Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2018 sorted by title, page: 3

» An $E$ -Band Analog Predistorter and Power Amplifier MMIC Chipset
Abstract:
An analog predistorter and power amplifier (PA) MMIC chipset has been designed to improve the overall linearity for applications in wireless communication at the -band. The circuits have been implemented in a commercial 0.1 InGaAs pHEMT process. The PA delivers an output referred 1-dB gain compression (OP1 dB) of 24 dBm, saturated output power of 27 dBm, and OIP3 of 32 dBm between 71 and 76 GHz. In combination with the analog predistortion circuit, the combined chipset improves carrier to third-order intermodulation ratio by 20 dB at an average output power of 21 dBm and at the same time increasing the OP1 dB by 2 dB to 26 dBm.
Autors: Marcus Gavell;Göran Granström;Christian Fager;Sten E. Gunnarsson;Mattias Ferndahl;Herbert Zirath;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 31 - 33
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An 11-Bit 250-nW 10-kS/s SAR ADC With Doubled Input Range for Biomedical Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a low-power, area-efficient 11-b single-ended successive-approximation-register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) targeted for biomedical applications. The design features an energy-efficient switching technique with an error cancelling capacitor network. The input range is twice the reference voltage. The ADC’s loading of the previous stage is reduced by using a single-ended structure, and by eliminating the largest capacitor in the array. The common mode voltage of the input signal can be used as reference voltage. All building blocks were designed in subthreshold for power efficiency, with an asynchronous self-controlled SAR logic. The ADC was fabricated in 0.18 – CMOS 2P4M process. The measured peak SNDR was 60.5 dB, the SFDR was 72 dB, the DNL +0.6/−0.37 LSB, and the INL +0.94/−0.89 LSB. The total power consumption was 250 nW from 0.75-V supply voltage.
Autors: Mahmoud Sadollahi;Koichi Hamashita;Kazuki Sobue;Gabor C. Temes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 61 - 73
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An 8-Gb 12-Gb/s/pin GDDR5X DRAM for Cost-Effective High-Performance Applications
Abstract:
The graphic DRAM interface standard GDDR5X is developed as an evolutionary extension to the widely available GDDR5. The implementation presented here achieves a data rate of 12 Gb/s/pin on a single-ended signaling interface with 32 IOs for a total memory bandwidth of 48 GB/s. The GDDR5X DRAM relies on the quad data rate operation enabled by a phase-locked loop (PLL), a receiver with a pre-amplifier in a dual-regulation loop and a one-tap digital feedback equalizer (DFE). To support lower performance modes, an additional GDDR5-like operation is provided, which bypasses the PLL. The interface is realized on a conventional high-volume DRAM process to provide a cost-efficient, discrete package 8-Gb DRAM for high-performance graphic cards and compute applications.
Autors: Martin Brox;Mani Balakrishnan;Martin Broschwitz;Cristian Chetreanu;Stefan Dietrich;Fabien Funfrock;Marcos Alvarez Gonzalez;Thomas Hein;Eugen Huber;Daniel Lauber;Milena Ivanov;Maksim Kuzmenka;Christian N. Mohr;Juan Ocon Garrido;Swetha Padaraju;Sven Pi
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 134 - 143
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An E-band Double-Balanced Subharmonic Mixer With High Conversion Gain and Low Power in 90-nm CMOS Process
Abstract:
In this letter, an E-band double-balanced subharmonic down conversion mixer is presented. The proposed mixer demonstrates a conversion gain (CG) of 5.3 ~ 9 dB at RF frequencies 70–88 GHz under local oscillator (LO) power −4 dBm. The input 1-dB compression power (IP1 dB) and the input third-order intercept point (IIP3) at RF frequency of 77 GHz are −13 and −3 dBm, respectively. The 2LO-to-RF isolations of RF frequencies 70–88 GHz are all better than 40 dB. The overall dc power consumption (dc bias with injecting LO power) is 5 mW. The mixer is fabricated in a TSMC 90-nm CMOS process and it occupies an area of 0.3195 mm2. By applying weak-inversion region to generate subharmonic mixing function and with the combination of LO gate-pumped operation and source-pumped operation, this proposed mixer achieves high CG and low LO power with low dc power consumption among the published subharmonic mixers.
Autors: Yi-Ching Wu;Huei Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 70 - 72
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An f-P/Q Droop Control in Cascaded-Type Microgrid
Abstract:
In cascaded-type microgrid, the synchronization and power balance of distributed generators become two new issues that needs to be addressed urgently. To that end, an f-P/Q droop control is proposed in this letter, and its stability is analyzed as well. This proposed droop control is capable to achieve power balance under both resistive-inductive and resistive-capacitive loads autonomously. Compared with the inverse power factor droop control, an obvious advantage consists in extending the scope of application. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is verified by simulation results.
Autors: Yao Sun;Guangze Shi;Xing Li;Wenbin Yuan;Mei Su;Hua Han;Xiaochao Hou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1136 - 1138
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Accurate and Automated Method for Identifying and Mapping Exposed Rock Outcrop in Antarctica Using Landsat 8 Images
Abstract:
Antarctica plays a significant role in global change studies. As a typical land cover in Antarctica, exposed rock is considered indispensable in many studies, and the mapping of exposed rocks is seen as a key basis of work to meet the demand for more accurate and updated datasets with the consecutive development of satellite technology. Although the normalized difference snow index has been commonly used for differentiating exposed rocks and snow, it often misidentifies clouds as rocks. The British Antarctic Survey has used Landsat 8 data to create a new rock outcrop map for Antarctica, overcoming the limitations of previous techniques and generating Antarctic Digital Database (ADD) New Rock Outcrop with higher accuracy than previously achieved. However, there are still some omission and commission errors apparent in the shaded areas, which affect the accuracy. Widespread shaded areas in Antarctica due to low solar elevation angles and extreme topography cause difficulty in accurately mapping exposed rock. In addition, major differences are present between existing products. Addressing the existing issues about extraction of exposed rock, this study used the near infrared band and shortwave infrared 2 band of Landsat 8 reflectance data to build a specific exposed rock index for the extraction of exposed rocks. A shadow detection method combined with a blue reflectance threshold is used for the shadowed rock identification. Accuracy assessment of these extraction results showed that the accuracy of the new product is higher than all existing exposed rock products. The conversion from DN values to top of atmosphere reflectance and the solar elevation correction for each pixel individually eliminate a variety of errors associated with the different acquisition times of each image. From the statistics of the reflectance related to the training samples, this paper established the threshold of exposed rock extraction so as to ensure the applicability of the same threshol- for exposed rock extraction in all images. This method is applied to a total of 1100 high-quality images that were collected for covering the Antarctic continent from November 2013 to February 2014. The results show that 253 of the images contain exposed rocks, and these images were used for mapping work. The map showed that the main exposed rock areas are mainly distributed in four coastal regions: The Antarctic Peninsula, Queen Maud Land, Lambert Glacier basin, and Victoria Land regions. We also compared our results with ADD New Rock Outcrop and Bedrock Mapping Project 2 (Bedmap2) data in the four main regions. Our results were close to the ADD rock outcrops and exhibited remarkable differences with Bedmap2. We explored the possibility of analyzing and explaining these differences. Especially, as using the same data source Landsat 8 but with a different method, the comparison between our results and ADD New Rock Outcrop is discussed and concludes in shadowed rocks extraction, mixed-pixels, and omission disagreement. The results also show that shadowed rocks accounts for nearly 12% of the total exposed rocks and cannot be neglected. The method we developed can be quickly applied for extraction and mapping of large areas of exposed rocks using Landsat 8.
Autors: Jing Kang;Xiao Cheng;Fengming Hui;Tianyu Ci;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 57 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Achievable Throughput Scaling Law of Wireless Device-to-Device Caching Networks With Distributed MIMO and Hierarchical Cooperations
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new caching scheme for a random wireless device-to-device (D2D) network of nodes with local caches, where each node intends to download files from a prefixed library via D2D links. Our proposed caching delivery includes two stages, employing distributed MIMO and hierarchical cooperations, respectively. The distributed MIMO is applied to the first stage between source nodes and neighbors of the destination node. The induced multiplexing gain and diversity gain increase the number of simultaneous transmissions, improving the throughput of the network. The hierarchical cooperations are applied to the second stage to facilitate the transmissions between the destination node and its neighbors. The two stages together exploit spatial degrees of freedom as well as spatial reuse. We develop an uncoded random caching placement strategy to serve this cooperative caching delivery. Analytical results show that the average aggregate throughput of the network scales almost linearly with , with a vanishing outage probability. Furthermore, we derive an explicit expression of the optimal throughput as a function of system parameters, such as pathloss factor under a target outage probability. Analytical and numerical results demonstrate that our proposed scheme outperforms existing ones when the local cache size is limited.
Autors: Jiajia Guo;Jinhong Yuan;Jian Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 492 - 505
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Actively Detuned Wireless Power Receiver With Public Key Cryptographic Authentication and Dynamic Power Allocation
Abstract:
This paper presents a CMOS resonant wireless charging receiver with an active detuning mechanism for controlling the received power, without using any passive components being switched in and out. This detuning mechanism is first combined with an on-chip elliptic curve accelerator that achieves /elliptic curve scalar multiplication and in-band telemetry for authenticating a wireless charger using elliptic curve cryptography, with up to rejection at the output of the receiver. Second, equitable power distribution between two receivers coupled to the same charger is demonstrated by controlled detuning of the closer receiver. The system can overcome up to a 4:1 asymmetry in distance to the charger between two receivers. Implemented in 0.18- CMOS, the receiver IC delivers 520-mW peak output power and 74% peak end-to-end efficiency in the tuned mode.
Autors: Nachiket Desai;Chiraag Juvekar;Shubham Chandak;Anantha P. Chandrakasan;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 236 - 246
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Adaptive Fast Factorized Back-Projection Algorithm With Integrated Target Detection Technique for High-Resolution and High-Squint Spotlight SAR Imagery
Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of fast focusing the spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in high-resolution and high-squint mode, which has shown its potential capacity in various military SAR applications. Fast factorized backprojection (FFBP) is considered as an ideal methodology for high-resolution and high-squint SAR imagery. However, FFBP performs pixel-by-pixel interpolation, yielding heavy computational burden and limiting its real-time processing. In this paper, target detection technique, which is used as a discrimination tool to retain the target pixels and reject the clutter and noise pixels, is integrated into the subaperture imaging chain during FFBP implementation, aiming to speed up the overall image formation time. Due to the characteristic of spotlight acquisition, an adaptive processing scheme is developed for multiple subaperture images detection. With the integrated target detection technique, only the target pixels need to be interpolated and accumulated coherently. Without loss of focusing performance, the number of interpolations is dramatically reduced. The proposed fast imaging algorithm is named as adaptive FFBP (AFFBP), and it has distinctive superiority for sparse scene reconstruction, such as the maritime target imaging. AFFBP has been successfully applied to two simulated scenes with high and low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and two real measured datasets with squint angle high up to and , respectively. All these experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency improvement of the proposed AFFBP algorithm.
Autors: Lei Ran;Zheng Liu;Tao Li;Rong Xie;Lei Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 171 - 183
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Adaptively Truncated Clutter-Statistics-Based Two-Parameter CFAR Detector in SAR Imagery
Abstract:
Traditional constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors suffer probability of detection (PD) degradation influenced by the outliers such as interfering ship targets, side lobes, and ghosts, especially in crowded harbors and busy shipping lines. In this paper, a new two-parameter CFAR detector based on adaptively truncated clutter statistics (TS-LNCFAR) is proposed. The new two-parameter CFAR detector uses log-normal as the statistical model; by adaptive-threshold-based clutter truncation in the background window, the outliers are removed from the clutter samples, while the real clutter is preserved to the largest degree. The log-normal model is accurately built using the truncated clutter statistics through the maximum-likelihood estimator. Compared with traditional CFAR detectors, the parameter estimation is more accurate, and TS-LNCFAR has a better false alarm regulation property and a high PD in a multiple-target environment. Furthermore, the parameter estimation and threshold calculation do not need iterative numerical calculation, and TS-LNCFAR has a high computational efficiency. The superiority of the proposed TS-LNCFAR detector is validated on the multilook Envisat-ASAR and TerraSAR-X data.
Autors: Jiaqiu Ai;Xuezhi Yang;Jitao Song;Zhangyu Dong;Lu Jia;Fang Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 267 - 279
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Algorithm of an X-ray Hit Allocation to a Single Pixel in a Cluster and Its Test-Circuit Implementation
Abstract:
An on-chip implementable algorithm for allocation of an X-ray photon imprint, called a hit, to a single pixel in the presence of charge sharing in a highly segmented pixel detector is described. Its proof-of-principle implementation is also given supported by the results of tests using a highly collimated X-ray photon beam from a synchrotron source. The algorithm handles asynchronous arrivals of X-ray photons. Activation of groups of pixels, comparisons of peak amplitudes of pulses within an active neighborhood and finally latching of the results of these comparisons constitute the three procedural steps of the algorithm. A grouping of pixels to one virtual pixel, that recovers composite signals and event driven strobes, to control comparisons of fractional signals between neighboring pixels are the actuators of the algorithm. The circuitry necessary to implement the algorithm requires an extensive inter-pixel connection grid of analog and digital signals, that are exchanged between pixels. A test-circuit implementation of the algorithm was achieved with a small array of pixels and the device was exposed to an 8 keV highly collimated to a diameter of 3- X-ray beam. The results of these tests are given in this paper assessing physical implementation of the algorithm.
Autors: Grzegorz W. Deptuch;Farah Fahim;Paweł Gryboś;Jim Hoff;Scott Holm;Piotr Maj;David Peter Siddons;Piotr Kmon;Marcel Trimpl;Tom Zimmerman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 185 - 197
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Amateur Drone Surveillance System Based on the Cognitive Internet of Things
Abstract:
Drones, also known as mini-unmanned aerial vehicles, have attracted increasing attention due to their boundless applications in communications, photography, agriculture, surveillance, and numerous public services. However, the deployment of amateur drones poses various safety, security, and privacy threats. To cope with these challenges, amateur drone surveillance has become a very important but largely unexplored topic. In this article, we first present a brief survey to show the stateof- the-art studies on amateur drone surveillance. Then we propose a vision, named Dragnet, tailoring the recently emerging Cognitive Internet of Things framework for amateur drone surveillance. Next, we discuss the key enabling techniques for Dragnet in detail, accompanied by the technical challenges and open issues. Furthermore, we provide an exemplary case study on the detection and classification of authorized and unauthorized amateur drones, where, for example, an important event is being held and only authorized drones are allowed to fly over.
Autors: Guoru Ding;Qihui Wu;Linyuan Zhang;Yun Lin;Theodoros A. Tsiftsis;Yu-Dong Yao;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 29 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Analog-Assisted Tri-Loop Digital Low-Dropout Regulator
Abstract:
This paper presents an analog-assisted (AA) output-capacitor-free digital low-dropout (D-LDO) regulator with tri-loop control. For responding to instant load transients, the proposed high-pass AA loop momentarily adjusts the unit current of the power switch array, and significantly reduces the voltage spikes. In the proposed D-LDO, the overall 512 output current steps are divided into three sub-sections controlled by coarse/fine loops with carry-in/out operations. Therefore, the required shift register (SR) length is reduced, and a 9-bit output current resolution is realized by using only 28-SR bits. Besides, the coarse-tuning loop helps to reduce the recovery time, while the fine-tuning loop improves the output accuracy. To eliminate the limit cycle oscillation and reduce the quiescent current, a freeze mode is added after the fine-tuning operation. To reduce the output glitches and the recovery time, a nonlinear coarse word control is designed for the carry-in/out operations. The D-LDO is fabricated in a 65-nm general purpose CMOS process. A maximum voltage undershoot/overshoot of 105 mV is measured with a 10-mA/1-ns load step and a total capacitor of only 100 pF. Thus, the resulting figure-of-merit is 0.23 ps.
Autors: Mo Huang;Yan Lu;Seng-Pan U;Rui P. Martins;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 20 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Analytical Model to Characterize the Spatiotemporal Propagation of Information Under Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications
Abstract:
Modeling the spatiotemporal propagation characteristics of information under vehicle-to-vehicle communications is critical for developing information-enabled applications to improve traffic safety and mobility. Existing analytical approaches assume instantaneous information flow propagation to simplify the communication constraints arising from the traffic flow dynamics. Consequently, information flow propagation characteristics such as the information flow propagation wave have not been analyzed. They are necessary to describe the interactions with the underlying traffic flow dynamics. An analytical model, which integrates an epidemic model with a traffic flow model, is developed to account for such interactions. The proposed model is able to capture the dynamics of information flow and traffic flow in an integrated formulation that circumvents key analytical and numerical challenges. Results from computational experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and its ability to describe the dynamic characteristics of information flow propagation along with the traffic flow dynamics.
Autors: Yong Hoon Kim;Srinivas Peeta;Xiaozheng He;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 3 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Architecture for Large-Area Sensor Acquisition Using Frequency-Hopping ZnO TFT DCOs
Abstract:
Hybrid systems combine large-area electronics (LAE) with silicon-CMOS ICs for sensing and computation, respectively. In such systems, interfacing a large number of distributed LAE sensors with the CMOS domain poses a key limitation. This paper presents an architecture that aims to greatly reduce both the number of physical connections and the time for accessing all of the sensors. Each sensor modulates the amplitude of a thin-film transistor (TFT) digitally controlled oscillator (DCO). All DCO outputs are combined, but each follows a unique frequency-hopping pattern (controlled by a code from CMOS), allowing recovery of the individual sensors. The architecture enables much greater scalability of sensors for a given number of connections than active-matrix and binary-addressing schemes. For demonstration, an 18-element large-area force-sensing system is demonstrated based on zinc-oxide (ZnO) TFT DCOs with a frequency-hopping rate of 4.2 kHz. Acquisition error 62 mVrms is achieved over 30 weight patterns.
Autors: Yasmin Afsar;Tiffany Moy;Nicholas Brady;Sigurd Wagner;James C. Sturm;Naveen Verma;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 297 - 308
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Area-Efficient BIRA With 1-D Spare Segments
Abstract:
The growing capacity and density of embedded memories increases the probability of defects and affects the yield. To improve the yield, built-in redundancy analysis (BIRA) has been developed to replace faulty cells with healthy redundant cells. BIRA requires a high repair rate and a feasible hardware size for implementation. Although many BIRAs have been proposed, most of them still demonstrate a low repair rate or a large required hardware size. The proposed BIRA employs an intuitive algorithm with a small-area analyzer that uses 1-D spare segments in the 2-D spare structure. Because most faults in the memory are single faults, spare segments can be used to efficiently allocate redundancies. In terms of the yield, 1-D spare segments are effective when used with an intuitive algorithm that can be implemented with a small hardware overhead. Experimental results show that the proposed BIRA has a higher repair rate and relatively low hardware overhead than state-of-the-art BIRAs and has the advantages of 1-D spare segments.
Autors: Donghyun Kim;Hayoung Lee;Sungho Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 206 - 210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Assessment of Temporal Decorrelation Compensation Methods for Forest Canopy Height Estimation Using Airborne L-Band Same-Day Repeat-Pass Polarimetric SAR Interferometry
Abstract:
We assess and compare several algorithms to compensate for temporal decorrelation observed in repeat-pass L-band polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PolInSAR) measurements of forest canopy height. The analysis is performed on data acquired with an approximately 45-min temporal baseline using the uninhabited aerial vehicle synthetic aperture radar collected in August 2009 over temperate and boreal forests of the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of Québec. This investigation presents several compensation methods based on the classical random volume over ground model, which include fixing the value of the extinction parameter, fixing the temporal decorrelation magnitude, or varying temporal decorrelation estimates with height. We also compare results with the random motion over ground model. While these methods have been presented in the literature previously, a comparison of the different methods and an assessment of their height estimation accuracy applied to the same datasets have not yet been performed. In addition, we introduce the use of ancillary reference forest height data from airborne large footprint lidar to estimate model parameters and to mitigate solution ambiguities. We finally demonstrate that this mitigation strategy is robust and suitable for use with future spaceborne lidar missions such as the Global Ecosystems Dynamics Investigation. The resulting PolInSAR canopy height estimates correspond well with those obtained from coincident field and airborne lidar data. Height estimation differences of 3.4 m (RMSE) were observed between the PolInSAR- and lidar-derived canopy height maps when using the fixed extinction method. These can be partially attributed to inherent differences in the sensor spatial resolutions and geolocation accuracy. The RMS error between the PolInSAR height estimates and the field collected Lorey's heights was 2.4 m.
Autors: Marc Simard;Michael Denbina;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 95 - 111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Asymmetric Mapping Method for the Synthesis of Sparse Planar Arrays
Abstract:
This study proposes an asymmetric mapping method to design sparse planar arrays with multiple constraints including the aperture, number of elements, and minimum spacing between adjacent elements. Benefiting from two different mapping functions, which are established in this letter, this approach allows one to overcome the limitations of the existing matrix mapping method in terms of flexibility and performances. The numerical validation points out that the proposed method outperforms the matrix mapping method and modified real genetic algorithm in the design of array arrangements.
Autors: Dingcheng Dai;Minli Yao;Hongguang Ma;Wei Jin;Fenggan Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 70 - 73
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Autonomous Intelligent Music Teacher
Abstract:
The attempted combination of music and artificial intelligence (AI) has been viewed as the jamming together of two puzzle pieces that are not meant to fit together. It is the opinion of some musicians that music is a purely human feat, a proficiency that computers will never be able to achieve. Several members of the AI community, however, have fought this mindset with their belief that music is, in more ways than one, founded on mathematics. What computers lack in emotions, they make up for with computational capabilities.
Autors: Lavanya Aprameya;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 10 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Effective Compensation Technique for Speed Smoothness at Low-Speed Operation of PMSM Drives
Abstract:
This paper proposes a simple and effective method to reduce speed ripples of permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) under low-speed working conditions. The treated issue is related to the periodic torque ripples, which induce speed oscillations that deteriorate the drive performance. The main idea of the proposed method is to modify a conventional PMSM controller by superposing an appropriate compensation signal to the quadratic-current reference. The proposed approach allows the reduction of speed ripples at low speed through a simple compensation signal and does not require a hard calculation cost. A theoretical analysis is presented, and both simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed compensation method.
Autors: Azeddine Houari;Ahmed Bouabdallah;Ali Djerioui;Mohamed Machmoum;Francois Auger;Abdallah Darkawi;Jean-Christophe Olivier;Mohamed Fouad Benkhoris;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 647 - 655
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Effective Compressed-Sensing Inspired Deterministic Algorithm for Sparse Array Synthesis
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to discuss a novel technique for sparse array synthesis. The synthesis strategy is based on a sparse-forcing algorithm using an improvement of the reweighted minimization proposed in the framework of the compressed-sensing literature, specifically modified in order to tailor both linear and conformal array synthesis problems. The numerical examples show that the proposed algorithm improves the results provided by concurrent techniques, reducing the number of radiating elements and/or the computational effort.
Autors: Daniele Pinchera;Marco Donald Migliore;Fulvio Schettino;Mario Lucido;Gaetano Panariello;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 149 - 159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Effective Permittivity Tensor of Cylindrically Perforated Dielectrics
Abstract:
In the letter, we propose a simple analytical effective permittivity model of perforated dielectrics composed of through-hole cylindrical perforations. As the perforated dielectrics are uniaxial media, the model respects the anisotropic properties of the material and the results are simple engineering formulas for effective permittivities of ordinary and extraordinary wave for polarization corresponding to parallel and perpendicular orientation with respect to the axis of perforations. The model is based on the 2-D Maxwell Garnett approximation of inhomogeneous media valid for circularly shaped perforations. The analytical results obtained for propagation of transverse electromagnetic wave are verified by unit-cell full-wave simulations of triangular perforations lattice, and a very good agreement is obtained.
Autors: Michal Mrnka;Zbynek Raida;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 66 - 69
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient and Reconfigurable Synchronous Neuron Model
Abstract:
This brief presents a reconfigurable and efficient 2-D neuron model capable of extending to higher dimensions. The model is applied to the Izhikevich and FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron models as 2-D case studies and to the Hindmarsh-Rose model as a 3-D case study. Hardware synthesis and physical implementations show that the resulting circuits can reproduce neural dynamics with acceptable precision and considerably low hardware overhead compared to previously published piecewise linear models.
Autors: Hamid Soleimani;E. M. Drakakise;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 91 - 95
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient Channel Scanning Scheme With Dual-Interfaces for Seamless Handoff in IEEE 802.11 WLANs
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose an efficient channel scanning scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLANs to reduce the handoff delay. The proposed scheme is fundamentally different from existing channel scanning schemes in that access points (APs), not mobile stations, switch channels. Specifically, each AP is equipped with dual wireless network interfaces, one of which is used for normal AP operations and the other is dedicated to the channel scanning assistance. In this circumstance, mobile stations do not perform active scans and stay on their operating channel, while APs switch channels and broadcast beacon frames by using the additional interface. Thus, mobile stations can maintain up-to-date information on neighboring APs without scanning other channels. Consequently, the service disruption during channel scanning is eliminated and the quality of ongoing data communication is not degraded. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms existing channel scanning schemes.
Autors: Jae-Pil Jeong;Young Deok Park;Young-Joo Suh;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 169 - 172
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient Fault-Tolerance Design for Integer Parallel Matrix–Vector Multiplications
Abstract:
Parallel matrix processing is a typical operation in many systems, and in particular matrix–vector multiplication (MVM) is one of the most common operations in the modern digital signal processing and digital communication systems. This paper proposes a fault-tolerant design for integer parallel MVMs. The scheme combines ideas from error correction codes with the self-checking capability of MVM. Field-programmable gate array evaluation shows that the proposed scheme can significantly reduce the overheads compared to the protection of each MVM on its own. Therefore, the proposed technique can be used to reduce the cost of providing fault tolerance in practical implementations.
Autors: Zhen Gao;Qingqing Jing;Yumeng Li;Pedro Reviriego;Juan Antonio Maestro;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 211 - 215
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient Prediction-Based User Recruitment for Mobile Crowdsensing
Abstract:
Mobile crowdsensing is a new paradigm in which a group of mobile users exploit their smart devices to cooperatively perform a large-scale sensing job. One of the users’ main concerns is the cost of data uploading, which affects their willingness to participate in a crowdsensing task. In this paper, we propose an efficient Prediction-based User Recruitment for mobile crowdsEnsing (PURE), which separates the users into two groups corresponding to different price plans: Pay as you go (PAYG) and Pay monthly (PAYM). By regarding the PAYM users as destinations, the minimizing cost problem goes to recruiting the users that have the largest contact probability with a destination. We first propose a semi-Markov model to determine the probability distribution of user arrival time at points of interest (PoIs) and then get the inter-user contact probability. Next, an efficient prediction-based user-recruitment strategy for mobile crowdsensing is proposed to minimize the data uploading cost. We then propose PURE-DF by extending PURE to a case in which we address the tradeoff between the delivery ratio of sensing data and the recruiter number according to Delegation Forwarding. We conduct extensive simulations based on three widely-used real-world traces: roma/taxi, epfl, and geolife. The results show that, compared with other recruitment strategies, PURE achieves a lower recruitment payment and PURE-DF achieves the highest delivery efficiency.
Autors: En Wang;Yongjian Yang;Jie Wu;Wenbin Liu;Xingbo Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 16 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient Structure of Marx Generator Using Buck–Boost Converter
Abstract:
In this paper, a new structure of Marx generator (MG) based on buck–boost converter is proposed to generate high-voltage pulses. In this structure, a single-phase inverter is employed to supply parallel diode–capacitor units by positive and negative values of the input dc source (). The main contribution of this paper is proposing a new switching strategy, by which a group of capacitors are charged properly. Finally, the charged capacitors are connected in series such that the output voltage is equal to summation of the capacitors’ voltages. Considering specified value of the output voltage, the number of circuit elements in the proposed structure is reduced in comparison with other topologies of unipolar MG. Furthermore, voltage rating of switches and diodes in the proposed topology is lower than that of other unipolar MG structures. Design of the structure ensures that there is no need to connect the switches in series, when the number of stages is increased. To verify the performance of the proposed MG structure, simulation has been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink. Furthermore, a prototype of the proposed structure has been implemented in the lab. The simulation and experimental results confirm the capability of the structure for generating high-voltage pulses.
Autors: Mehdi Taherian;Mehdi Allahbakhshi;Ebrahim Farjah;Hadi Givi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 117 - 126
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Embedded Real-Time Processing Platform for Optogenetic Neuroprosthetic Applications
Abstract:
Optogenetics offers a powerful new approach for controlling neural circuits. It has numerous applications in both basic and clinical science. These applications require stimulating devices with small processors that can perform real-time neural signal processing, deliver high-intensity light with high spatial and temporal resolution, and do not consume a lot of power. In this paper, we demonstrate the implementation of neuronal models in a platform consisting of an embedded system module and a portable digital light processing projector. As a replacement for damaged neural circuitry, the embedded module processes neural signals and then directs the projector to optogenetically activate a downstream neural pathway. We present a design in the context of stimulating circuits in the visual system, but the approach is feasible for a broad range of biomedical applications.
Autors: Boyuan Yan;Sheila Nirenberg;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 233 - 243
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Energy Efficient Schedule for IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee Cluster Tree WSN with Multiple Collision Domains and Period Crossing Constraint
Abstract:
Cluster scheduling respecting collision avoidance is a complex problem in cluster-tree wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The difficulty of the problem also increases significantly when the traffic is organized as time-constrained data flows with opposite directions. Thus, in this paper, we seek a collision-free cluster schedule that meets all the data flow deadlines as given in time units. In this context, we have found an elegant approach that expresses the deadline of each flow as an integer number of the length of the schedule period (i.e., period crossing constraints). Consequently, the data flow timeliness requirements become easier to be tackled. Due to the scarce resources of the WSNs, the minimization of the energy consumption of the nodes is a problem of paramount importance. Therefore, the objective is to maximize the lifetime of the network by maximizing the time when the nodes stay in low-power mode. In this paper, we present a novel heuristic scheduling algorithm to obtain the desired schedule. The algorithm is based on very interesting formulations of graph theory problems. Thus, it is efficient in both computational time (instances with thousands of devices are solved in a short time) and solution quality (evaluated over smaller size instances while comparing it with optimal solutions obtained by integer linear programming).
Autors: Aasem Ahmad;Zdeněk Hanzálek;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 12 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Energy-Efficient DAC Switching Method for SAR ADCs
Abstract:
This brief presents a capacitor switching technique to reduce the power consumption in successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The proposed method ideally does not consume any switching energy in digital-to-analog converter and for a 10-bit ADC; it achieves 87% reduction in the total capacitor area compared to the conventional SAR ADC. In addition, the accuracy of the proposed SAR ADC does not depend on the accuracy of the mid-level reference voltage (). Moreover, the common-mode input voltage of the comparator will remain constant. The proposed ADC is simulated in a 90-nm CMOS technology with sampling rate of 100 kS/s and resolution of 10-bit. The simulation results achieve an 8.5 effective number of bits with about 0.5- power consumption resulting in a FoM of 9.76 fJ/conversion-step.
Autors: Tayebeh Yousefi;Alireza Dabbaghian;Mohammad Yavari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 41 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Energy-Efficient Programmable Manycore Accelerator for Personalized Biomedical Applications
Abstract:
Wearable personalized health monitoring systems can offer a cost-effective solution for human health care. These systems must constantly monitor patients’ physiological signals and provide highly accurate, and quick processing and delivery of the vast amount of data within a limited power and area footprint. These personalized biomedical applications require sampling and processing multiple streams of physiological signals with a varying number of channels and sampling rates. The processing typically consists of feature extraction, data fusion, and classification stages that require a large number of digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning (ML) kernels. In response to these requirements, in this paper, a tiny, energy-efficient, and domain-specific manycore accelerator referred to as power-efficient nanoclusters (PENC) is proposed to map and execute the kernels of these applications. Simulation results show that the PENC is able to reduce energy consumption by up to 80% and 25% for DSP and ML kernels, respectively, when optimally parallelized. In addition, we fully implemented three compute-intensive personalized biomedical applications, namely, multichannel seizure detection, multiphysiological stress detection, and standalone tongue drive system (sTDS), to evaluate the proposed manycore performance relative to commodity embedded CPU, graphical processing unit (GPU), and field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based implementations. For these three case studies, the energy consumption and the performance of the proposed PENC manycore, when acting as an accelerator along with an Intel Atom processor as a host, are compared with the existing commercial off-the-shelf general-purpose, customizable, and programmable embedded platforms, including Intel Atom, Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, and NVIDIA TK1 advanced RISC machine -A15 and K1 GPU system on a chip. For these applications, the PENC manycore is able to sign- ficantly improve throughput and energy efficiency by up to and , respectively. For the most computational intensive application of seizure detection, the PENC manycore is able to achieve a throughput of 15.22 giga-operations-per-second (GOPs), which is a improvement in throughput over custom FPGA solution. For stress detection, the PENC achieves a throughput of 21.36 GOPs and an energy efficiency of 4.23 GOP/J, which is and better over FPGA implementation, respectively. For the sTDS application, the PENC improves a throughput by and an energy efficiency by over FPGA implementation.
Autors: Adwaya Kulkarni;Adam Page;Nasrin Attaran;Ali Jafari;Maria Malik;Houman Homayoun;Tinoosh Mohsenin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 96 - 109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Error Model for Mapping Forest Cover and Forest Cover Change Using L-Band SAR
Abstract:
We present an error model for forest cover mapping and change detection with L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which considers measurement noise, forest height, number of images available, and imaging conditions. When applied to a multiseasonal set of Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased-Array type L-band SAR images acquired over a forest site in southern Sweden, the error model, which is founded on a semiempirical model, suggests that a bitemporal set of cross-polarized L-band backscatter observations is sufficient to detect a forest cover loss of 50% at hectare scale for mature forests. The error probability increases when using co-polarization images, images acquired under adverse imaging conditions, or when detecting forest cover change in a forest of low height. The availability of multitemporal L-band observations is expected to improve forest cover retrieval and change detection, albeit highly correlated forest cover retrieval errors between images acquired within narrow time intervals (e.g., months) pose a limit on the improvements that can be achieved.
Autors: Oliver Cartus;Paul Siqueira;Josef Kellndorfer;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 107 - 111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Explicit Non-Malleable Extraction Scheme for Quantum Randomness Amplification With Two Untrusted Devices
Abstract:
Quantum random number is a particularly important physical resource both for quantum communication and quantum cryptography. Quantum randomness amplification, as a key technology in quantum random number generation, has a significant counterintuitive effect: one can amplify weak randomness to almost perfect randomness by quantum systems, which is impossible in classical cryptography. In this letter, we propose an explicit quantum randomness amplification scheme with two untrusted devices, from which we could extract one single perfect random bit from weak random bits. An explicit non-malleable two-source extractor is introduced to extract perfect randomness from two independent min-entropy sources, which are derived from a Bell test with two untrusted devices. The universally composable security of the proposed protocol is proved.
Autors: Mingfeng Xu;Wei Pan;Lianshan Yan;Bin Luo;Xihua Zou;Liyue Zhang;Penghua Mu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 85 - 88
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Extended IEEE 118-Bus Test System With High Renewable Penetration
Abstract:
This article describes a new publicly available version of the IEEE 118–bus test system, named NREL-118. The database is based on the transmission representation (buses and lines) of the IEEE 118-bus test system, with a reconfigured generation representation using three regions of the US Western Interconnection from the latest Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) 2024 Common Case [Transmission expansion planning home and GridView WECC database]. Time-synchronous hourly load, wind, and solar time series are provided for one year. The public database presented and described in this manuscript will allow researchers to model a test power system using detailed transmission, generation, load, wind, and solar data. This database includes key additional features that add to the current IEEE 118-bus test model, such as the inclusion of ten generation technologies with different heat rate functions, minimum stable levels and ramping rates, GHG emissions rates, regulation and contingency reserves, and hourly time series data for one full year for load, wind, and solar generation.
Autors: Ivonne Peña;Carlo Brancucci Martinez-Anido;Bri-Mathias Hodge;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 281 - 289
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Extension of Reduced Disjunctive Model for Multi-Stage Security-Constrained Transmission Expansion Planning
Abstract:
This letter presents an extension of reduced disjunctive model to consider N-1 criterion in multi-stage transmission expansion planning (TEP). This extension is realized by exactly linearizing nonlinear terms induced by N-1 contingency constraints. Compared with the traditional approach, the extended RDM reduces the number of binary variables and constraints. Numerical results of three test systems indicate that the proposed approach significantly improves the computational performance without sacrificing the optimality of TEP problem.
Autors: Yao Zhang;Jianxue Wang;Yunhao Li;Xiuli Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1092 - 1094
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An FPGA-Based Phase Measurement System
Abstract:
Phase measurement is required in electronic applications where a synchronous relationship between the signals needs to be preserved. Traditional electronic systems used for time measurement are designed using a classical mixed-signal approach. With the advent of reconfigurable hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), it is more advantageous for designers to opt for all-digital architecture. Most high-speed serial transceivers of the FPGA circuitry do not ensure the same chip latency after each power cycle, reset cycle, or firmware upgrade. These cause uncertainty of phase relationship between the recovered signals. To address the need to register minute phase shift changes inside an FPGA, we propose a design for phase measurement logic core having resolution and precision in the range of a few picoseconds. The working principle is based on subsample accumulation using systematic sampling over the phase detector signal. The phase measurement logic can operate over a wide range of digital clock frequencies, ranging from a few kilohertz to the maximum frequency that is supported within the FPGA fabric. A mathematical model is developed to illustrate the operating principle of the design. The VLSI architecture is designed for the logic core. We also discussed the procedure of the phase measurement system, the calibration sequence involved, followed by the performance of the design in terms of accuracy, precision, and resolution.
Autors: Jubin Mitra;Tapan K. Nayak;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 133 - 142
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An FPGA-Based Test System for RRAM Technology Characterization
Abstract:
Resistive random access memory (RRAM) technologies have recently gained large attention from the academic and industrial research communities. Significant efforts have been made to enhance the performance of the memory stacks from both communities through the design, simulation, and fabrication of novel devices. In this context, improvements can only be confirmed through a thorough device characterization process. Here comes a gap between industry and academia that usually lacks high-end test equipment to perform systematic device characterizations. In this paper, we propose a solution to fill this gap by introducing an easy, affordable, and effective field programmable gate array based RRAM characterization system.
Autors: Armando Biscontini;Maxime Thammasack;Giovanni De Micheli;Pierre-Emmanuel Gaillardon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 177 - 183
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Imprecise Stopping Criterion Based on In-Between Layers Partial Syndromes
Abstract:
In this letter, we address the issue of early stopping criterion for layered LDPC decoders, aiming at more safeness with low hardware cost and minimum latency. We introduce a new on-the-fly measure in the decoder, called in-between layers partial syndrome, and define a family of stopping criteria, with different tradeoffs among complexity, latency, and performance. Numerical results show that our stopping criteria surpass existing solutions, and can be as safe as the full-syndrome detection, down to frame error rates (FERs) as low as FER = .
Autors: D. Declercq;V. Savin;O. Boncalo;F. Ghaffari;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 13 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Improved Adjustable Step Adaptive Neuron-Based Control Approach for the Grid-Supportive SPV System
Abstract:
A grid-supportive two-stage three-phase three-wire solar photovoltaic (SPV) system is presented in this paper, wherein a boost converter is used as a first stage to serve the function of maximum power point tracking and a three-leg voltage source converter is used to feed the extracted SPV energy, along with the supporting distribution system for improvement in the power quality. The harmonics elimination, grid currents balancing, and compensation for nonactive part of the load currents are extra features offered by the proposed system other than conventional features of the solar inverter. The true power reflecting part of the load current is estimated using an improved adjustable step adaptive neuron-based control approach. Moreover, a feed-forward term is added as photovoltaic (PV) array contribution to grid currents, which helps in fast dynamic response due to ambience changes. The output of which is a current component reflected on grid side to instantaneously regulate the dc-link voltage. In the proposed approach, the load, PV array, and loss contributions are kept decoupled. The feasibility of the proposed control algorithm is confirmed via experimental results.
Autors: Bhim Singh;Chinmay Jain;Anmol Bansal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 563 - 570
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Multiobjective Optimization of Helical Coil Electromagnetic Launchers
Abstract:
Helical coil electromagnetic launchers (HEMLs) using motion-induced commutation strategy solve the problem of synchronization control perfectly. HEMLs have the advantages of symmetric structure, high load impedance, and high energy conversion efficiency. If the structural and launch parameters can be designed reasonably and multiobjective optimization of the velocity, efficiency, and power can be achieved, HEMLs can meet the requirements of multimission applications such as the high-velocity coilgun, electromagnetic mortar, and electromagnetic catapult. In this paper, an improved adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) based on the solution-reservation strategy to solve the multiobjective optimization problem for HEMLs is presented. The circuit model of the HEML is established and the governing equations are derived. The circuit parameters such as projectile mass, resistance, inductance, and inductance gradient are calculated according to the structural parameters of coils. The classical Runge–Kutta method and the trapezoidal quadrature formula are used to solve the governing equations, besides deriving the velocity, efficiency, and power of the launcher. The AGA is developed in MATLAB. The range of the launch voltage U is 500–5000 V and the number of turns N in coils is 1–500. After the evolution of 14 generations, five noninferior solutions subject to the constraints of temperature rise, launch time, and length are obtained. These different HEML structures can satisfy many different launch applications.
Autors: Dong Yang;Zhenxiang Liu;Ting Shu;Lijia Yang;Jianming Ouyang;Zhi Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 127 - 133
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Improved Polymer Shell Encapsulated Fiber Laser Hydrophone
Abstract:
Fiber laser hydrophones engineered either with a direct polymer coating over the laser or a coating over a mechanically enclosed laser have many practical limitations. Notably, damages can occur due to the differential strain and the complexity involved in the fabrication of the mechanical enclosure and micropositioning it over the laser. This paper proposes a simpler fiber laser hydrophone encapsulated in a polymer shell with enhanced sensitivity and broad bandwidth. The significant factors that influence the hydrophone and its acoustic performance are studied in detail using a 2-D-axisymmetric finite-element analysis (FEA) and analytical methods. The obtained experimental results are found to corroborate those of the analytical and FEA methods. The method of fabricating the hydrophones and the measurements are found to be repeatable. A sensitivity of −155 dB ref. 1 V/Pa with a bandwidth of 6 kHz was obtained from our experiments and can further be tuned to the requirements.
Autors: K. Vivek;R. Rajesh;C. V. Sreehari;T. Santhanakrishnan;S. Sham Kumar;T. V. Praveen;R. S. Arun Sundar;K. P. B. Moosad;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 589 - 595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Improved Real-Time Short-Term Voltage Stability Monitoring Method Based on Phase Rectification
Abstract:
In this letter, an improved real-time, short-term voltage stability monitoring method is introduced. The impact of voltage magnitude oscillation on the calculation of the Lyapunov exponent is analyzed, and a phase rectification method to eliminate the negative influence of oscillation is proposed. The simulation work was conducted on the provincial power grid at Guangdong in China. Based on our simulation results, the proposed method is expected to improve the effectiveness of short-term voltage stability monitoring.
Autors: Huaichang Ge;Qinglai Guo;Hongbin Sun;Bin Wang;Boming Zhang;Junlei Liu;Yinguo Yang;Feng Qian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1068 - 1070
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Improved Superpixel-Level CFAR Detection Method for Ship Targets in High-Resolution SAR Images
Abstract:
To achieve efficient ship detection in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar images, an improved superpixel-level constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection method is proposed with three modifications. First, the weighted information entropy (WIE) describes the statistical characteristics of superpixels, yielding a better distinction between target and clutter superpixels. Second, a two-stage CFAR detection scheme is proposed to detect target superpixels, including global detection and local detection. Specifically, the WIE-based global detector is utilized to prescreen candidate target superpixels (CTSs) and then the local CFAR detector is adaptively conducted over the selected CTSs to refine target superpixels. Third, the superpixels selected by the global detection can be excluded as outliers for clutter estimation, thus the disturbance from adjacent targets in multitarget situations can be reduced and more accurate detection results can be obtained. Compared with CFAR methods implemented with the sliding window technique, the computational burden of the proposed method is significantly reduced without loss of detection performance. Experiments of ship detection on three TerraSAR-X datasets are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Tao Li;Zheng Liu;Rong Xie;Lei Ran;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 184 - 194
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Information Bottleneck Approach to Optimize the Dictionary of Visual Data
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel information theoretic approach to obtain compact and discriminative dictionary of visual data. This approach squeezes discriminative information from the dictionary for efficient representation using information bottleneck. The dictionary is optimized from the initial sparse dictionary, which is learned from action data. In this, a constraint information optimization problem is formulated in which mutual information between the initial and optimized dictionary is minimized while maximizing mutual information between optimized dictionary and class labels. We use an effective similarity measure, Jensen–Shannon divergence with adaptive weightages, for class distributions of each dictionary atom. These adaptive weightages are obtained based on the usage of the dictionary atom among different classes. The resultant dictionary becomes discriminative and compact, while retaining maximum information with fewer atoms. Using simple reconstruction error, we test computational efficiency of the proposed method without compromising classification accuracy on popular benchmark datasets. It is further demonstrated how efficiently discriminative information is retained by comparing the classification performance of the dictionary before and after the removal of redundant dictionary atoms.
Autors: Shyju Wilson;C. Krishna Mohan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 20, issue:1, pages: 96 - 106
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An InGaN/GaN MQWs Solar Cell Improved By a Surficial GaN Nanostructure as Light Traps
Abstract:
The InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells (MQWs) solar cells employing the surficial GaN nanostructure as light traps were investigated. The performance of the InGaN/GaN MQWs solar cell with nano holes surface shows an obvious advantage over that with nano poles, much less than the planar one. From the measurements of EQE and photoluminescence spectra, the enhancement of photoelectric response contributes to the device performances. Because the effective light absorption is increased, the conversion efficiency significantly improves from 1.02% (planar surface) up to 2.235% (nano holes surface). Although the performance is still low, it is exactly an effective method to enhance the conversion efficiency via introducing nanostructures on the surface of the InGaN/GaN MQWs cells.
Autors: Zhen Bi;Daniel Bacon-Brown;Fengyu Du;Jinfeng Zhang;Shengrui Xu;Peixian Li;Jincheng Zhang;Yiping Zhan;Yue Hao;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 83 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Injection-Locked-Based FMCW Transmitter With Synthetic Bandwidth Technique
Abstract:
An injection-locked-based frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) transmitter using a synthetic bandwidth technique is presented. A wideband chirp is synthesized by combining the up-converted narrowband chirp with different adjacent carrier frequencies. This is achieved by mixing a narrowband direct digital synthesis chirp with a fast-switching subharmonic injection-locked oscillator (SHILO). The use of SHILO allows fast switching at sub-10 ns and provides better phase noise performance than phase-locked loops due to its much wider loop bandwidth. The key idea is demonstrated at 4 GHz by generating two subband chirps with about 300-MHz bandwidth each, achieving a synthetic bandwidth of 600 MHz. The measured impulse response shows a resolution of 32 cm (Hamming) with a sidelobe level of −25 dBc and very accurate range estimates with accuracy of ±0.5 cm.
Autors: Siegfred Balon;Koenraad Mouthaan;Chun-Huat Heng;Zhi Ning Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 55 - 57
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Integrated Dual MIMO Antenna System With Dual-Function GND-Plane Frequency-Agile Antenna
Abstract:
In this letter, an integrated multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system is presented. The proposed design consists of a two-element printed inverted F-shape (IFA) MIMO antenna integrated with a two-element frequency-agile annular slot-based MIMO antenna system. The IFA operates at the WLAN band, while the annular slots act as an isolation enhancement structure between the two IFA elements. Furthermore, the annular slots are tuned over the bands from 1.73 to 2.28 GHz with a minimum bandwidth of 60 MHz. The slots are made reconfigurable using varactor diodes. The integrated MIMO antenna system is designed on commercially available FR-4 substrate with dimensions . All the antenna elements are of small size, low profile, and planar in structure and hence can easily be accommodated in wireless devices for second-generation cognitive radio applications.
Autors: Rifaqat Hussain;Muhammad Umar Khan;Mohammad S. Sharawi;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 142 - 145
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Intelligent System Approach for Probabilistic Volume Rendering Using Hierarchical 3D Convolutional Sparse Coding
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning-based voxel classification method for highly-accurate volume rendering. Unlike conventional voxel classification methods that incorporate intensity-based features, the proposed method employs dictionary based features learned directly from the input data using hierarchical multi-scale 3D convolutional sparse coding, a novel extension of the state-of-the-art learning-based sparse feature representation method. The proposed approach automatically generates high-dimensional feature vectors in up to 75 dimensions, which are then fed into an intelligent system built on a random forest classifier for accurately classifying voxels from only a handful of selection scribbles made directly on the input data by the user. We apply the probabilistic transfer function to further customize and refine the rendered result. The proposed method is more intuitive to use and more robust to noise in comparison with conventional intensity-based classification methods. We evaluate the proposed method using several synthetic and real-world volume datasets, and demonstrate the methods usability through a user study.
Autors: Tran Minh Quan;Junyoung Choi;Haejin Jeong;Won-Ki Jeong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 964 - 973
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Isolated Multi-Input ZCS DC–DC Front-End-Converter Based Multilevel Inverter for the Integration of Renewable Energy Sources
Abstract:
A new isolated current-fed zero-current switched (ZCS) front-end dc/dc converter based multilevel inverter is proposed for multi-input applications. The proposed front-end converter with only two controllable switches integrates two different renewable energy sources, resulting in an advantageous compact structure and low conduction losses. The ZCS turn-off is achieved in both the controllable switches with the proposed modulation scheme. The converter maintains ZCS turn-off under a wide load, as well as input voltage variations by employing frequency modulation along with a variable duty ratio technique. Simple structure, soft switching, high gain, and automatic load regulation make the converter structure novel for simultaneous power management in multi-input renewable energy applications. Converter operation and design guidelines have been outlined. A laboratory prototype of the proposed converter is developed and tested at 300-W power level. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the robust performance of the converter under load, as well as input source voltage variations.
Autors: Naresh Kumar Reddi;Manoj R. Ramteke;Hiralal M. Suryawanshi;Koteswararao Kothapalli;Snehal P. Gawande;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 494 - 504
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Iterative Check Polytope Projection Algorithm for ADMM-Based LP Decoding of LDPC Codes
Abstract:
Alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is a popular technique for linear-programming decoding of low-density parity-check codes. The computational complexity of ADMM is dominated by the Euclidean projection of a real-valued vector onto a parity-check polytope. Existing algorithms for such a projection all require sorting operations, which happen to be the most complex part of the projection. In this letter, we propose an iterative algorithm, without sorting operation, for projection onto the parity-check polytope. The proposed algorithm has a worst case complexity linear in the input dimension compared with the super-linear complexity of existing algorithms.
Autors: Haoyuan Wei;Amir H. Banihashemi;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 29 - 32
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Iterative Method for Detecting and Localizing Islands Within Sparse Matrixes Using DSSim-RT
Abstract:
Nowadays, the simulation tools used to perform power system analysis are evolving into the many-core computation era; some of these techniques propose to tear the power system network into several subnetworks (islands) for its parallel processing. The island's detection is an issue considered by the power flow analysis due to management activities such as feeder reconfiguration, fault detection, and isolation, among others, that generate topological changes. These methods include graph theory, checking the circuit breaker status and on-site measurements, decision trees, frequency deviation, and pattern recognition, among other techniques, which are focused to detect topology changes that may generate islands and affect the state estimation of the system. In contrast, other techniques such as the approximate minimum degree perform a reorganization of the matrix that describes the network components and their connectivity, looking to factorizing the matrix to solve the power flow problem. These techniques are very functional and efficient; however, some of them require detailed information of the network, and are addressed to cover meshed and radial network configurations separately. This paper presents an iterative algorithm that uses the compressed coordinate branch-to-node matrix for detecting, classifying, and grouping islands within sparse matrixes, describing mesh or radial networks. This algorithm is a valuable tool to simplify islands location and can be implemented using any programing language due to its simplicity. This method is used in Distribution System Simulator - Real Time Version (DSSim-RT), which is a simulator based in OpenDSS, for tearing the power system network to allow the multithread power flow analysis of distribution sys- ems in real time.
Autors: Davis Montenegro;Gustavo A. Ramos;Seddik Bacha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 675 - 684
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An LTI Model-Based Study on Reflected Power Canceler for FMCW Radars
Abstract:
Frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW) radar receivers generally suffer from transmitter leakage due to insufficient TX-to-RX isolation. One of the effective approaches to solving this problem is using reflected power cancelers (RPCs) that cancel the leakage from the transmitter adaptively. In this paper, a linear time invariant (LTI) model of the RPC is derived in order to carry out a comprehensive study of the mechanism of leakage cancelation and output noise performance for CW radar applications. Loop frequency responses for receiving signal, loop stability, and the influence of dc offset of IQ mixer are analyzed by a simplified transfer function. A detailed noise model of the RPC is established based on the LTI model to study the output noise components of the RPC under a large incident leakage, then the internal noise cancelation mechanism is elucidated. A prototype with its operating frequency range from 820 to 1020 MHz at UHF band is implemented. Measured loop frequency responses are in agreement with simulation results obtained with the proposed model. Furthermore, measured cancelation ratios for leakages of different ramp rates comply with the normalized power gain at corresponding frequency offsets. The input-referred receiving noise of the RPC prototype is measured to be −155 dBm/Hz at 100-kHz offset under +10-dBm incident leakage power. The proposed LTI model provides a useful tool for the design of high-performance RPC for FMCW systems in different application environments.
Autors: Yunlong Pan;Jinping Xu;Wenbo Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 509 - 521
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An MR-Based Model for Cardio-Respiratory Motion Compensation of Overlays in X-Ray Fluoroscopy
Abstract:
In X-ray fluoroscopy, static overlays are used to visualize soft tissue. We propose a system for cardiac and respiratory motion compensation of these overlays. It consists of a 3-D motion model created from real-time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Multiple sagittal slices are acquired and retrospectively stacked to consistent 3-D volumes. Slice stacking considers cardiac information derived from the ECG and respiratory information extracted from the images. Additionally, temporal smoothness of the stacking is enhanced. Motion is estimated from the MR volumes using deformable 3-D/3-D registration. The motion model itself is a linear direct correspondence model using the same surrogate signals as slice stacking. In X-ray fluoroscopy, only the surrogate signals need to be extracted to apply the motion model and animate the overlay in real time. For evaluation, points are manually annotated in oblique MR slices and in contrast-enhanced X-ray images. The 2-D Euclidean distance of these points is reduced from 3.85 to 2.75 mm in MR and from 3.0 to 1.8 mm in X-ray compared with the static baseline. Furthermore, the motion-compensated overlays are shown qualitatively as images and videos.
Autors: Peter Fischer;Anthony Faranesh;Thomas Pohl;Andreas Maier;Toby Rogers;Kanishka Ratnayaka;Robert Lederman;Joachim Hornegger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 47 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Optical Voltage Sensor Based on Wedge Interference
Abstract:
The optical voltage sensor (OVS) based on the Pockels effect and its light intensity detection mode has a limitation of half-wave voltage and optical power correlation. In this paper, a new type of OVS which can achieve linear measurements of a wide range electrooptic (EO) phase delay was proposed. It uses a crystal wedge to convert EO phase delay to a displacement image of light stripes, and an image acquisition system that captures the spot and calculates the displacement. Mathematical derivation regarding the linear relationship between the stripes displacement and phase delay is given; a suitable image sensor and a stripe location algorithm are selected. Experimental verification is carried out, and several key issues are discussed. Compared with light intensity detection mode, the experimental results show that this measuring mode is independent of light source. An imaging mode also offers a large dynamic range and a good linear measurement of EO phase delay in the range of 291° with a measurement error of less than 0.5%. This mode is not limited by the half-wave voltage of crystal. Temperature drift errors on measurement results are also reduced.
Autors: Dujing Wang;Nan Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 57 - 64
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Optimized Segmented Quasi-Memoryless Nonlinear Behavioral Modeling Approach for RF Power Amplifiers
Abstract:
This paper presents an optimized segmented modeling approach using a new quasi-memoryless (QM) behavioral model (BM) that allows for RF power amplifier (RF PA) modeling over a range of different solid state PA technologies. The presented model is a combination of an existing semiphysical amplitude-modulation-to-amplitude-modulation (AM/AM) memoryless BM, which correctly predicts third-order intermodulation distortion (3rd IMD) response in the small signal region, with the newly proposed amplitude-modulation-to-phase-modulation (AM/PM) model derived from the existing AM/AM model. Using the segmentation and optimization methods, performance comparisons with this new model are presented, showing normalized mean squared error AM/PM improvements up to 20 dB, as well as over 5-dB improvement in predicting the 3rd IMD using the proposed model. Comparisons against other well-known QM BMs are conducted using measured data as well as with data presented in the literature. The effects of these improvements on linearizer performance are also evaluated. The model significantly improves system-level modeling by allowing designers to accurately predict system performance using various RF PA devices over a range of technologies, based on data available through manufacturers’ data or simple tests.
Autors: Paul O. Fisher;Said F. Al-Sarawi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 294 - 305
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Original Smart-Grids Test Bed to Teach Feeder Automation Functions in a Distribution Grid
Abstract:
This paper proposes the description of an original smart-grids test bed aimed at teaching novel feeder automation functions to students from both university and industry origins. With this test bed, a lab class proposes to students, first, to develop feeder automation functions using scientific software and, then, to experiment by practically testing them on an emulated distribution grid platform, called PREDIS. This platform includes real medium-voltage reduced-scale loads, generators, and a supervisory control and data acquisition system. The presented lab class is part of a dedicated complete pedagogic module with lectures and experiments. Through the development, the tests and the deployments of their own solutions in an actual distribution grid, the students learn by doing from theory to practice the complete chain of smart-grids solutions: from the electrical to the communication layers.
Autors: Marie Cécile Alvarez-Herault;Antoine Labonne;Sellé Touré;Thierry Braconnier;Vincent Debusschere;Raphael Caire;Nouredine Hadjsaid;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 373 - 385
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An RF-Powered Transceiver Exploiting Sample and Hold Operation on the Received Carrier
Abstract:
This paper presents an RF-powered transceiver for wireless sensor network applications. The circuit is composed of an RF energy harvesting system, implemented by means of a threshold-compensated multistage rectifier, power management unit, and phase-locked loop (PLL)-based RF front end. Initially, the PLL in closed-loop condition locks the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) to a multiple of the RF input frequency and allows frequency-shift keying (FSK) data recovery. Then, the PLL feedback loop is opened and the VCO signal is used to generate the uplink carrier, thus enabling active transmission without requiring external quartz for frequency reference. This approach overcomes the reader self-jamming drawback that greatly limits the operating range of backscattering-based RF-powered devices. Moreover, uplink and downlink operations are performed by exploiting a single carrier frequency according to a half-duplex communication scheme, which results in a low-complexity and low-cost wireless solution. The circuit was fabricated in a 130-nm CMOS technology and operates with a minimum input power as low as −18.8 dBm. It supports the FSK and ASK demodulation and OOK data transmission in the industrial scientific and medical band at 915 MHz.
Autors: Giuseppe Papotto;Nunzio Greco;Alessandro Finocchiaro;Ranieri Guerra;Santo Leotta;Giuseppe Palmisano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 396 - 409
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Ultralow Power Subthreshold CMOS Voltage Reference Without Requiring Resistors or BJTs
Abstract:
This brief presents a novel ultralow power CMOS voltage reference (CVR) with only 4.6-nW power consumption. In the proposed CVR circuit, the proportional-to-absolute-temperature voltage is generated by feeding the leakage current of a zero- nMOS transistor to two diode-connected nMOS transistors in series, both of which are in subthreshold region; while the complementary-to-absolute-temperature voltage is created by using the body diodes of another nMOS transistor. Consequently, low-power operation can be achieved without requiring resistors or bipolar junction transistors, leading to small chip area consumption. The proposed CVR circuit is fabricated in a standard 0.18- CMOS process. Measurement results show that the prototype design is capable of providing a 755 mV typical reference voltage with 34 ppm/°C from −15 °C to 140 °C. Moreover, the typical power consumption is only 4.6 nW at room temperature and the active area is only 0.0598 mm2.
Autors: Yang Liu;Chenchang Zhan;Lidan Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 201 - 205
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Ultrathin and Polarization-Insensitive Frequency Selective Surface at Ka-Band
Abstract:
In this letter, an ultrathin frequency selective surface is developed with a square unit cell loaded with three ring slot pairs. The outer ring slot pair is loaded with metal shorts. It achieves one polarization-insensitive passband with sharp transition at Ka-band. The design is verified with full-wave simulated results, as well as the measured results. The fabricated FSS has a flat passband, and its measured 3 dB bandwidth is from 33 to 37.5 GHz. A complete angular stability study of the FSS has been conducted. Meanwhile, it can directly attach to the aperture of the horn antenna to lower the whole profile of FSS-antenna configuration. Working as a radome, this FSS can be a good candidate for radar communications and radar-cross-section reduction in radar stealth research area at Ka-band.
Autors: Weiwei Wu;Xiuhan Liu;Kaibo Cui;Yuhong Ma;Ye Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 74 - 77
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Uncooled Microbolometer Infrared Imager With a Shutter-Based Successive-Approximation Calibration Loop
Abstract:
The size and power dissipation of an infrared imaging system can be reduced by the use of uncooled microbolometers; but the nonuniformity of the microbolometer makes such imaging systems heavily reliant on complicated calibration techniques, incurring an overhead which is particularly significant in low-cost, compact devices. We therefore propose a shutter-based successive-approximation calibration loop, which avoids the need to implement correction tables in software on an external processor. Prototype imager, consisting of an pixel infrared focal-plane array and readout circuitry, has been implemented, and the experimental results confirm that our on-chip autocalibration approach compensates effectively for fixed pattern noise caused by the nonuniformity of the microbolometers.
Autors: Yujin Park;Junghee Yun;Dongchul Park;Sangwoo Kim;Suhwan Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 122 - 132
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Unsupervised Convolutional Feature Fusion Network for Deep Representation of Remote Sensing Images
Abstract:
Unsupervised learning of a convolutional neural network (CNN) is a feasible method to represent and classify remote sensing images, where labeling the observed data to prepare training samples is a highly expensive and time-consuming task. In this letter, we propose an unsupervised convolutional feature fusion network to formulate an easy-to-train but effective CNN representation of remote sensing images. The efficiency and effectiveness are derived from the following two aspects. First, the proposed method trains a deep CNN through unsupervised learning of each CNN layer in a greedy layer-wise manner, which makes the training relatively easy and efficient. Second, the feature fusion strategy in the proposed network can effectively use both the information from individual layers and the important interactions between different layers. As a result, the proposed network requires only several layers to obtain comparable or even better results than very deep networks. The experiments on unsupervised deep representations and the classification of remote sensing images demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Yang Yu;Zhiqiang Gong;Cheng Wang;Ping Zhong;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 23 - 27
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analog-to-Digital Cognitive Radio: Sampling, Detection, and Hardware
Abstract:
The radio spectrum is the radio-frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These spectral resources are traditionally allocated to licensed or primary users (PUs) by governmental organizations. As discussed in "Radio-Frequency Spectral Resources," most of the frequency bands are already allocated to one or more PUs. Consequently, new users cannot easily find free frequency bands. Spurred by the everincreasing demand from new wireless communication applications, this issue has become critical over the past few years.
Autors: Deborah Cohen;Shahar Tsiper;Yonina C. Eldar;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 137 - 166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Behavioral Modeling of Monolithic Digital Potentiometers
Abstract:
This paper focuses on analysis and modeling of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) resistive digital-to-analog converter (RDAC) potentiometers based on string digital-to-analog converter or Kelvin divider architecture. The model is developed by using very-high hardware description language (VHDL) analog and mixed-signal language, and accurately simulates basic static and dynamic parameters, integral nonlinearity, terminal voltage operating range, and leakage current at various operational modes for linear and nonlinear changing of the middle point (wiper). The model is implemented in the SystemVision simulation platform, using a style combining structural and behavioral elements. For verification of the model parameters are extracted for single-stage AD5235 and triple-stage AD5143 RDACs from analog devices as examples. The workability of the proposed models is validated by simulation and experimental testing of sample digitally controlled analog circuits. The comparative analysis shows that the achieved relative error, between the simulation and the experimental results at the maximum value of the nominal resistance equal to , is less than 5%. Moreover, an error of 5% is quite acceptable, considering the technological tolerances of the parameters.
Autors: Ivailo M. Pandiev;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 416 - 425
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Calibration of Crossed-Loop Antenna for Vessel DOA Estimation in HF Radar
Abstract:
High-frequency surface wave radar equipped with a crossed-loop/monopole antenna has been applied to estimate vessel direction of arrival (DOA). However, unavoidable distortion of the antenna pattern and complicated channel calibration are challenges for achieving high angular accuracy when the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm that relies on the antenna pattern is employed. Although various methods of pattern measurement and calibration have been proposed, high system complexity and considerable time cost are still troublesome problems, especially for the temporary use of radar. In this letter, we first analyze the characteristics of measured pattern and then rapidly calibrate the crossed-loop antenna using sea echoes and the automatic identification system data. Finally, vessels’ DOAs are estimated using MUSIC algorithm and the calibrated loop-only patterns. The high accuracy of DOA estimation is validated at an angle range of less than . This method effectively reduces the system complexity and time cost when compared with the conventional method. A simulation and two field experiments are conducted. Both the rapid pattern calibration for 115 min and the comparison of processing results demonstrate the validity of this proposed method.
Autors: Bo Lu;Biyang Wen;Yingwei Tian;Ruokun Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 42 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Control of RRAM Overshoot Current
Abstract:
To combat the large variability problem in resistive random access memory, current compliance elements are commonly used to limit the in-rush current during the forming operation. Regardless of the compliance element (1R-1R or 1T-1R), some degree of current overshoot is unavoidable. The peak value of the overshoot current is often used as a predictive metric of the filament characteristics and is linked to the parasitic capacitance of the test structure. The reported detrimental effects of higher parasitic capacitance seem to support this concept. However, this understanding is inconsistent with the recent successes of compliance-free ultrashort pulse forming which guarantees a maximum peak overshoot current. We use detailed circuit analysis and experimental measurements of 1R-1R and 1T-1R structures to show that the peak overshoot is independent of the parasitic capacitance while the overshoot duration is strongly dependent on the parasitic capacitance. Forming control can be achieved, in ultrashort pulse forming, since the overshoot duration is always less than the applied pulse duration. The demonstrated success of ultrashort pulse forming becomes easier to reconcile after identifying the importance of overshoot duration.
Autors: Pragya R. Shrestha;David M. Nminibapiel;Jason P. Campbell;Jason T. Ryan;Dmitry Veksler;Helmut Baumgart;Kin P. Cheung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 108 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Design of Triple-Rotor Axial-Flux Spoke-Array Vernier Permanent Magnet Machines
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the analysis and design of a triple-rotor axial-flux spoke-array vernier permanent magnet (TR-AFSAVPM) machine. By cooperating with spoke-array rotor and coil-wounded winding, power factor and torque density of the proposed machine are much improved and its copper utilization is reduced comparing with conventional vernier machines. First, the machine structure and its operation principles are reviewed. After that, analytical equations of its back-electromotive force and torque are derived to reveal the machine characteristics. Based on both quasi-3-D finite element analysis (FEA) and 3-D FEA, its high torque density performance is verified and a set of optimized machine sizing specifications is ultimately settled. A fractional slot axial-flux permanent magnet (VPM) machine and an axial-flux surface VPM machine are designed to compare with the proposed configuration. Analysis results show that the TR-AFSAVPM machine has high power factor viz., 0.96 and high torque density viz., 24.2 kNm/m3. A prototype has been designed and tested to validate the results. No-load test result is illustrated in this paper and the rated load experiment will be added in the future.
Autors: Rui Zhang;Jian Li;Ronghai Qu;Dawei Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 244 - 253
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Implementation of Closed-Loop Control of Electrolytic Capacitor-Less Six-Pulse DC-Link Bidirectional Three-Phase Grid-Tied Inverter
Abstract:
Cascaded bidirectional dc–ac converters are commonly used in uninterruptible power supply applications and battery chargers for electric vehicles. Power conversion units for such applications employ a large electrolytic capacitor at high-voltage dc bus, which not only reduces the lifetime but also adds to the weight of the converter. In this paper, a novel bidirectional dual active bridge cascaded three-phase converter (DABCC) with six-pulse dc link is proposed. Also, a new closed-loop control scheme to implement the six-pulse modulation (SPM) technique in DABCC is proposed. The advantages of the proposed control scheme in DABCC are that the electrolytic capacitor is eliminated and is replaced with a low-value film capacitor resulting in increased reliability, compactness, and reduced cost. SPM technique also increases the dc bus utilization and decreases the inverter average switching frequency to 33% when compared with the conventional sine pulse-width modulation (SPWM). Harmonic components introduced in the pole voltages of the SPM-modulated DABCC due to inverter dead time are analyzed, and a resonant controller is designed to mitigate them. Also, root mean square current stress for high-voltage dc-link capacitor is studied, and it is shown that the capacitor requirement for SPM modulation is lower than the conventional SPWM. To validate the proposed control scheme, an 800-W proof-of-concept laboratory hardware prototype is fabricated and experimental results are demonstrated.
Autors: V. K. Kanakesh;Dorai Babu Yelaverthi;Anirban Ghoshal;Akshay Kumar Rathore;Ranjit Mahanty;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 539 - 550
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Modeling of Electroforming in Transition Metal Oxide-Based Memristors and Its Impact on Crossbar Array Density
Abstract:
This letter proposes a compact physical model for electroforming in transition metal oxide memristors. The proposed model is based on oxide breakdown statistics and validated against experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations. The model is applied to the problem of area optimization of memristive crossbar array. It is shown that a tradeoff exists between the area of the cross-point and the area of the forming circuit. Reduction of the switching layer thickness and/or varying the local field enhancement may result in an appreciable reduction of the forming voltage which, in turn, alleviates the need for forming transistors and yields significant area reduction. On the other hand, these gains might be subdued by scaling the crossbar array itself. The proposed compact model is useful for designers wishing to explore circuit level impacts of forming.
Autors: Sherif Amer;Md Sakib Hasan;Garrett S. Rose;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 19 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Observations From the First Amazon Picking Challenge
Abstract:
This paper presents an overview of the inaugural Amazon Picking Challenge along with a summary of a survey conducted among the 26 participating teams. The challenge goal was to design an autonomous robot to pick items from a warehouse shelf. This task is currently performed by human workers, and there is hope that robots can someday help increase efficiency and throughput while lowering cost. We report on a 28-question survey posed to the teams to learn about each team’s background, mechanism design, perception apparatus, planning, and control approach. We identify trends in this data, correlate it with each team’s success in the competition, and discuss observations and lessons learned based on survey results and the authors’ personal experiences during the challenge.

Note to Practitioners—Perception, motion planning, grasping, and robotic system engineering have reached a level of maturity that makes it possible to explore automating simple warehouse tasks in semistructured environments that involve high-mix, low-volume picking applications. This survey summarizes lessons learned from the first Amazon Picking Challenge, highlighting mechanism design, perception, and motion planning algorithms, as well as software engineering practices that were most successful in solving a simplified order fulfillment task. While the choice of mechanism mostly affects execution speed, the competition demonstrated the systems challenges of robotics and illustrated the importance of combining reactive control with deliberative planning.

Autors: Nikolaus Correll;Kostas E. Bekris;Dmitry Berenson;Oliver Brock;Albert Causo;Kris Hauser;Kei Okada;Alberto Rodriguez;Joseph M. Romano;Peter R. Wurman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 172 - 188
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Average Packet Loss Rate in Multi-Hop Broadcast for VANETs
Abstract:
Multi-hop relay can effectively improve the average packet loss rate (PLR) of vehicular ad hoc networks within a particular zone of interest. Challenges arise from analyzing the average PLR affected by distributed relay selections, which depend on the mobility of vehicles, the wireless channel conditions, and media access control (MAC). In this letter, we propose an average PLR analysis model taking into account the above three factors. However, the closed-form expression for the average PLR is intractable mainly due to the multiple integral of the joint distance distribution integrating with the channel conditions and vehicle mobility. An explicit expression for the upper bound of the average PLR is obtained by using Taylor series expansion, Holder’s inequality, and the relay probability relaxation, which can facilitate the selection of the parameters at the physical and MAC layers for a better PLR. Simulation results validate our analyses.
Autors: Wuwen Lai;Wei Ni;Hua Wang;Ren Ping Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 157 - 160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Electromagnetic Induction for Hydraulic Fracture Diagnostics in Open and Cased Boreholes
Abstract:
In this paper, the sensitivity and detectability of an electromagnetic induction tool for hydraulic fracture detection are analyzed by calculating the electromagnetic response from an orthogonal transverse fracture (OTF) in an open or cased borehole using the improved numerical mode matching method. The OTF is modeled as a slim circular disk, which is axially symmetric with respect to the borehole axis and filled with a conductive or magnetic proppant. The feasibility of the induction tool for fracture diagnostics was validated via scaled-down experimental measurements. We then quantitatively analyze the induction response sensitivity to different proppant parameters, such as conductivity and permeability, to evaluate the effectiveness of the induction logging tool for fracture detection. The analysis reveals that the short-spaced receiver can accurately locate the fracture position and distinguish small-sized fractures, while the long-spaced receiver can differentiate fractures with large dimension. Casings with different thicknesses, conductivities, and permeabilities are modeled together with the fracture to investigate their effects in fracture detection. Finally, the application of the induction tool to a fracture network is evaluated.
Autors: Junwen Dai;Yuan Fang;Jianyang Zhou;Qing Huo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 264 - 271
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Hexadecane Decomposition by Atmospheric Microplasma
Abstract:
Atmospheric microplasma has the potential to be one of the technologies used to purify indoor air. For example, plasma is used for pollutant decomposition or sterilization. In this study, we examined the removal of hexadecane by using microplasma. Hexadecane is contained in diesel oil and it is discharged to the air as exhaust gas. A decrease in the concentration of hexadecane from 3000 to 105 ppm was observed after 120 min of plasma processing. The removal energy efficiency of hexadecane was evaluated to 19.8 μg/W·h. Several by-products were obtained with the plasma process and were analyzed by detector tubes, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer. According to the analysis of the products, hexadecane was decomposed to alkane or alkene, which contains less carbon number 16, and finally, it was decomposed to CO. It became apparent that plasma can cut carbon bonds.
Autors: Kazuo Shimizu;Saho Muramatsu;Jaroslav Kristof;Marius Blajan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 605 - 610
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Indium–Zinc–Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Under Electrostatic Discharge Stress
Abstract:
The electrostatic discharge robustness of indium–zinc–oxide thin-film transistor (IZO TFT) was investigated in this brief by employing a transmission line pulsed (TLP) test with different durations. A transition of operation region was observed in the TLP I–V characteristics which may be induced by space charge limited current effects. The experimental results show the breakdown in the long channel IZO TFTs only depends on the stress voltage level, which is related to the gate insulator. Furthermore, the evolution and mechanisms of prebreakdown degradation and latent failure were also presented. Due to hole trapping in the gate insulator and formation of localized states, threshold voltage decreases while electron field-effect mobility and subthreshold swing increase after TLP stress. Moreover, low-frequency noises (LFNs) before and after TLP stress were measured. Spatial distributions of trapped charges in the gate insulator were extracted based on LFN results.
Autors: Yuan Liu;Rongsheng Chen;Bin Li;Yun-Fei En;Yi-Qiang Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 356 - 360
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Multipath Component Parameter Estimation Accuracy in Directional Scanning Measurement
Abstract:
To resolve the crowded radio spectrum problem observed in conventional microwave bands (below 6 GHz), new frequency bands higher than 6 GHz are being considered to facilitate the use of a much wider bandwidth for next-generation wireless systems. Various channel sounding measurements have been conducted to elucidate the radio propagation properties at such new frequency bands. For a high-frequency channel sounding measurement, directional scanning with high-gain antennas is a popular method adopted to save the development cost of a full antenna array. This letter presents the analysis of the maximum likelihood multipath component parameter estimation accuracy where a Gaussian beam antenna pattern obtained by the scaled von Mises distribution function is used for the ease of analysis. The numerical analysis shows that the angle estimation error is approximately proportional to the square of the antenna half-power beamwidth (HPBW) and the square root of the angular sampling interval (ASI), respectively, and the amplitude and phase estimation error is approximately proportional to the HPBW and the square root of the ASI, respectively. The intrinsic performance of the used antenna is also discussed.
Autors: Minseok Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 12 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of the Heterogate Electron–Hole Bilayer Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor With Partially Doped Channels: Effects on Tunneling Distance Modulation and Occupancy Probabilities
Abstract:
Within the research in bilayer tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) exploiting interband tunneling phenomena with tunneling directions aligned with gate-induced electric fields, simulation results for the heterogate electron–hole bilayer TFET (HG-EHBTFET) showed that this type of devices succeeded in suppressing the parasitic tunneling leakage currents appearing in EHBTFETs as a result of the variable quantization strength inside the channel. In this paper, and conversely to standard approaches with entirely intrinsic channels, we investigate the possibility of modulating the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) distance by acting on the subband discretization profiles through partially doped channels. We also analyze the impact of this pocket doping inside the channel on the occupancy probabilities involved in the BTBT processes in a germanium HG-EHBTFET.
Autors: José L. Padilla;Cristina Medina-Bailón;Carlos Navarro;Cem Alper;Francisco Gamiz;Adrian Mihai Ionescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 339 - 346
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis on the Operation of Negative Differential Resistance FinFET With Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 Threshold Selector
Abstract:
A negative differential resistance fin-shaped field-effect transistor (NDR-FinFET) using a Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 threshold selector (TS) is investigated. From the measured input transfer characteristic of NDR-FinFET, the following results are demonstrated: 1) superior reduction of off current by a factor of 350 (as compared to a baseline FinFET); 2) on current of NDR-FinFET comparable to that of the baseline FinFET; and 3) subthreshold slope of 3 mV/decade at 300 K. The operating principle of NDR-FinFET is demonstrated using MATLAB simulation. In the on-to-off and off-to-on switching processes, the existence of an unstable resistive switching region is verified through the comparison between simulation data and experimental results. The major device parameters that affect the formation of the unstable resistive switching region are revealed. Finally, it is proposed that: 1) lowering the hold voltage of the TS and 2) applying the drain voltage comparable to the threshold voltage can have the NDR-FinFET to work appropriately (i.e., not in unstable region).
Autors: Jaemin Shin;Eunah Ko;Changhwan Shin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 19 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis With Histogram of Connectivity: For Automated Evaluation of Piping Layout
Abstract:
An autonomous framework to evaluate layout of a piping design in the form of piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) according to a set of standards of marine and offshore industry is proposed. The method starts with transforming a P&ID into a vector in . Transformation is done based on a concept introduced for piping known as Histogram of Connectivity. The proposed descriptor captures two essential properties of P&ID: attributes of each component and connectivity among the components. Next, linear support vector machine (SVM) is used to learn a classifier from existing compliant and noncompliant designs. Subsequently, the linear classifier can be used to check if an unseen design complies with the standards. In addition, to enable follow up on noncompliant design including correction or modification, a method to analyze the reason of noncompliance prediction by the learned SVM model is introduced. The method has demonstrated encouraging performance in two challenging data sets of designs created with advice from experienced engineers in the industry, based on International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) and Rules for Classification of Ships of Lloyd’s Register. Note to Practitioners—This paper is motivated by need of marine and offshore industry for automated solution for design appraisal. This paper aims to address this issue by using a machine learning-based approach. Some compliant and noncompliant designs are provided to a developed algorithm for a machine (or computer) to learn. After learning is completed, the machine is able to classify unseen designs as compliant or noncompliant. As highlighted in this paper, the developed method has demonstrated encouragin- performance in two case studies, including specific parts in MARPOL and Rules of Lloyd’s Register. For adoption by industry, necessary steps include collecting some designs (compliant and noncompliant) available in an organization and feeding these into the developed method for learning by machine before it can predict. With ability of highlighting possible connections that cause noncompliance, follow up and correction on a noncompliant design is made possible.
Autors: Wei Chian Tan;I-Ming Chen;Sinno Jialin Pan;Hoon Kiang Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 381 - 392
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of SiC-Inverter Nonlinearities for Traction Drives Used in Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper investigates the inverter nonlinearities in a drive system based on silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (SiC-mosfets) and compares its performance with that of an equivalent silicon insulated-gate bipolar transistor (Si-IGBT) system. Initially, a novel comprehensive analytical model of the inverter voltage distortion is developed. Not only voltage drops, dead time, and output capacitance, but also switching delay times and voltage overshoot of the power devices are taken into account in the model. Such a model yields a more accurate prediction of the inverter's output voltage distortion, and is validated by experimentation. Due to inherent shortcomings of the commonly used double pulse test, the switching characteristics of both SiC-mosfets and Si-IGBTs in the pulse width modulation inverter are tested instead, such that the actual performances of the SiC and Si devices in the motor drive system are examined. Then, the switching performance is incorporated into the physical model to quantify the distorted voltages of both the SiC-based and Si-based systems. The results show that, despite its existing nonlinearities, the SiC-based drive has lower voltage distortion compared to the conventional Si-based drive as a result of its shorter switching times and smaller voltage drop, as well as a higher efficiency. Finally, the overriding operational advantages of the SiC-based drive over its Si-based counterpart is fully demonstrated by comprehensive performance comparisons.
Autors: Xiaofeng Ding;Min Du;Chongwei Duan;Hong Guo;Rui Xiong;Jinquan Xu;Jiawei Cheng;Patrick Chi kwong Luk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 146 - 159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analytical Model for the Threshold Voltage of ${p}$ -(Al)GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistors
Abstract:
An analytical model for the calculation of the threshold voltage for enhancement-mode (E-mode) -(Al)GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) is presented. The ON-state behavior (at low output voltages) of both -GaN HEMTs and -AlGaN HEMTs—including the gate injection transistor—are discussed in detail, and closed expressions for the threshold voltage of both devices are deduced. It is found that the threshold voltage values for both devices are close to one another, and that there is an ideal upper limit when the -type doping in the AlGaN gate is perfectly tailored, yielding more positive threshold voltages. This ideal case might be difficult to realize technologically, but can serve as a benchmark for the of -(Al)GaN HEMTs.
Autors: Benoit Bakeroot;Arno Stockman;Niels Posthuma;Steve Stoffels;Stefaan Decoutere;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 79 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analyzing Home Automation and Networking Technologies
Abstract:
Due to the rapid advancements in networking and automation technologies, the concept of smart homes has started taking shape. AT&T Digital Life, Schneider's Wiser homes, and Qualcomm's M2M communication, among others, are examples of ventures by conglomerates into the business of home automation. Three-quarters of homes in the United States possess computers, and more than two-thirds of those are connected to the Internet. Wireless networking in the form of Wi-Fi is present in 17% of homes.
Autors: Eshan Shailendra;Praneet Kaur Bhatia;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 27 - 33
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analyzing the Training Processes of Deep Generative Models
Abstract:
Among the many types of deep models, deep generative models (DGMs) provide a solution to the important problem of unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. However, training DGMs requires more skill, experience, and know-how because their training is more complex than other types of deep models such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We develop a visual analytics approach for better understanding and diagnosing the training process of a DGM. To help experts understand the overall training process, we first extract a large amount of time series data that represents training dynamics (e.g., activation changes over time). A blue-noise polyline sampling scheme is then introduced to select time series samples, which can both preserve outliers and reduce visual clutter. To further investigate the root cause of a failed training process, we propose a credit assignment algorithm that indicates how other neurons contribute to the output of the neuron causing the training failure. Two case studies are conducted with machine learning experts to demonstrate how our approach helps understand and diagnose the training processes of DGMs. We also show how our approach can be directly used to analyze other types of deep models, such as CNNs.
Autors: Mengchen Liu;Jiaxin Shi;Kelei Cao;Jun Zhu;Shixia Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 77 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Angel-Eye: A Complete Design Flow for Mapping CNN Onto Embedded FPGA
Abstract:
Convolutional neural network (CNN) has become a successful algorithm in the region of artificial intelligence and a strong candidate for many computer vision algorithms. But the computation complexity of CNN is much higher than traditional algorithms. With the help of GPU acceleration, CNN-based applications are widely deployed in servers. However, for embedded platforms, CNN-based solutions are still too complex to be applied. Various dedicated hardware designs on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have been carried out to accelerate CNNs, while few of them explore the whole design flow for both fast deployment and high power efficiency. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art CNN models and CNN-based applications. Requirements on memory, computation and the flexibility of the system are summarized for mapping CNN on embedded FPGAs. Based on these requirements, we propose Angel-Eye, a programmable and flexible CNN accelerator architecture, together with data quantization strategy and compilation tool. Data quantization strategy helps reduce the bit-width down to 8-bit with negligible accuracy loss. The compilation tool maps a certain CNN model efficiently onto hardware. Evaluated on Zynq XC7Z045 platform, Angel-Eye is faster and better in power efficiency than peer FPGA implementation on the same platform. Applications of VGG network, pedestrian detection and face alignment are used to evaluate our design on Zynq XC7Z020. NIVIDA TK1 and TX1 platforms are used for comparison. Angel-Eye achieves similar performance and delivers up to better energy efficiency.
Autors: Kaiyuan Guo;Lingzhi Sui;Jiantao Qiu;Jincheng Yu;Junbin Wang;Song Yao;Song Han;Yu Wang;Huazhong Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 35 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Anomaly Detection and Array Diagnosis in Wireless Networks with Multiple Antennas: Framework, Challenges and Tools
Abstract:
Anomaly detection and array diagnosis in wireless networks are both important technologies and have many applications ranging from discovering malicious traffic and identifying abnormal nodes, to detecting faulty antennas and so on. In general, anomaly detection mainly depends on relational data, which denotes the links between nodes of the networks, to decide whether abnormal networks caused by intentional attack or array failure are embedded in large wireless networks. Additionally, the typical scheme of array diagnosis is to measure signals radiating from the array antennas under test to detect the faulty elements by using a centralized method. However, in largescale wireless networks, a centralized strategy results in a communication bottleneck because of transmitting all signals to a center node. Moreover, since faulty elements are only a tiny proportion for the whole networks, the method that all antennas are under test is unnecessary and also causes huge computational complexity to identify the failure of elements. Aiming to mitigate these problems, this article provides a novel framework to monitor networks and detect faulty antennas by fusing relational data and measured signals. In this article, we first review the algorithms related to anomaly detection and survey the array diagnosis problem. In particular, we discuss the relationship between anomaly detection and array diagnosis in the new framework and highlight the importance of data fusion. Finally, the main challenges are presented and mathematical tools are introduced to solve the corresponding problems.
Autors: Bo Wang;Fengye Hu;Yanping Zhao;Terry N. Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 152 - 159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Anonymity Leakage in Private VoIP Networks
Abstract:
Private communication detection (PCD) is a traffic-analysis technique whereby an ordinary user of a communication network exploits side channels in end-point devices to observe the busy/idle activity status of targeted users. Correlations of users’ activity status allows collection of communication records that reveal private relationships. PCD techniques have been demonstrated for a number of communication technologies, such as Wi-Fi and VoIP, and their effectiveness shown even when the communication network is private; i.e., it provides content confidentiality, flow anonymity, and user pseudonymity. In this paper, we present a mathematical model of PCD that captures the activity status of two targets in a private VoIP network, including the probing process of an attacker that aims to breach their communication anonymity. Using this model, we a) develop fundamental bounds on PCD accuracy; b) measure the anonymity leakage in terms of the amount of call record information obtained in an attack; and c) provide performance guarantees and compare the efficacy of different PCD countermeasures, such as resource randomization and use of firewalls.
Autors: Saurabh Shintre;Virgil Gligor;Jo ao Barros;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 14 - 26
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Antinull 2-D Waveguide Power Transfer Based on Standing Wave Diversity
Abstract:
We propose a phase-tunable and termination-switchable multiport feeding system for antinull 2-D waveguide power transfer (2DWPT). 2DWPT systems using an open- or short-ended waveguide sheet generate standing waves in the sheet. Because of the standing wave pattern, the efficiency of the power transmission to a receiver (RX) strongly depends on its position and it can drop to almost zero at some points, which are referred to as nulls. The proposed system is capable of changing the standing wave pattern. By selecting an appropriate standing wave pattern according to the RX position, null generation at the RX can be avoided. We refer to this concept as standing wave diversity. In the proposed multiport system, three diversity methods are implemented: port selection, termination selection, and constructive superposition diversity. The effectiveness of these methods is explained by simple theoretical analyses. Our experimental measurement results agree with the analysis results and demonstrate that the proposed system can eliminate nulls and improve the average efficiency of power transfer to arbitrary RX positions.
Autors: Akihito Noda;Hiroyuki Shinoda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 306 - 318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Apodized Spiral Bragg Grating Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator
Abstract:
We demonstrate an apodization technique by tapering the corrugations of spiral Bragg grating waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform, for the fundamental transverse magnetic mode. The transmission and reflection responses of uniform and apodized spiral Bragg grating waveguides are experimentally compared to show higher sidelobe suppression ratios by the proposed apodization scheme. We also present an apodized, period-chirped spiral Bragg grating waveguide, and the group delay of the proposed device has been measured; the results show an efficient suppression in the ripples of the group delay response.
Autors: Minglei Ma;Zhitian Chen;Han Yun;Yun Wang;Xu Wang;Nicolas A. F. Jaeger;Lukas Chrostowski;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 111 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Application of Evolutionary Computation for Berth Scheduling at Marine Container Terminals: Parameter Tuning Versus Parameter Control
Abstract:
Considering a substantial increase in the international seaborne containerized trade volumes, marine container terminal operators have to improve efficiency of the processes inside their terminals in order to meet the growing demand. An efficient berth scheduling is of a high importance for the terminal’s performance, as it significantly influences the turnaround time of vessels. This paper proposes a novel Evolutionary Algorithm to assist with berth scheduling at marine container terminals that, unlike published to date studies on berth scheduling, applies a parameter control strategy. Specifically, an adaptive mechanism is developed for the mutation operator, in which the mutation rate is altered based on feedback from the search. The objective of the proposed mixed integer model aims to minimize the total weighted vessel service cost. A set of numerical experiments are conducted to assess performance of the developed algorithm based on a comparison against a typical Evolutionary Algorithm that applies a constant mutation rate value, determined from the parameter tuning analysis. Results indicate that the optimality gap does not exceed 0.80% for both algorithms. Furthermore, deployment of the adaptive mechanism for the mutation operator yields an average of 5.4% and 8.5% savings in terms of the total weighted vessel service cost for medium and large size problem instances, respectively, without a significant increase in the computational time.
Autors: Maxim A. Dulebenets;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 25 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Applying Event Stream Processing to Network Online Failure Prediction
Abstract:
Predicting failures on networks and systems is critical in order to maintain high uptime rates. Online failure prediction (OFP) techniques use machine learning and predictive analytics to generate failure models that can be applied to computer network data. These techniques can be provisioned on state-of-the-art stream processing systems, such as Spark Streaming, in order to cope with the scalability challenges from the base data. A big challenge with OFP is selecting the right information to process, as well as the appropriate features in order to achieve high accuracy in predicting failures on complex, interconnected systems. In this article we describe an OFP system built over Apache Spark that takes a repository of network management events, trains a Random Forest model, and uses this model to predict the appearance of future events in near real time. We show through our experiments the usefulness of network management events for accurate predictions, and the advantages of the proposed system in terms of predictive quality, cost, and ease of deployment.
Autors: Juan C. Duenas;Jose M. Navarro;Hugo A. Parada G.;Javier Andion;Felix Cuadrado;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 166 - 170
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Applying Pragmatics Principles for Interaction with Visual Analytics
Abstract:
Interactive visual data analysis is most productive when users can focus on answering the questions they have about their data, rather than focusing on how to operate the interface to the analysis tool. One viable approach to engaging users in interactive conversations with their data is a natural language interface to visualizations. These interfaces have the potential to be both more expressive and more accessible than other interaction paradigms. We explore how principles from language pragmatics can be applied to the flow of visual analytical conversations, using natural language as an input modality. We evaluate the effectiveness of pragmatics support in our system Evizeon, and present design considerations for conversation interfaces to visual analytics tools.
Autors: Enamul Hoque;Vidya Setlur;Melanie Tory;Isaac Dykeman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 309 - 318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Applying Software Engineering Standards in Very Small Entities: From Startups to Grownups
Abstract:
Very small entities (VSEs) are organizations with up to 25 people. The ISO/IEC 29110 series of standards and guides target VSEs with little or no experience or expertise in selecting the appropriate processes from lifecycle standards and tailoring them to a project’s needs. This article gives an overview of ISO/IEC 29110, some examples of VSEs that have implemented it, and those implementations’ results.
Autors: Claude Y. Laporte;Mirna Munoz;Jezreel Mejia Miranda;Rory V. O’Connor;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 99 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ARC Flash KPI Compliance at a Large Oil and Gas Company
Abstract:
An oil and gas company's arc flash electrical safe operations program is a corporate initiative to prevent electrical arc flash injuries. The program implements the company general instruction—electrical arc flash hazard mitigation, which provides minimum safe work requirements for protection of personnel in the workplace against electrical arc flash hazards in accordance with the National Fire Protection Agency 70E. The program tracks five key performance indicators (KPIs) to protect employees from arc flash hazards in all company facilities, which are as follows: 1) technology deployment; 2) training and certification; 3) operation and maintenance delineation; 4) operation and maintenance unified procedures; and 5) arc flash analysis. To verify compliance, the company initiated field-based assessments conducted by a specialized team of Power Systems Compliance and Electrical Engineers. The assessments are designed to validate each facility's compliance as well as to identify any opportunities for improvement in the application of arc flash mitigation. The assessors utilized a standardized checklist to determine the level to which established KPIs have been implemented. The checklists are weighted and scored to validate compliance in a consistent manner. This paper demonstrates a structured approach to measure arc flash KPI compliance and highlights some findings and practical examples that can be applied at many oil and gas facilities.
Autors: Ritchie Pragale;Amar Patel;Roger Bresden;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 889 - 894
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Arc Lighting Systems: The First Electrical Distribution Systems [History]
Abstract:
From about 1885 to 1915, the most common means of lighting streets was the use of arc lamps. These lamps and the systems by which they were supplied power were very technologically sophisticated. These were the first electrical distribution systems. The manufacturing companies that made the equipment for arc lighting went on to be the companies that launched the so-called electrical age.
Autors: Robert D. Barnett;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 56 - 64
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Arc Voltage Characteristics in Ultrahigh-Pressure Nitrogen Including Supercritical Region
Abstract:
A supercritical (SC) fluid is formed when both pressure and temperature of a fluid exceed the critical point, where distinct gas and liquid phases no longer exist. SC fluids demonstrate combined properties of gas and liquid, which make them interesting to investigate them as an arc extinction medium. This paper focuses on the arc voltage characteristics of industrial grade nitrogen subjected to different filling pressures up to 98 bar including SC region. Pressure, arc duration, current, and distance dependence of the arc are investigated by arc voltage measurement. It has been found that arc voltage increases with filling pressure without any abrupt change during the transition from gas into the SC region. Arc duration and current dependence of the arc voltage are not significant in the investigated parameter range. Arc voltage measurement with different electrode gaps suggests that the electrode voltage drop does not vary with filling pressure.
Autors: Fahim Abid;Kaveh Niayesh;Erik Jonsson;Nina Sasaki Støa-Aanensen;Magne Runde;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 187 - 193
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Architectural Synthesis of Multi-SIMD Dataflow Accelerators for FPGA
Abstract:
Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) boast abundant resources with which to realise high-performance accelerators for computationally demanding operations. Highly efficient accelerators may be automatically derived from Signal Flow Graph (SFG) models by using architectural synthesis techniques, but in practical design scenarios, these currently operate under two important limitations - they cannot efficiently harness the programmable datapath components which make up an increasing proportion of the computational capacity of modern FPGA and they are unable to automatically derive accelerators to meet a prescribed throughput or latency requirement. This paper addresses these limitations. SFG synthesis is enabled which derives software-programmable multicore single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) accelerators which, via combined offline characterisation of multicore performance and compile-time program analysis, meet prescribed throughput requirements. The effectiveness of these techniques is demonstrated on tree-search and linear algebraic accelerators for 802.11n WiFi transceivers, an application for which satisfying real-time performance requirements has, to this point, proven challenging for even manually-derived architectures.
Autors: Yun Wu;John McAllister;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 43 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Arimoto–Rényi Conditional Entropy and Bayesian $M$ -Ary Hypothesis Testing
Abstract:
This paper gives upper and lower bounds on the minimum error probability of Bayesian -ary hypothesis testing in terms of the Arimoto–Rényi conditional entropy of an arbitrary order . The improved tightness of these bounds over their specialized versions with the Shannon conditional entropy () is demonstrated. In particular, in the case where is finite, we show how to generalize Fano’s inequality under both the conventional and list-decision settings. As a counterpart to the generalized Fano’s inequality, allowing to be infinite, a lower bound on the Arimoto–Rényi conditional entropy is derived as a function of the minimum error probability. Explicit upper and lower bounds on the minimum error probability are obtained as a function of the Arimoto–Rényi conditional entropy for both positive and negative . Furthermore, we give upper bounds on the minimum error probability as functions of the Rényi divergence. In the setup of discrete memoryless channels, we analyze the exponentially vanishing decay of the Arimoto–Rényi conditional entropy of the transmitted codeword given the channel output when averaged over a random-coding ensemble.
Autors: Igal Sason;Sergio Verdú;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 4 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ARMET: Behavior-Based Secure and Resilient Industrial Control Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a design methodology to develop reliable and secure industrial control systems (ICSs) based on the behavior of their computational resources (i.e., process/application) and underlying physical resources (e.g., the controlled plant). The methodology has three independent, but complementary, components that employ novel approaches and techniques in the design of reliable and secure ICSs. First, we introduce reliable-and-secure-by-design development of secure industrial control applications through stepwise sound refinement of an executable specification, employing deductive synthesis to enforce functional and nonfunctional (e.g., security and safety) properties of ICS applications. Second, we present a runtime security monitor at the middleware level of ICSs that protects ICS operation in the field through comparison of the application execution and the application specification execution in real time; the runtime security monitor can be synthesized from the executable specification. Finally, based on the specification, we perform a vulnerability analysis for false data injection (FDI) attacks, which leads to ICS application designs that are resilient to this type of attacks. We demonstrate the methodology through its application to a basic and typical ICS example application, describing all the tools used and ARMET, the middleware monitor that constitutes the core component of the methodology.
Autors: Muhammad Taimoor Khan;Dimitrios Serpanos;Howard Shrobe;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 106, issue:1, pages: 129 - 143
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Artificial Intelligence in the Rising Wave of Deep Learning: The Historical Path and Future Outlook [Perspectives]
Abstract:
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science and a technology aimed at developing the theories, methods, algorithms, and applications for simulating and extending human intelligence. Modern AI enables going from an old world-where people give computers rules to solve problems-to a new world-where people give computers problems directly and the machines learn how to solve them on their own using a set of algorithms. An algorithm is a self-contained sequence of instructions and actions to be performed by a computational machine. Starting from an initial state and initial input, the instructions describe computational steps, which, when executed, proceed through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing an output and terminating at a final ending state. AI algorithms are a rich set of algorithms used to perform AI tasks, notably those pertaining to perception and cognition that involve learning from data and experiences simulating human intelligence.
Autors: Li Deng;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 180 - 177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Artificial Material Single Layer to Model the Field Penetration Through Thin Shields in Finite-Elements Analysis
Abstract:
A new artificial material single layer (AMSL) model is presented to solve shielding problem. The field penetration through the conductive shield is described by lossy transmission line equations. The resulting equations are used to numerically synthetize an equivalent material for the shield region having the same geometrical configuration of the original shield, but different specific constants. The AMSL method is very accurate and highly efficient since it allows to discretizing the shield region using only a single layer of finite elements avoiding the fine discretization required by the finite-element method (FEM) to model the skin effect. The most relevant aspect of the proposed procedure is that the AMSL method can be easily implemented in FEM-based commercial software tools.
Autors: Mauro Feliziani;Silvano Cruciani;Tommaso Campi;Francesca Maradei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 56 - 63
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ascending-Price Progressive Spectrum Auction for Cognitive Radio Networks With Power-Constrained Multiradio Secondary Users
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate spectrum sharing with power-constrained multiradio secondary users (SUs) in cognitive radio networks. The scenario under consideration consists of a primary spectrum owner who runs auctions for leasing her idle channels and multiple SU bidding for winning the usage of spectrum channels. Different from existing works in the literature with an assumption of single-minded SUs, in this paper, SUs can benefit from flexible quantity of channels. In addition, since each SU is ordinarily equipped with a fixed number of radios, she cannot utilize the amount of channels that exceed her radio capacity. Moreover, each SU has a certain power limitation so that the quality of service (QoS) of her transmission may also be constrained, even though the number of allocated channels is increased. To jointly address all these challenges, a novel ascending-price progressive auction algorithm is proposed, where the spectrum allocation decisions are made by gradually increasing the unit channel price. Theoretical analyses prove that the proposed algorithm meets the properties of QoS satisfaction, individual rationality, and incentive compatibility and achieves Pareto optimality. Simulation results further demonstrate that the proposed auction algorithm can improve both the auction revenue and the social welfare, and increase the number of winning SUs compared to the counterparts.
Autors: Changyan Yi;Jun Cai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 781 - 794
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Assessing Dynamic Balance Performance During Exergaming Based on Speed and Curvature of Body Movements
Abstract:
Improving balance performance among the elderly is of utmost importance because of the increasing number of injuries and fatalities caused by fall incidences. Digital games controlled by body movements (exergames) have been proposed as a way to improve balance among older people. However, the assessment of balance performance in real-time during exergaming remains a challenging task. This assessment could be used to provide instantaneous feedback and automatically adjust the exergame difficulty. Such features could potentially increase the motivation of the player, thus augmenting the effectiveness of exergames. As clear differences in balance performance have been identified between older and younger people, distinguishing between older and younger adults can help identifying measures of balance performance. We used generalized linear models to investigate whether the assessment of balance performance based on movement speed can be improved by incorporating curvature of the movement trajectory into the analysis. Indeed, our results indicated that curvature improves the performance of the models. Five-fold cross validation indicated that our method is promising for the assessment of balance performance in real-time by showing more than 90% classification accuracy. Finally, this method could be valuable not only for exergaming, but also for real-time assessment of body movements in sports, rehabilitation, and medicine.
Autors: Venustiano Soancatl Aguilar;Jasper J. van de Gronde;Claudine J. C. Lamoth;Natasha M. Maurits;Jos B. T. M. Roerdink;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 171 - 180
Publisher: IEEE
 

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