Fuerte-Esquivel;Mevludin Glavic;Thierry Van Cutsem;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 33 - 44
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Electrical Circuit Modeling of Sensor Magneto-Impedances With a Square-Root Frequency Dependence
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel lumped electrical model for magneto-impedance sensors based on square-root of the frequency is introduced. The model is mathematically derived using an alternative approximation of that leads to an approximate transfer function with a finite number of products of poles and zeros. This approach can be easily implemented in circuit simulators, such as SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) by means of current conveyors circuits and linear passive elements, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These elements are interconnected using impedance converters based on Senani’s model to implement the poles and zeros of the transfer function. The scope and validity of the model were demonstrated through circuit simulations using spice, and compared with experimental results. The model can be used in the electronic signal conditioning stage for optimizing and/or for researching new cheap low-power practical electronics circuits.
Autors: Rafael Vargas-Bernal;Carlos A. De la Cruz Blas;Cristina Gómez-Polo;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 623 - 628
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Electrical Transport Degradation of Chemically Doped Electronic-Type-Separated Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes From Radiation-Induced Defects
Abstract:
The structural and electrical properties of purified and potassium tetrabromoaurate [KAuBr4(aq)] doped semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (S-SWCNTs) and metallic SWCNT (M-SWCNT) thin films are characterized as defects are introduced through ion irradiation with 150-keV 11B+ with fluences ranging from to ions/cm2. Prior to irradiation, doping achieves conductivity enhancements of and in the S-SWCNTs and M-SWCNTs, respectively. Irradiation of the samples results in decreased electrical conductivity of both electronic types of purified and doped SWCNTs as defect density is increased. However, the relative conductivity enhancement provided by the chemical dopant is maintained, thereby yielding more radiation tolerant electrical conductors. The presence of the dopant does not influence the level of damage imparted to the SWCNTs, but rather modifies the electronic properties of the SWCNTs by enhancing the carrier concentration.
Autors: Ivan Puchades;Jamie E. Rossi;Nathanael D. Cox;Andrew R. Bucossi;Karen J. Soule;Cory D. Cress;Brian J. Landi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 573 - 578
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Electrifying Water Buses: A Case Study on Diesel-to-Electric Conversion in Venice
Abstract:
This study presents the conversion of a diesel-based watercraft for public transportation in Venice, Italy, to an electric propulsion technology, with a view to wide future adoption of electrical transportation. It takes into account energy-storage systems, electrical machines, and drives and examines them in light of economic, environmental, and social issues. Some alternative solutions based on hybrid diesel-electric and full-electric (FE ) powertrains are compared in terms of weight, cost, and payback times. The comparison shows that a hybrid diesel-engine lithium (Li) battery (LB) is the best option for an easy first implementation, even when considering the existing infrastructure.
Autors: Massimo Guarnieri;Mattia Morandin;Antonio Ferrari;Pierpaolo Campostrini;Silverio Bolognani;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 71 - 83
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Electromechanical Coupling Factor of Breast Tissue as a Biomarker for Breast Cancer
Abstract:
Goal: This research aims to validate a new biomarker of breast cancer by introducing electromechanical coupling factor of breast tissue samples as a possible additional indicator of breast cancer. Since collagen fibril exhibits a structural organization that gives rise to a piezoelectric effect, the difference in collagen density between normal and cancerous tissue can be captured by identifying the corresponding electromechanical coupling factor. Methods: The design of a portable diagnostic tool and a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based biochip, which is integrated with a piezoresistive sensing layer for measuring the reaction force as well as a microheater for temperature control, is introduced. To verify that electromechanical coupling factor can be used as a biomarker for breast cancer, the piezoelectric model for breast tissue is described with preliminary experimental results on five sets of normal and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) samples in the 25–45 temperature range. Conclusion: While the stiffness of breast tissues can be captured as a representative mechanical signature which allows one to discriminate among tissue types especially in the higher strain region, the electromechanical coupling factor shows more distinct differences between the normal and IDC groups over the entire strain region than the mechanical signature. From the two-sample -test, the electromechanical coupling factor under compression shows statistically significant differences ( 0.0039) between the two groups. Significance: The increase in collagen density in breast tissue is an objective and reproducible characteristic of breast canc- r. Although characterization of mechanical tissue property has been shown to be useful for differentiating cancerous tissue from normal tissue, using a single parameter may not be sufficient for practical usage due to inherent variation among biological samples. The portable breast cancer diagnostic tool reported in this manuscript shows the feasibility of measuring multiple parameters of breast tissue allowing for practical application.
Autors: Kihan Park;Wenjin Chen;Marina A. Chekmareva;David J. Foran;Jaydev P. Desai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 96 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Electron Field Emission Enhancement Based on Al-Doped ZnO Nanorod Arrays With UV Exposure
Abstract:
In this paper, Al-doped ZnO nanorods (AZO NRs) were successfully applied on glass substrates through hydrothermal synthesis growth with a fabrication field-emission (FE) device. The enhanced FE properties of AZO NRs were measured. The turn-on fields were reduced by 2.35 and 1.51 V/ in the dark and under UV light, and the enhanced field enhancement factors () were 5708 and 10137, respectively. Results show that the FE performances of AZO NRs were enhanced by the combined effect of increased carrier concentration and UV light illumination.
Autors: Zi-Hao Wang;Chih-Chiang Yang;Hsin-Chieh Yu;Hsin-Ting Yeh;Yu-Ming Peng;Yan-Kuin Su;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 251 - 256
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Electronic Conduction Mechanisms in Insulators
Abstract:
The current density–electric field characteristics of four insulators of dramatically different electrical qualities are assessed in terms of their operative electronic conduction mechanisms. Conduction in the two high-quality insulators is dominated by Ohmic conduction and Fowler–Nordheim tunneling, whereas conduction in the two low-quality insulators involves Ohmic conduction and space-charge limited current (SCLC). Ohmic conduction and SCLC are somewhat puzzling mechanisms for contributing to insulator leakage current since they require the existence of an Ohmic contact at the cathode. Our conventional understanding of an Ohmic contact makes it difficult to ascertain how an Ohmic contact could be formed to a wide bandgap insulator. This Ohmic contact dilemma is resolved by formulating an equivalent circuit appropriate for assessing the characteristics of an insulator and then recognizing that an insulator Ohmic contact is obtained when the injection-limited current density from the cathode electrode is greater than that of the operative bulk-limited current density, i.e., Ohmic or SCLC for the four insulators under consideration.
Autors: Tsung-Han Chiang;John F. Wager;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 223 - 230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Electrosense: Open and Big Spectrum Data
Abstract:
While radio spectrum allocation is well regulated, there is little knowledge about its actual utilization over time and space. This limitation hinders taking effective actions in various applications including cognitive radios, electrosmog monitoring, and law enforcement. We introduce Electrosense, an initiative that seeks a more efficient, safe and reliable monitoring of the electromagnetic space by improving the accessibility of spectrum data for the general public. A collaborative spectrum monitoring network is designed that monitors the spectrum at large scale with low-cost spectrum sensing nodes. The large set of data is stored and processed in a big data architecture and provided back to the community with an open spectrum data as a service model, that allows users to build diverse and novel applications with different requirements. We illustrate useful usage scenarios of the Electrosense data.
Autors: Sreeraj Rajendran;Roberto Calvo-Palomino;Markus Fuchs;Bertold Van den Bergh;Hector Cordobes;Domenico Giustiniano;Sofie Pollin;Vincent Lenders;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 210 - 217
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Eliminating Path Redundancy via Postconditioned Symbolic Execution
Abstract:
Symbolic execution is emerging as a powerful technique for generating test inputs systematically to achieve exhaustive path coverage of a bounded depth. However, its practical use is often limited by path explosion because the number of paths of a program can be exponential in the number of branch conditions encountered during the execution. To mitigate the path explosion problem, we propose a new redundancy removal method called postconditioned symbolic execution. At each branching location, in addition to determine whether a particular branch is feasible as in traditional symbolic execution, our approach checks whether the branch is subsumed by previous explorations. This is enabled by summarizing previously explored paths by weakest precondition computations. Postconditioned symbolic execution can identify path suffixes shared by multiple runs and eliminate them during test generation when they are redundant. Pruning away such redundant paths can lead to a potentially exponential reduction in the number of explored paths. Since the new approach is computationally expensive, we also propose several heuristics to reduce its cost. We have implemented our method in the symbolic execution engine KLEE [1] and conducted experiments on a large set of programs from the GNU Coreutils suite. Our results confirm that redundancy due to common path suffix is both abundant and widespread in real-world applications.
Autors: Qiuping Yi;Zijiang Yang;Shengjian Guo;Chao Wang;Jian Liu;Chen Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 44, issue:1, pages: 25 - 43
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Embedding Structured Contour and Location Prior in Siamesed Fully Convolutional Networks for Road Detection
Abstract:
Road detection from the perspective of moving vehicles is a challenging issue in autonomous driving. Recently, many deep learning methods spring up for this task, because they can extract high-level local features to find road regions from raw RGB data, such as convolutional neural networks and fully convolutional networks (FCNs). However, how to detect the boundary of road accurately is still an intractable problem. In this paper, we propose siamesed FCNs (named “s-FCN-loc”), which is able to consider RGB-channel images, semantic contours, and location priors simultaneously to segment the road region elaborately. To be specific, the s-FCN-loc has two streams to process the original RGB images and contour maps, respectively. At the same time, the location prior is directly appended to the siamesed FCN to promote the final detection performance. Our contributions are threefold: 1) An s-FCN-loc is proposed that learns more discriminative features of road boundaries than the original FCN to detect more accurate road regions. 2) Location prior is viewed as a type of feature map and directly appended to the final feature map in s-FCN-loc to promote the detection performance effectively, which is easier than other traditional methods, namely, different priors for different inputs (image patches). 3) The convergent speed of training s-FCN-loc model is 30% faster than the original FCN because of the guidance of highly structured contours. The proposed approach is evaluated on the KITTI road detection benchmark and one-class road detection data set, and achieves a competitive result with the state of the arts.
Autors: Qi Wang;Junyu Gao;Yuan Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 230 - 241
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Empirical Evaluation of the Impact of Object-Oriented Code Refactoring on Quality Attributes: A Systematic Literature Review
Abstract:
Software refactoring is a maintenance task that addresses code restructuring to improve its quality. Many studies have addressed the impact of different refactoring scenarios on software quality. This study presents a systematic literature review that aggregates, summarizes, and discusses the results of 76 relevant primary studies (PSs) concerning the impact of refactoring on several internal and external quality attributes. The included PSs were selected using inclusion and exclusion criteria applied to relevant articles published before the end of 2015. We analyzed the PSs based on a set of classification criteria, including software quality attributes and measures, refactoring scenarios, evaluation approaches, datasets, and impact results. We followed the vote-counting approach to determine the level of consistency among the PS reported results concerning the relationship between refactoring and software quality. The results indicated that different refactoring scenarios sometimes have opposite impacts on different quality attributes. Therefore, it is false that refactoring always improves all software quality aspects. The vote-counting study provided a clear view of the impacts of some individual refactoring scenarios on some internal quality attributes such as cohesion, coupling, complexity, inheritance, and size, but failed to identify their impacts on external and other internal quality attributes due to insufficient findings.
Autors: Jehad Al Dallal;Anas Abdin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 44, issue:1, pages: 44 - 69
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Empirical Model for Nonuniformly Doped Symmetric Double-Gate Junctionless Transistor
Abstract:
This paper demonstrates the influence of nonuniform doping on the electrostatics of symmetric double-gate junctionless transistor using empirical modeling scheme. To present the clear insight into the device electrostatics of nonuniform doped channel, the peak of the doping concentration has been varied from Si/SiO2 interface of front gate to the back gate. The parameters explored in this paper are surface potential, electric field, drain current, threshold voltage, subthreshold slope, and drain-induced barrier lowering for different straggle factors and channel lengths. By properly optimizing the straggle value and peak of the doping concentration, device performance can be tuned accordingly.
Autors: Vandana Kumari;Ayush Kumar;Manoj Saxena;Mridula Gupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 314 - 321
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Employing DC Transmission in Long Distance AC Motor Drives: Analysis of the Copper Economy and Power Losses Reduction in Mining Facilities
Abstract:
High-frequency problems related to pulse-width modulation motor drive systems with long cables are widely discussed in the literature and very harmful to the system components, resulting in motor insulation failures, bearing damage, and electromagnetic interference, among others. As a solution, in a previous work, an alternative system configuration was proposed in which the rectifier and the inverter are separated through a long dc cable, the inverter being located at the motor terminals. Thus, besides the mitigation of all these problems, the proposed topology also features the additional benefit of reducing the cable power losses and the amount of copper required for the power transmission. In this context, this paper evaluates the copper economy obtained through this alternative drive configuration and presents a case study involving real motor drive systems situated in mining plants, whose actual cost of the cables is compared with that of the alternative configuration.
Autors: Vinicius Cardoso de Paula;Hélder de Paula;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 841 - 847
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Emulation of Cyber-Physical Systems Using IEC-61499
Abstract:
Automation systems used in smart grids, transportation, and medical electronics are cyber physical in nature. Automation standards, such as IEC-61499, while well suited to the design of discrete controllers, are not ideally suited to model the dynamics of the plant. Such modeling is essential for emulation-based validation of the controllers in the cyber-physical systems (CPS) domain. We use a well-known formal model for CPS, called hybrid input output automata (HIOA), as the main vehicle in the proposed formulation. A physical process (the plant) may be described as a synchronous composition of a network of such HIOA. We provide an approach to transform such a network to a composite function block (CFB) in IEC-61499. This transformation is shown to be semantics preserving. Code generated from such plant models can be executed on a computer chip to provide real-time response to their adjoining controllers. Through practical examples, we illustrate the scalability and practicability of the proposed approach. The developed approach enables the emulation of physical processes in industrial automation without using the actual plant.
Autors: Avinash Malik;Partha S Roop;Nathan Allen;Théo Steger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 380 - 389
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Enabling Cooperative Behavior for Building Demand Response Based on Extended Joint Action Learning
Abstract:
This paper explores the use of distributed intelligence to assist the integration of the demand as a flexible resource, to mitigate the emerging uncertainty in the power system, while fulfilling the customer's local needs, i.e., comfort management. More exactly, our contribution is twofold. First, we propose a novel cooperative and decentralized reinforcement learning method, dubbed extended joint action learning (eJAL). Second, we perform a comparison between eJAL to noncooperative decentralized decision making strategies, i.e., Q-learning, and a centralized game theoretic approach, i.e., Nash n-player game. This comparison has been conducted on the basis of grid support effectiveness and the loss of comfort for each customer. Various metrics were used to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each method. We demonstrated that a range of flexibility requests can be met by providing an optimal energy portfolio of buildings without substantially violating comfort constraints. Moreover, we showed that the proposed eJAL method achieves the highest fairness index.
Autors: Luis A. Hurtado;Elena Mocanu;Phuong H. Nguyen;Madeleine Gibescu;René I. G. Kamphuis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 127 - 136
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Enabling Low Contact Resistivity on n-Ge by Implantation After Ti Germanide
Abstract:
The process to form Ti germanide on P-implanted Ge ( cm−3) with low contact resistivity () was developed. Sequential deposition of Ti and TiN on n-Ge without annealing leads to rectifying – characteristic due to Fermi level pinning. With 600 °C annealing, Ohmic-like – behavior was achieved due to Ti germanide (C54 phase included) formation that depins Fermi level and makes of and Schottky barrier height for electron () of 0.22 eV. Even for 700 °C annealing, the Ti germanide exhibits comparable and good thermal stability without agglomeration, which is a concern of NiGe. By adopting additional P implantation after germanide, and can be further improved to -cm2 and 0.17 eV, respectively. The impr- vement is ascribed to the enhanced dopant segregation at the germanide/Ge interface that results in stronger dipoles and more significantly reduced and . The Ti germanide process paves a promising path to enable a next-generation Ge technology.
Autors: Chuan-Pu Chou;Hui-Hsin Chang;Yung-Hsien Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 91 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Enabling Security-Enhanced Attestation With Intel SGX for Remote Terminal and IoT
Abstract:
Along with the advent and popularity of cloud computing, Internet of Things, and bring your own device, the trust requirement for terminal devices has increased significantly. An untrusted terminal, a terminal that runs in an untrustworthy execution environment, may cause serious security issues for enterprise networks. With the release of Software Guard Extension, Intel has provided a promising way to construct trusted terminals and services. Utilizing this technology, we propose a security-enhanced attestation for remote terminals, which can achieve shielded execution for measurements and attestation programs. Furthermore, we present a policy-based measurement mechanism where sensitive data, including secret keys and policy details are concealed using the enclave-specific keys. We implement our attestation prototype on real platform with Intel Skylake processor. Evaluation results show that our attestation system can provide much stronger security guarantees, yet incurs small performance overhead.
Autors: Juan Wang;Zhi Hong;Yuhan Zhang;Yier Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 88 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Encoded Semantic Tree for Automatic User Profiling Applied to Personalized Video Summarization
Abstract:
We propose an innovative method of automatic video summary generation with personal adaptations. User interests are mined from their personal image collections. To reduce the semantic gap, we propose to extract visual representations based on a novel semantic tree (SeTree). A SeTree is a hierarchy that captures the conceptual relationships between the visual scenes in a codebook. This idea builds upon the observation that such semantic connections among the elements have been overlooked in the previous work. To construct the SeTree, we adopt a normalized graph cut clustering algorithm by conjunctively exploiting visual features, textual information, and social user-image connections. Using this technique, we obtain an 8.1% improvement of normalized discounted cumulative gain in personalized video segments ranking compared with existing methods. Furthermore, to promote the interesting parts of a video, we extract a space–time saliency map and estimate the attractiveness of segments by kernel fitting and matching. A linear function is utilized to combine the two factors, based on which the playback rate of a video is adapted to generate the summary. We play the less important segments in a fast-forward mode to keep users updated with the context. Subjective experiments were conducted which showed that our proposed video summarization approach outperformed the state-of-the-art techniques by 6.2%.
Autors: Yifang Yin;Roshan Thapliya;Roger Zimmermann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 181 - 192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Encoded Sensing for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Energy efficient communication is a fundamental design problem in wireless networks significantly affecting network performance and the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We introduce encoded sensing—an approach for collaborative encoding and transmission of sensors data—that drastically reduces communication energy expenditure in WSN. Encoded sensing exploits the inherent spatial structure in sensed data to adaptively partition a WSN into groups of sensor nodes, so that nodes in each group sense highly correlated values. Each group encodes all individual measurements sensed by its nodes at time into a single binary sparse codeword via novel minimum distance combinatorial encoding local algorithm. When the codeword’s Hamming weight equals , a subset of nodes in the group cooperatively transmits a single binary symbol each. Upon receiving the bits, the sink has enough information to decode a measurement estimate, which is within a small error from each of the group nodes’ individual measurements. The error is bounded and guaranteed to satisfy a priori QoS accuracy requirements. We compare encoded sensing to non-cooperative state-of-the-art transmission protocols and demonstrate at least a factor of two in energy savings, without significant loss of measurement quality. Encoded sensing achieves at least 80% the energy savings of theoretically optimal cooperative transmission distributed beamforming architectures. We show by simulations and theoretical derivations that as the size of a node group grows the performance of encoded sensing converges to the optimal tr- nsmission energy efficiency.
Autors: Milen Nikolov;Zygmunt J. Haas;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 875 - 889
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ends and Means
Abstract:
Even the smallest coding mistake can cause huge problems when it slips by testing. Finding it can be difficult, and retesting the fixed system can be expensive, but this certainly isn’t true for every type of problem. A defect found and fixed during coding is a fairly routine occurrence and not costlier than a defect found and fixed during design. Quite the opposite is usually true.
Autors: Gerard J. Holzmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 14 - 17
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy Efficiency Aware Task Assignment with DVFS in Heterogeneous Hadoop Clusters
Abstract:
While Hadoop ecosystems become increasingly important for practitioners of large-scale data analysis, they also incur tremendous energy cost. This trend is driving up the need for designing energy-efficient Hadoop clusters in order to reduce the operational costs and the carbon emission associated with its energy consumption. However, despite extensive studies of the problem, existing approaches for energy efficiency have not fully considered the heterogeneity of both workload and machine hardware found in production environments. In this paper, we find that heterogeneity-oblivious task assignment approaches are detrimental to both performance and energy efficiency of Hadoop clusters. Our observation shows that even heterogeneity-aware techniques that aim to reduce the job completion time do not guarantee a reduction in energy consumption of heterogeneous machines. We propose a heterogeneity-aware task assignment approach, E-Ant, that aims to improve the overall energy consumption in a heterogeneous Hadoop cluster without sacrificing job performance. It adaptively schedules heterogeneous workloads on energy-efficient machines, without a priori knowledge of the workload properties. E-Ant employs an ant colony optimization approach that generates task assignment solutions based on the feedback of each task’s energy consumption reported by Hadoop TaskTrackers in an agile way. Furthermore, we integrate DVFS technique with E-Ant to further improve the energy efficiency of heterogeneous Hadoop clusters. It relies on a DVFS controller to dynamically scale the CPU frequency of each slave machine in response to time-varying resource demands. Experimental results on a heterogeneous cluster with varying hardware capabilities show that E-Ant with DVFS improves the overall energy savings for a synthetic workload from Microsoft by 23 and 17 percent compared to Fair Scheduler and Tarazu, respectively.
Autors: Dazhao Cheng;Xiaobo Zhou;Palden Lama;Mike Ji;Changjun Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 70 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy Efficient Adaptive Transmissions in Integrated Satellite-Terrestrial Networks With SER Constraints
Abstract:
Allowing frequency reuse between satellite and terrestrial networks, the integrated satellite-terrestrial network can spatially optimize the usage of scarce spectrum resource and is thus becoming one of the most promising infrastructures for future multimedia services. Taking the requirements of both efficiency and reliability in satellite communications into account, we propose an adaptive transmission scheme for the integrated network in this paper, where the satellite can communicate with the destination user either in direct mode or in cooperative mode. Specifically, we first investigate the symbol error rate (SER) performance of two transmission modes with co-channel interference under composite multipath/shadowing fading. Taking the derived SERs as constraints, we formulate the adaptive transmission scheme as an optimization problem with the objective of maximizing energy efficiency (EE) and discuss the trade-off among EE, spectral efficiency (SE), and SER. Furthermore, economic efficiency is also analyzed as a complementary performance measure to SE and EE. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can increase the attainable EE of satellite communications, which indicates that we should choose the transmission mode adaptively according to different interfering scenarios and shadowing degrees, rather than adopting cooperative transmission aggressively.
Autors: Yuhan Ruan;Yongzhao Li;Cheng-Xiang Wang;Rui Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 210 - 222
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy Efficient Link-Delay Aware Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
This paper investigates the problem of energy consumption in wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor nodes deployed in harsh environment where the conditions change drastically suffer from sudden changes in link quality and node status. The end-to-end delay of each sensor node varies due to the variation of link quality and node status. On the other hand, the sensor nodes are supplied with limited energy and it is a great concern to extend the network lifetime. To cope with those problems, this paper proposes a novel and simple routing metric, predicted remaining deliveries (PRD), combining parameters, including the residual energy, link quality, end-to-end delay, and distance together to achieve better network performance. PRD assigns weights to individual links as well as end-to-end delay, so as to reflect the node status in the long run of the network. Large-scale simulation results demonstrate that PRD performs better than the widely used ETX metric as well as other two metrics devised recently in terms of energy consumption and end-to-end delay, while guaranteeing packet delivery ratio.
Autors: Xiaohan Lai;Xiaoyu Ji;Xinyan Zhou;Longdao Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 837 - 848
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy Management System With PV Power Forecast to Optimally Charge EVs at the Workplace
Abstract:
This paper presents the design of an energy management system (EMS) capable of forecasting photovoltaic (PV) power production and optimizing power flows between PV system, grid, and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) at the workplace. The aim is to minimize charging cost while reducing energy demand from the grid by increasing PV self-consumption and consequently increasing sustainability of the BEV fleet. The developed EMS consists of two components: An autoregressive integrated moving average model to predict PV power production and a mixed-integer linear programming framework that optimally allocates power to minimize charging cost. The results show that the developed EMS is able to reduce charging cost significantly, while increasing PV self-consumption and reducing energy consumption from the grid. Furthermore, during a case study analogous to one repeatedly considered in the literature, i.e., dynamic purchase tariff and dynamic feed-in tariff, the EMS reduces charging cost by 118.44 and 427.45 in case of one and two charging points, respectively, when compared to an uncontrolled charging policy.
Autors: Dennis van der Meer;Gautham Ram Chandra Mouli;Laura Ramirez Elizondo;Pavol Bauer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 311 - 320
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy Neutral Internet of Drones
Abstract:
Extensive use of amateur drones (ADrs) poses a threat to the public safety due to their possible misuse. Hence, surveillance drones (SDrs) are utilized to detect and eliminate potential threats. However, limited battery, and lack of efficient communication and networking solutions degrade the quality of surveillance. To this end, we conceptualize the Energy Neutral Internet of Drones (enIoD) to enable enhanced connectivity between drones by overcoming energy limitations for autonomous and continuous operation. Power provisioning with recharging stations is introduced by wireless power transfer to energize the drones. Renewable energy harvesting is utilized to realize energy neutrality, which is minimization of deficit in harvested and consumed energy in enIoD. Communication and networking architectures and protocols for realization of multi-dimensional objectives are presented. Finally, possible application areas are explained with a case study to show how enIoD operates.
Autors: Teng Long;Mustafa Ozger;Oktay Cetinkaya;Ozgur B. Akan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 22 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy Optimization for Data Allocation With Hybrid SRAM+NVM SPM
Abstract:
The gradually widening disparity in the speed of the CPU and memory has become a bottleneck for the development of chip multiprocessor (CMP) systems. Increasing penalties caused by frequent on-chip memory access have raised critical challenges in delivering high memory access performance with tight energy and latency budgets. To overcome the memory wall and energy wall issues, this paper adopts CMP systems with hybrid scratchpad memories (SPMs), which are configured from SRAM and nonvolatile memory. Based on this architecture, we propose two novel algorithms, i.e., energy-aware data allocation (EADA) and balancing data allocation to energy and write operations (BDAEW), to perform data allocation to different memories and task mapping to different cores, reducing energy consumption and latency. We evaluate the performance of our proposed algorithms by comparison with a parallel solution that is commonly used to solve data allocation and task scheduling problems. Experiments show the merits of the hybrid SPM architecture over the traditional pure memory system and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. Compared with the AGADA algorithm, the EADA and BDAEW algorithms can reduce energy consumption by 23.05% and 19.41%, respectively.
Autors: Yan Wang;Kenli Li;Jun Zhang;Keqin Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 307 - 318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy Storage Arbitrage Under Day-Ahead and Real-Time Price Uncertainty
Abstract:
Electricity markets must match real-time supply and demand of electricity. With increasing penetration of renewable resources, it is important that this balancing is done effectively, considering the high uncertainty of wind and solar energy. Storing electrical energy can make the grid more reliable and efficient and energy storage is proposed as a complement to highly variable renewable energy sources. However, for investments in energy storage to increase, participating in the market must become economically viable for owners. This paper proposes a stochastic formulation of a storage owner's arbitrage profit maximization problem under uncertainty in day-ahead and real-time market prices. The proposed model helps storage owners in market bidding and operational decisions and in estimation of the economic viability of energy storage. Case study results on realistic market price data show that the novel stochastic bidding approach does significantly better than the deterministic benchmark.
Autors: Dheepak Krishnamurthy;Canan Uckun;Zhi Zhou;Prakash R. Thimmapuram;Audun Botterud;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 84 - 93
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy- and Spectral-Efficient Resource Allocation Algorithm for Heterogeneous Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, the tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency in multicell heterogeneous networks is investigated. Our objective is to maximize both energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of the network, while satisfying the minimum rate requirements of the users. We define our objective function as the weighted summation of energy efficiency and spectral efficiency functions. The fractional frequency reuse (FFR) scheme is employed to suppress intercell interference. We formulate the problem as cell-center boundary selection for FFR, frequency assignment to users, and power allocation. The optimal solution of this problem requires exhaustive search over all cell-center radii, frequency assignments, and power levels. We propose a three-stage algorithm and apply it consecutively until convergence. First, we select the cell-center radius for the FFR method. Second, we assign the frequency resources to users to satisfy their rate requirements and also maximize the objective function. Third, we solve the power allocation subproblem by using the Levenberg–Marquardt method. Minimum rate requirements of users are also included in the solution by using dual decomposition techniques. Our numerical results show a Pareto-optimal solution for energy efficiency and spectral efficiency. We present energy efficiency, spectral efficiency, outage probability, and average transmit power results for different minimum rate constraints. Among other results, we show that, in a particular setting, energy efficiency increase can be obtained in a multicell heterogeneous wireless network by sacrificing spectral efficiency.
Autors: Cemil Can Coskun;Ender Ayanoglu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 590 - 603
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy-Aware Virtual Machine Scheduling on Data Centers with Heterogeneous Bandwidths
Abstract:
Ethernet is the main choice of connectivity in data centers operating in clouds. The Ethernet standards body (IEEE 802.3) has generated Ethernet specifications with increasing transmission rates since its inception. As a result, it is observed that data centers with groups of physical hosts having heterogeneous bandwidths. In this paper, we present an energy-aware virtual machine’s scheduling method, taking into account this heterogeneity while aiming at energy efficiency. This method consists of two algorithms: one to determine to which physical hosts virtual machines should be allocated, and the other for the provision of bandwidth on physical hosts to virtual machines. Our study shows that, regarding energy savings for the studied scenarios, the presented method is comparable to other energy-aware methods in data centers with groups of machines with homogeneous settings, surpassing them in groups of machines with heterogeneous configurations, bringing improvements especially to data centers with heterogeneous bandwidths’ networks or to where restrictive SLAs are used for the provision of bandwidth to virtual machines.
Autors: Daniel Guimaraes Lago;Edmundo R. M. Madeira;Deep Medhi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 83 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy-Delay Efficient Power Control in Wireless Networks
Abstract:
This paper aims at developing a power control framework to jointly optimize energy efficiency (measured in bit/joule) and delay in wireless networks. A multi-objective approach is taken dealing with both performance metrics, while ensuring a minimum quality-of-service to each user in the network. Each user in the network is modeled as a rational agent that engages in a generalized non-cooperative game. Feasibility conditions are derived for the existence of each player’s best response, and used to show that if these conditions are met, the game best response dynamics will converge to a unique Nash equilibrium. Based on these results, a convergent power control algorithm is derived, which can be implemented in a fully decentralized fashion. Next, a centralized power control algorithm is proposed, which also serves as a benchmark for the proposed decentralized solution. Due to the non-convexity of the centralized problem, the tool of maximum block improvement is used, to tradeoff complexity with optimality.
Autors: Alessio Zappone;Luca Sanguinetti;Mérouane Debbah;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 418 - 431
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy-Delay Tradeoff in Ultra-Dense Networks Considering BS Sleeping and Cell Association
Abstract:
Ultra-dense network (UDN) is a promising technology for future wireless networks to meet the explosively increasing wireless traffic demands. Sleeping strategy that switches base station (BS) on/off to reduce the energy consumption of UDN is widely investigated. However, the energy saving of sleeping strategy may come at the cost of increased delay. Hence, energy-delay tradeoff (EDT) which means how much energy can be saved by trading off tolerable delay is an important topic.

In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework for EDT considering BS sleeping and cell association in UDNs. Firstly, an M/G/1/N processor sharing vacation queueing is introduced to model small cell considering sleeping strategy and cell association. Mean delay and energy consumption are quantitatively studied based on the queueing model. The general expressions for mean delay and energy consumption are derived. It shows that sacrificing delay will not always bring about energy saving. Then, EDT problem is formulated as a cost minimization problem, and the optimal sleeping time and association radius are investigated to achieve the optimal tradeoff between energy consumption and delay. Since there is no closed-form expression for the optimal sleeping time for arbitrary number of users associating with one small cell, the optimal sleeping time for one and infinite number of users are derived. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimal sleeping time for infinite number of users is a reasonable approximation for arbitrary number when it is more than one.

Autors: Li Pei;Jiang Huilin;Pan Zhiwen;You Xiaohu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 734 - 751
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy-Efficiency Versus Delay Tradeoff in Wireless Networks Virtualization
Abstract:
This paper studies the issues on wireless networks virtualization in terms of two important performance metrics, i.e., energy efficiency (EE) and delay. Different from existing works on physical layer, we aim to achieve a good tradeoff between EE and delay in wireless networks virtualization using cross-layer stochastic optimization approach. In particular, we formulate a cross-layer problem using fractional programming and Lyapunov optimization method. The EE and delay tradeoff solution is given explicitly by deriving their analytical bounds that are verified by simulation results.
Autors: Qiong Shi;Liqiang Zhao;Yaoyuan Zhang;Gan Zheng;F. Richard Yu;Hsiao-Hwa Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 837 - 841
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy-Efficient Composite Event Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Composite event detection is one of fundamental tasks for wireless sensor networks. In existing approaches, typically, a routing tree is used to enable information exchange among sensor nodes and collaborative detection of composite events. However, such a tree is not optimal in terms of energy efficiency, because the relations included in composite events have not been fully utilized. In this letter, we propose a new type of routing tree called event detection tree (EDT) to achieve energy-efficient composite event detection. EDT reduces the amount of data to be transmitted by aggregating data in to events, at the cost of an increased distance in the data transmission to achieve such aggregations. EDT achieves a tradeoff of them to minimize the overall energy consumption. Simulation results show that our approach outperforms existing approaches and yields energy savings of up to 20%.
Autors: Weiping Zhu;Jiannong Cao;Michel Raynal;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 177 - 180
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Multiple Latency-Sensitive Bluetooth Low Energy Nodes
Abstract:
Energy-efficient scheduling in wireless embedded devices is a critical consideration due to limited energy supplies and the latency constraint of sensory data processing. Bluetooth low energy (BLE) is a low power solution that provides a user-defined connection interval parameter for extending the sleep time of BLE nodes. Instead of minimizing the values for this connection parameter to minimize latency, which can lead to excessive energy consumption, this paper presents a practical energy-efficient scheduling framework for multiple BLE devices having applications with latency constraints. First, we determine the required connection interval for a single BLE node with multi-rate sensing applications. Then, considering the scheduling issues caused by non-preemptive data transmission, we present an energy-efficient connection interval assignment for a sensor network with multiple BLE nodes to meet the latency constraints of sensing applications. Finally, based on the proposed connection interval determination, we propose a priority inversion awareness scheduler for the BLE master node to schedule all slave node transmissions in the network. Extensive experiments show that the proposed algorithms prolonged network lifetime by 235% compared with a simple pessimistic setting.
Autors: Jing-Ho Chen;Ya-Shu Chen;Yu-Lin Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 849 - 859
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Energy-Efficient Toque Allocation Design of Traction and Regenerative Braking for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
Electric vehicles with a distributed drive train configuration provide great possibilities for the improvement of the vehicle dynamics, handling, safety as well as efficiency. In this paper, an energy-efficient torque allocation scheme is proposed for the improvement of traction efficiency and braking energy recovery. In traction conditions, the traction distribution is developed using an objective function of minimizing power loss of four electric motors. In braking conditions, aiming at guaranteeing the braking stability and recapturing the braking energy as much as possible, the changeable distribution of braking torque is obtained based on the ideal front-rear braking force distribution curve, while complying with braking regulations of Economic Commission for Europe. The proposed allocation scheme does not rely on the complex online computation. It is obtained via an offline optimization procedure and utilized for online allocation by simple interpolation. The low calculation effort makes it easy to implement the algorithm on real vehicles. Additionally, a conventional torque allocation is introduced as a contrasting approach. Finally, the simulations are conducted in CarSim and MATLAB/Simulink environment. The results demonstrate that the energy-efficient torque allocation scheme considerably improves the vehicle efficiency and increases the braking energy recovery compared with the conventional approach.
Autors: Xudong Zhang;Dietmar Göhlich;Jiayuan Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 285 - 295
Publisher: IEEE
 

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