Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2018 sorted by title, page: 10

» Hybrid PWM/DPAM Dimming Control for Digital Color Shift Keying Using RGB-LED Array
Abstract:
As a method of dimming support for visible light communications using a massive LED array, we consider a hybrid pulse width modulation/digitally controlled pulse amplitude modulation (PWM/DPAM) system. Especially, in this paper, we consider a digital color shift keying (DCSK) using an RGB-LED array as an optical intensity modulation scheme, that transmits data through the ratio of the optical intensities (i.e., color) emitted by red, green, and blue LEDs. In DCSK, since only one color is activated in each RGB-LED at a time, the color can be represented by the combination of the digitally (i.e., linearly) controlled “ON-OFF” LEDs. In general, for the dimming control system of DCSK, two schemes have been considered. One is the dimming control by PWM, which changes the duty cycle of optical transmit signals, and the other is the dimming control by DPAM, which changes the number of active LEDs in the RGB-LED array. In this paper, PWM and DPAM are combined to realize a higher spectral efficiency than PWM and a wider dimming range than DPAM. We evaluate the error performances of the proposed system, DCSK with PWM, and DCSK with DPAM from a simulation analysis under several measured light dimming levels. The results show that DPAM should be used only for low bit rate systems because the effect of inter-symbol-interference (ISI), caused by the LED frequency response, increases at a high bit rate. While, PWM is significantly robust against ISI because the PWM signal duration is limited in a symbol duration at the low dimming levels and the empty duration can mitigate the effect of ISI even if the bit rate is high. When focusing on symbol error rate performances corresponding to the dimming levels, the hybrid dimming control and the PWM dimming control can achieve lower signal energy-to-noise-ratio at the dimming level of low and high, respectively.
Autors: Jumpei Okumura;Yusuke Kozawa;Yohtaro Umeda;Hiromasa Habuchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 45 - 52
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid-Trip-Model-Based Energy Management of a PHEV With Computation-Optimized Dynamic Programming
Abstract:
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) with fuel and electricity have demonstrated the capability to reduce fuel consumption and emissions by adopting appropriate energy management strategies. In the existing energy management strategies, the dynamic programming (DP)-based energy management strategy (EMS) can realize the global optimization of the fuel consumption if the global vehicle-speed trajectory is known in advance. The global vehicle-speed trajectory can be obtained by applying GPS data of vehicles when the trip path is determined. However, for a trip path without GPS data, the global vehicle-speed trajectory is difficult to be gained. In this case, the DP-based EMS cannot be utilized to achieve the globally optimal fuel consumption, which is the issue discussed in this paper. This paper makes the following two contributions to solve this issue. First of all, the cell transmission model of the road traffic flow and the vehicle kinematics are introduced to obtain the traffic speeds of road segments and the accelerations of the PHEV. On this basis, a hybrid trip model is presented to obtain the vehicle-speed trajectory for the trip path without GPS data. Next, a DP-based EMS with prediction horizon is proposed, and moreover, in order to improve its real-time implementation, a search range optimization algorithm of the state of charge (SOC) is designed to reduce the computational load of DP. In summary, we propose a computation-optimized DP-based EMS through applying the hybrid trip model. Finally, a simulation study is conducted for applying the proposed EMS to a practical trip path in Beijing road network. The results show that the hybrid trip model can effectively construct the vehicle-speed trajectory online, and the average accuracy of the vehicle-speed trajectory is more than 78%. In addition, compared with the existing optimization algorithm for DP calculation, the SOC search range optimization algorithm can further reduce the calcu- ation load of DP. More importantly, compared to the globally optimal DP-based EMS, although the proposed EMS makes the fuel consumption grow less than 5.36%, it can be implemented in real time. Moreover, compared with the existing real-time strategies, it can further reduce the fuel consumption and emissions. Thus, the proposed EMS can offer an effective solution for the PHEV applying it online in the trip path without GPS data.
Autors: Jichao Liu;Yangzhou Chen;Wei Li;Fei Shang;Jingyuan Zhan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 338 - 353
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HYDRA: Heterodyne Crosstalk Mitigation With Double Microring Resonators and Data Encoding for Photonic NoCs
Abstract:
Silicon-photonic networks on chip (PNoCs) provide high bandwidth with lower data-dependent power dissipation than does the traditional electrical NoCs (ENoCs); therefore, they are promising candidates to replace ENoCs in future manycore chips. PNoCs typically employ photonic waveguides with dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) for signal traversal and microring resonators (MRs) for signal modulation. Unfortunately, DWDM increases susceptibility to intermodulation (IM) and off-resonance filtering effects, which reduce optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) for photonic data transfers. Additionally, process variations (PVs) induce variations in the width and thickness of MRs causing resonance wavelength shifts, which further reduce OSNR, and create communication errors. This paper proposes a novel cross-layer framework called HYDRA to mitigate heterodyne crosstalk due to PVs, off-resonance filtering, and IM effects in PNoCs. The framework consists of two device-level mechanisms and a circuit-level mechanism to improve heterodyne crosstalk resilience in PNoCs. Simulation results on three PNoC architectures indicate that HYDRA can improve the worst case OSNR by up to and significantly enhance the reliability of DWDM-based PNoC architectures.
Autors: Sai Vineel Reddy Chittamuru;Ishan G. Thakkar;Sudeep Pasricha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 168 - 181
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperconnected Network: A Decentralized Trusted Computing and Networking Paradigm
Abstract:
With the development of the Internet of Things, a complex CPS system has emerged and is becoming a promising information infrastructure. In the CPS system, the loss of control over user data has become a very serious challenge, making it difficult to protect privacy, boost innovation, and guarantee data sovereignty. In this article, we propose HyperNet, a novel decentralized trusted computing and networking paradigm, to meet the challenge of loss of control over data. HyperNet is composed of the intelligent PDC, which is considered as the digital clone of a human individual; the decentralized trusted connection between any entities based on blockchain as well as smart contract; and the UDI platform, enabling secure digital object management and an identifier-driven routing mechanism. HyperNet has the capability of protecting data sovereignty, and has the potential to transform the current communication-based information system to the future data-oriented information society.
Autors: Hao Yin;Dongchao Guo;Kai Wang;Zexun Jiang;Yongqiang Lyu;Ju Xing;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 112 - 117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Image Classification Using Joint Sparse Model and Discontinuity Preserving Relaxation
Abstract:
As a promising signal processing technique, a joint sparse model (JSM) has been used to integrate spatial and spectral information in the classification of remotely sensed images. This technique defines a local region of a fixed window size and assumes an equal contribution from each neighborhood pixel in the classification process of the test pixel. However, equal weighting is less reasonable for heterogeneous pixels, especially around class boundaries. Hence, a discontinuity preserving relaxation (DPR) method can be used to locally smooth the results without crossing the boundaries by detecting the discontinuities of an image in advance. In this letter, we developed a novel strategy that combines these two methods to improve the hyperspectral image classification. A JSM is first applied to obtain a posteriori probability distribution of pixels and then a DPR method is used to further improve the classification results. Experiments conducted on two benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed method leads to superior performance when compared with several popular algorithms.
Autors: Qishuo Gao;Samsung Lim;Xiuping Jia;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 78 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Image Classification via Multiscale Joint Collaborative Representation With Locally Adaptive Dictionary
Abstract:
In this letter, a multiscale joint collaborative representation with locally adaptive dictionary (MLJCRC) method is proposed for hyperspectral image classification. Based on the joint collaborative representation model, instead of selecting only a single region scale, MLJCRC incorporates complementary contextual information into classification by multiplying different scales with distinct spatial structures and characteristics. Also, MLJCRC uses a locally adaptive dictionary to reduce the influence of irrelevant pixels on representation, which improves the classification accuracy. The results of experiments on Indian Pines data and Pavia University data demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than support vector machine, sparse representation classification, and other collaborative representation-based classifications.
Autors: Jinghui Yang;Jinxi Qian;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 112 - 116
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hypoperfusion Induced by Preconditioning Treadmill Training in Hyper-Early Reperfusion After Cerebral Ischemia: A Laser Speckle Imaging Study
Abstract:
Exercise preconditioning induces neuroprotective effects during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, which involves the recovery of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of re-established CBF following ischemia and reperfusion are unclear. The present study investigated CBF in hyper-early stage of reperfusion by laser speckle contrast imaging, a full-field high-resolution optical imaging technique. Rats with or without treadmill training were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. CBF in arteries, veins, and capillaries in hyper-early stage of reperfusion (1, 2, and 3 h after reperfusion) and in subacute stage (24 h after reperfusion) were measured. Neurological scoring and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were further applied to determine the neuroprotective effects of exercise preconditioning. In hyper-early stage of reperfusion, CBF in the rats with exercise preconditioning was reduced significantly in arteries and veins, respectively, compared to rats with no exercise preconditioning. Capillary CBF remained stable in the hyper-early stage of reperfusion, though it increased significantly 24 h after reperfusion in the rats with exercise preconditioning. As a neuroprotective strategy, exercise preconditioning reduced the blood perfusion of arteries and veins in the hyper-early stage of reperfusion, which indicated intervention-induced neuroprotective hypoperfusion after reperfusion onset.
Autors: Zhijie He;Hongyang Lu;Xiaojiao Yang;Li Zhang;Yi Wu;Wenxiu Niu;Li Ding;Guili Wang;Shanbao Tong;Jie Jia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 219 - 223
Publisher: IEEE
 
» I/Ocloud: Adding an IoT Dimension to Cloud Infrastructures
Abstract:
Infrastructure as a service is a successful cloud-based utility paradigm. Its effectiveness stems from employing virtualization and enabling cloud providers to leverage elastic datacenter capabilities. To expand the reach and benefits of IaaS, the cloud must embrace the Internet of Things infrastructure as virtualized I/O resources and first-class objects at the edge.
Autors: Dario Bruneo;Salvatore Distefano;Francesco Longo;Giovanni Merlino;Antonio Puliafito;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 51, issue:1, pages: 57 - 65
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IC Design and Measurement of an Inductorless 48 V DC/DC Converter in Low-Cost CMOS Technology Facing Harsh Environments
Abstract:
With reference to 48-V systems, used in electric and hybrid vehicles and for telecom and networking power supply, this paper presents the circuit/transistor-level design, implementation, and test of an inductorless dc/dc converter. Its architecture is a cascade of three switched-capacitor converters with step-up/down capabilities plus linear converters, working in parallel at the end of the cascade. It provides multiple regulated voltages, which are isolated from input failures. The design also includes on-chip control unit and a serial interface toward an external host. Experimental tests carried out on the chip, fabricated in 0.35- CMOS technology, proves that the design is suitable to face harsh operating environments, including the 48-V automotive one. Compared with the state-of-art, the proposed design stands for its wide input voltage regulation range, load/line regulation, power supply rejection ratio, and low electromagnetic interference emissions.
Autors: Sergio Saponara;Gabriele Ciarpi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 380 - 393
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Iceberg Detection in Open and Ice-Infested Waters Using C-Band Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar
Abstract:
Icebergs can cause a significant threat to shipping, offshore oil and gas production facilities, and subsea pipelines. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a well-established tool for detecting and monitoring sea-ice objects in the often dark and cloud-covered polar regions. However, detection of small icebergs floating in nonhomegeous sea clutter environments is still a challenging task. We propose a new methodology for automatic identification of potential icebergs in high-resolution polarimetric SAR images. The algorithm adopts to various sea-ice conditions and it tackles high iceberg density situations and heterogeneous background conditions in the marginal ice zone. Results from a time series of RADARSAT-2 data containing numerous icebergs broken off from glaciers in Kongsfjorden on Svalbard demonstrate that the approach is viable.
Autors: Vahid Akbari;Camilla Brekke;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 407 - 421
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of Various Image Operations Using Residual-Based Features
Abstract:
Image forensics has attracted wide attention during the past decade. However, most existing works aim at detecting a certain operation, which means that their proposed features usually depend on the investigated image operation and they consider only binary classification. This usually leads to misleading results if irrelevant features and/or classifiers are used. For instance, a JPEG decompressed image would be classified as an original or median filtered image if it was fed into a median filtering detector. Hence, it is important to develop forensic methods and universal features that can simultaneously identify multiple image operations. Based on extensive experiments and analysis, we find that any image operation, including existing anti-forensics operations, will inevitably modify a large number of pixel values in the original images. Thus, some common inherent statistics such as the correlations among adjacent pixels cannot be preserved well. To detect such modifications, we try to analyze the properties of local pixels within the image in the residual domain rather than the spatial domain considering the complexity of the image contents. Inspired by image steganalytic methods, we propose a very compact universal feature set and then design a multiclass classification scheme for identifying many common image operations. In our experiments, we tested the proposed features as well as several existing features on 11 typical image processing operations and four kinds of anti-forensic methods. The experimental results show that the proposed strategy significantly outperforms the existing forensic methods in terms of both effectiveness and universality.
Autors: Haodong Li;Weiqi Luo;Xiaoqing Qiu;Jiwu Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 31 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identifying the Requirements for Qualified, Unqualified, and Competent Persons Electrical Safety Training
Abstract:
This paper provides an understanding of what constitutes a qualified person, an unqualified person, and a competent person. Also included are the training requirements for each classification. The principles for performing a needs assessment, a job/task analysis, and job hazard analysis are addressed as they relate to the information gathering needed for the development of an effective training program. This gathered information applies to all personnel who are, or may be, exposed to electrical hazards, and who may work on, near, or interact with the electrical systems and equipment.
Autors: Dennis K. Neitzel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 5 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEC/IEEE 60079-30 Standard, Parts 1 and 2: An Introduction to the Joint Standard for Trace Heating in Explosive Atmospheres
Abstract:
In 2015, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the IEEE released the jointly developed standard IEC/IEEE 60079-30, Parts 1 and 2 [1]. The IEE sponsor was the IEE Industry Applications Society (IAS) Petroleum and Chemical Industry Technical Conference (PCIC), and the IEC sponsor was IEC Technical Committee (TC) 31, Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres. The joint development combined the requirements and recommendations of IEEE 515 [2] with IEC 60079-30-1, 2007-01 [3] and IEC 60079-30-2, 2007-01 [4]. This joint development represented the complete harmonization of the international, IEC , and North American certification and design requirements for trace heating in explosive atmospheres. In addition to type tests for product certification, this standard has extensive requirements so that certifying bodies can determine the manufacturer's ability to predict maximum sheath temperatures for trace heaters in explosive atmospheres. This article provides a background for understanding the joint development process and provides an overview of the key technical requirements found in the standards.
Autors: Ben C. Johnson;Richard H. Hulett;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 32 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE 1900.7 Standard for White Space Dynamic Spectrum Access Radio Systems
Abstract:
Various measurements and studies have shown that some licensed frequency bands are underutilized at certain times and in certain locations. In particular, TV bands have been shown to have unused spectrum. Such observations have triggered strong interest in white space dynamic spectrum access among researchers, wireless equipment manufacturers, and standards development organizations. The IEEE Standards Committee on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks created the White Space Radio Working Group in June 2011 to develop the IEEE 1900.7 standard for white space dynamic spectrum access radio systems. The standard was published in February 2016. This article gives an overview of key concepts and technologies of the IEEE 1900.7 standard, including use cases and requirements, the physical layer, and the MAC sublayer.
Autors: Stanislav Filin;Dominique Noguet;Jean-Baptiste Dore;Baher Mawlawi;Oliver Holland;Muhammad Zeeshan Shakir;Hiroshi Harada;Fumihide Kojima;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 188 - 192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE Student Branch Awards [The Way Ahead]
Abstract:
Presents the recipients of the IEEE Student Branch Awards.
Autors: J. Patrick Donohoe;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 4 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE Visualization and Graphics Technical Committee (VGTC)
Abstract:
Presents a listing of the IEEE Visualization and Graphics Technical Committee (VGTC).
Autors: Cláudio T. Silva;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: xvi - xvi
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Registration Based on Low Rank Matrix: Rank-Regularized SSD
Abstract:
Similarity measure is a main core of image registration algorithms. Spatially varying intensity distortion is an important challenge, which affects the performance of similarity measures. Correlation among the pixels is the main characteristic of this distortion. Similarity measures such as sum-of-squared-differences (SSD) and mutual information ignore this correlation; hence, perfect registration cannot be achieved in the presence of this distortion. In this paper, we model this correlation with the aid of the low rank matrix theory. Based on this model, we compensate this distortion analytically and introduce rank-regularized SSD (RRSSD). This new similarity measure is a modified SSD based on singular values of difference image in mono-modal imaging. In fact, image registration and distortion correction are performed simultaneously in the proposed model. Based on our experiments, the RRSSD similarity measure achieves clinically acceptable registration results, and outperforms other state-of-the-art similarity measures, such as the well-known method of residual complexity.
Autors: Aboozar Ghaffari;Emad Fatemizadeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 138 - 150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Segmentation Using Disjunctive Normal Bayesian Shape and Appearance Models
Abstract:
The use of appearance and shape priors in image segmentation is known to improve accuracy; however, existing techniques have several drawbacks. For instance, most active shape and appearance models require landmark points and assume unimodal shape and appearance distributions, and the level set representation does not support construction of local priors. In this paper, we present novel appearance and shape models for image segmentation based on a differentiable implicit parametric shape representation called a disjunctive normal shape model (DNSM). The DNSM is formed by the disjunction of polytopes, which themselves are formed by the conjunctions of half-spaces. The DNSM’s parametric nature allows the use of powerful local prior statistics, and its implicit nature removes the need to use landmarks and easily handles topological changes. In a Bayesian inference framework, we model arbitrary shape and appearance distributions using nonparametric density estimations, at any local scale. The proposed local shape prior results in accurate segmentation even when very few training shapes are available, because the method generates a rich set of shape variations by locally combining training samples. We demonstrate the performance of the framework by applying it to both 2-D and 3-D data sets with emphasis on biomedical image segmentation applications.
Autors: Fitsum Mesadi;Ertunc Erdil;Mujdat Cetin;Tolga Tasdizen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 293 - 305
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image-Guided Nanopositioning Scheme for SEM
Abstract:
Positioning of micro-nanoobjects inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for manipulation is a key and challenging task to perform. Often it is performed by skilled operators via teleoperation, which is tedious and lacks repeatability. In this paper, rendering this task as an image-guided problem, we present a frequency domain scheme for automatic control of positioning platform movements. The designed controller uses the relative global image motion computed using the frequency spectral information of the images as visual signal and can provide control up to five degrees of freedom. The proposed approach is validated in simulations as well as experimentally using a high-resolution piezo-positioning platform mounted inside a SEM vacuum chamber. The obtained results quantify the performance of the proposed nanopositioning scheme.

Note to Practitioners—The main motivation behind this paper comes from the very need for automatic positioning of objects inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to perform dynamic analysis and structural characterization. Mostly, the positioning tasks are exhibited by skilled operators via teleoperation. Nevertheless, it is still a difficult task to repeat, and hence automatic strategies are indispensable. This can be tackled up to an extent using microscopic vision information. However, the regular vision-guided strategies with integrated feature tracking are hard to use with SEM due to multiple instabilities associated with the imaging process. To address this issue, this paper presents an image frequency-based positioning stage controller that does not require any visual tracking and is capable of dealing with electronic images provided by SEM for automatic nanopositioning. The presented results illustrate the capability of the method to handle various perturbations and demonstrate its performance in terms of accuracy, robustness, and repeatability. Due to the existence of orthographic p- ojection, the proposed method is limited to control depth displacements. This can be resolved by combining it with visual servoing-based autofocus methods.

Autors: Naresh Marturi;Brahim Tamadazte;Sounkalo Dembélé;Nadine Piat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 45 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Imagining Replications: Graphical Prediction & Discrete Visualizations Improve Recall & Estimation of Effect Uncertainty
Abstract:
People often have erroneous intuitions about the results of uncertain processes, such as scientific experiments. Many uncertainty visualizations assume considerable statistical knowledge, but have been shown to prompt erroneous conclusions even when users possess this knowledge. Active learning approaches been shown to improve statistical reasoning, but are rarely applied in visualizing uncertainty in scientific reports. We present a controlled study to evaluate the impact of an interactive, graphical uncertainty prediction technique for communicating uncertainty in experiment results. Using our technique, users sketch their prediction of the uncertainty in experimental effects prior to viewing the true sampling distribution from an experiment. We find that having a user graphically predict the possible effects from experiment replications is an effective way to improve one's ability to make predictions about replications of new experiments. Additionally, visualizing uncertainty as a set of discrete outcomes, as opposed to a continuous probability distribution, can improve recall of a sampling distribution from a single experiment. Our work has implications for various applications where it is important to elicit peoples' estimates of probability distributions and to communicate uncertainty effectively.
Autors: Jessica Hullman;Matthew Kay;Yea-Seul Kim;Samana Shrestha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 446 - 456
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Imminent Communication Security for Smart Communities
Abstract:
A smart community is a collection of interdependent human-cyber-physical systems, in which the states of these systems are estimated and adapted by IoT technology. It enables sustainable societies that can offer increased well being, safety, and security. However, a smart community may be susceptible to novel forms of cyber-attacks. This article highlights GPS security vulnerabilities of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), which will become more popular in smart communities. We show that UGVs do not have adequate protection against GPS spoofing attacks. Consequently, they can easily be penetrated by attackers.
Autors: Daojing He;Sammy Chan;Yinrong Qiao;Nadra Guizani;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 99 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Imminent Communication Technologies for Smart Communities: Part 1
Abstract:
The articles in this special section focus on new information and communication technologies for smart communities. In the 21st century, we have witnessed a rapid and revolutionary growth in the ICT industry. Also, we can easily identify a variety of challenges that today’s cities around the world are facing. In developing countries, with rapid population and economic growth, energy demand in urban areas is increasing. In developed countries, challenges are due to declining birth rates, aging societies demanding better health care services, and the deterioration of the physical infrastructure such as buildings, roads, water supplies and sewage systems, and the power grid. Moreover, internationally, global warming caused by increasing carbon dioxide emissions and frequent natural disasters are urgent issues. In our Feature Topic, we would like to see how communication technologies can play a vital role in assisting or solving some of the aforementioned issues.
Autors: Syed Hassan Ahmed;Mohsen Guizani;Jaime Lloret;Danda B. Rawat;Wael Guibene;Zhimeng Zhong;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 76 - 76
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Immutable Authentication and Integrity Schemes for Outsourced Databases
Abstract:
Database outsourcing enables organizations to offload their data management overhead to the external service providers. Immutable signatures are ideal tools to provide authentication and integrity for such applications with an important property called immutability. Signature immutability ensures that, no attacker can derive a valid signature for unposed queries from previous queries and their corresponding signatures. This prevents an attacker from creating his own de-facto services via such derived signatures. Unfortunately, existing immutable signatures are very computation/communication costly, which make them impractical for real-life applications. In this paper, we developed three new schemes called practical and immutable signature bouquets (), which achieve efficient immutability for outsourced databases.  schemes are simple, non-interactive, and computation/communication efficient. Our generic scheme can be constructed from any aggregate signature coupled with a standard signature. Our specific scheme is constructed from Condensed-RSA and Sequential Aggregate RSA. It has a low verifier computational overhead and compact signature. Our third scheme offers the lowest end-to-end delay among existing alternatives by enabling efficient signature pre-computability. We provide formal security analysis of  schemes (in Random Oracle Model) and give a theoretical analysis on the relationship between signature immutability and signature extraction. We also showed that  schemes are more efficient than previous alternatives.
Autors: Attila Altay Yavuz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 69 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Communication Erasure Channels on Control Performance of Connected and Automated Vehicles
Abstract:
Connected and automated vehicles mandate integrated design of communications and control to achieve coordination of highway vehicles. Random features of wireless communications introduce new types of uncertainties into networked systems and impact control performance significantly. Due to typical packet loss, erasure channels create random link interruption and switching in network topologies. This paper models such switching network topologies by Markov chains and derives their probability transition matrices from stochastic characterizations of the channels. Impact of communication erasure channels on vehicle platoon formation and robustness under a weighted and constrained consensus framework is analyzed. By comparing convergence properties of networked control algorithms under different communication channel features, we characterize some intrinsic relationships between packet delivery ratio and convergence rate. Simulation case studies are performed to verify the theoretical findings.
Autors: Thu Nguyen;Le Yi Wang;George Yin;Hongwei Zhang;Shengbo Eben Li;Keqiang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 29 - 43
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Forming Compliance Current on Storage Window Induced by a Gadolinium Electrode in Oxide-Based Resistive Random Access Memory
Abstract:
Enlargement of memory window through forming compliance current was demonstrated in Gd:SiO2 resistive random access memory (RRAM) with a gadolinium (Gd) electrode. Lower forming compliance current for Gd:SiO2 RRAM with a Gd electrode results in larger memory window as compared with the RRAM with a Pt electrode. Through analyses on the current conduction mechanism, we demonstrate that a lower forming compliance current leads to a thinner conductive filament forming and less oxygen ions penetrating into Gd electrode, which caused higher on current and lower off current. Furthermore, a possible resistive switching model was proposed to explain the effect of Gd electrode on RRAM device.
Autors: Qing Xia;Jiaji Wu;Chih-Hung Pan;Cong Ye;Kuan-Chang Chang;Ting-Chang Chang;Chih-Cheng Shih;Cheng-Hsien Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 96 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Plasma Treatment on Reliability Performance for HfZrOx-Based Metal-Ferroelectric-Metal Capacitors
Abstract:
TiN/ferroelectric-HfZrOx (FE-HZO)/TiN capacitors were employed as the platform to investigate the impact of plasma treatment on reliability of FE-HZO. NH3 plasma treatment at different HZO/TiN interfaces was carried out to study the dependence of oxygen vacancies (Vo) on FE behaviors against cycling. It has been electrically confirmed that HZO free from wake-up and fatigue effects up to 106 cycles (±2.5 MV/cm, long pulses of 1 ms) with high value of 29~30, low leakage current can be achieved by treatments at both top and bottom interfaces. It is a great advance for HfO2-based FE and is mainly attributed to significant reduction of Vo in HZO, especially the treatment at the bottom interface, which greatly suppresses the formation of oxygen-deficient HZO. Fewer Vo in NH3-plasma-treated HZO has also been confirmed by physical analysis. The plasma treatment has shed light on a feasible approach to enhance FE reliability.
Autors: Kuen-Yi Chen;Pin-Hsuan Chen;Ruei-Wen Kao;Yan-Xiao Lin;Yung-Hsien Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 87 - 90
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Process Variations on Negative Capacitance FinFET Devices and Circuits
Abstract:
We report on the impact of process variations on short-channel negative capacitance (NC)-based FinFETs through statistical Monte Carlo simulations using a physics-based model of NC-FinFETs. We find that relative to regular FinFETs, the impact of geometrical variability can be lesser or higher in NC-FinFETs in different regimes of device operation and is strongly dependent on the nominal ferroelectric (FE) thickness (). The contribution of the FE layer to the overall variability behaves non-monotonically with increase in the nominal . While the OFF-current and threshold voltage variabilities scale down, the ON-current variability does not follow a monotonic trend with increase in the nominal . We also show that although relative to the regular FinFET-based ring oscillator (RO) circuit, the NC-FinFET-based RO (NC-RO) circuit displays increased immunity to process variation induced delay variability, the trend is non-monotonic with regard to scaling.
Autors: Tapas Dutta;Girish Pahwa;Amit Agarwal;Yogesh Singh Chauhan;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 147 - 150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Residual Additive Transceiver Hardware Impairments on Rayleigh-Product MIMO Channels With Linear Receivers: Exact and Asymptotic Analyses
Abstract:
Despite the importance of Rayleigh-product multiple-input multiple-output channels and their experimental validations, there is no work investigating their performance in the presence of residual additive transceiver hardware impairments, which arise in practical scenarios. Hence, this paper focuses on the impact of these residual imperfections on the ergodic channel capacity for optimal receivers, and on the ergodic sum rates for linear minimum mean-squared-error (MMSE) receivers. Moreover, the low- and high-signal-to-noise ratio cornerstones are characterized for both types of receivers. Simple closed-form expressions are obtained that allow the extraction of interesting conclusions. For example, the minimum transmit energy per information bit for optimal and MMSE receivers is not subject to any additive impairments. In addition to the exact analysis, we also study the Rayleigh-product channels in the large system regime, and we elaborate on the behavior of the ergodic channel capacity with optimal receivers by varying the severity of the transceiver additive impairments.
Autors: Anastasios Papazafeiropoulos;Shree Krishna Sharma;Tharmalingam Ratnarajah;Symeon Chatzinotas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 105 - 118
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impacts of Diameter and Ge Content Variation on the Performance of Si1-xGex p-Channel Gate-All-Around Nanowire Transistors
Abstract:
In this work, the impacts of both nanowire diameter (DNW) and Ge content (%) on the performance of Si1−xGex Gate-all-around nanowire p-channel FETs are investigated. The variations in SiGe Gate-all-around nanowire p-channel FETs induced by DNW variation, Ge content variation, and some stochastic process variations including random dopants fluctuation, gate edge roughness, and metal gate granularity are also evaluated.
Autors: Xianle Zhang;Xiaoyan Liu;Longxiang Yin;Gang Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 108 - 112
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Implementation and Characterization of a Physical Unclonable Function for IoT: A Case Study With the TERO-PUF
Abstract:
Today, life is becoming increasingly connected. From TVs to smartphones, including vehicles, buildings, and household appliances, everything is interconnected in what we call the “Internet of Things” (IoT). IoT is now part of our life and we have to deal with it. More than ten billion devices are already connected and five times more are expected to be deployed in the next five years. While deployment and integration of IoT is expanding, one of the main challenge is to provide practical solutions to security, privacy, and trust issues in IoT. Protection and security mechanisms need to include features such as interoperability and scalability but also traceability, authentication, and access control while remaining lightweight. Among the most promising approaches to such security mechanisms, physical unclonable functions (PUFs) provide a unique identifier for similar but different integrated circuits using some of their physical characteristics. These types of functions can thus be used to authenticate integrated circuits, provide traceability and access control. This paper presents a comprehensive case study of the transient effect ring oscillator (RO) PUF from its implementation on FPGAs to its complete characterization. The implementation of the PUF is detailed for two different families of FPGAs: 1) Xilinx Spartan 6 and 2) Altera Cyclone V. All the metrics used for the characterization are explained in detail and the results of the characterization include robustness to environmental parameters including variations in temperature and voltage. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained for another PUF: the RO PUF. All the design files are available online to ensure repeatability and enable comparison of our contribution with other studies.
Autors: Cédric Marchand;Lilian Bossuet;Ugo Mureddu;Nathalie Bochard;Abdelkarim Cherkaoui;Viktor Fischer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 97 - 109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improve Accuracy of Fingerprinting Localization with Temporal Correlation of the RSS
Abstract:
Recent study presents a fundamental limit of the RSS fingerprinting based indoor localization. In this paper, we theoretically show that the temporal correlation of the RSS can further improve accuracy of the fingerprinting localization. In particular, we construct a theoretical framework to evaluate how the temporal correlation of the RSS can influence reliability of location estimation, which is based on a newly proposed radio propagation model considering the time-varying property of signals from Wi-Fi APs. The framework is then applied to analyze localization in the one-dimensional physical space, which reveals the fundamental reason why localization performance can be improved by leveraging temporal correlation of the RSS. We extend our analysis to high-dimensional scenarios and mathematically depict the boundaries in the RSS sample space, which distinguish one physical location from another. Moreover, we develop an algorithm to utilize temporal correlation of the RSS to improve the location estimation accuracy, where the process for choosing key design parameters are provided through experiments. Experiment results show that the localization reliability and accuracy can be improved by up to 13 and 30 percent with appropriate leveraging the RSS temporal correlation information.
Autors: Xiaohua Tian;Mei Wang;Wenxin Li;Binyao Jiang;Dong Xu;Xinbing Wang;Jun Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 113 - 126
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Algorithms and Implementations for Integer to $tau $ NAF Conversion for Koblitz Curves
Abstract:
The conversion from an integer scalar to a short and sparse -adic nonadjacent form (NAF) is crucial for efficient elliptic curve scalar multiplication over Koblitz curves. Currently the conversion is costly both in time and area, limiting the application of Koblitz curves. In this paper, we propose improved algorithms and implementations for both the single-digit and double-digit scalar conversions. Area reduction is achieved by removing the -and-add calculation of the remainder upon division by for lazy reduction or the -and-add one for the double lazy reduction. The NAF and the double NAF algorithms are modified accordingly to support a mixed-form-reduced scalar from the new reduction algorithms. Furthermore, fair pipelining is explored to speed up conversion with only a slight increase in area. Implementation results on Altera Stratix II FPGA show that the proposed single-digit converters are both smaller and faster than existing works, and the 4-stage pipelined one achieves at least 42.3% area reduction and 78.9% better area-time product (ATP) performance. On Xilinx Virtex IV, our non-pipelined double-digit converters are at least 44.5% smaller but slightly slower, while the 4-stage pipelined one can run faster with averagely 46.6% better ATP than previous equivalent works.
Autors: Lijuan Li;Shuguo Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 154 - 162
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Cavity for Broadband Frequency-Tunable Gyrotron
Abstract:
Cavity modification is proposed with the aim of enhancing the continuous frequency tunability of a gyrotron. The modification can be applied to both uniform and tapered gyrotron cavities and involves just using an additional cavity section. It ensures larger effective cavity length and thus lower starting current for higher order axial modes. As a consequence, the frequency tuning band of the gyrotron can be increased significantly. Moreover, the proposed cavity modification is beneficial for smoothing the variations of output power within the tuning band.
Autors: Vitalii I. Shcherbinin;Tetiana I. Tkachova;Viktor I. Tkachenko;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 257 - 262
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Deadbeat Predictive Current Control Combined Sliding Mode Strategy for PMSM Drive System
Abstract:
To promote the drive performance of permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM), such as tracking accuracy of both speed and current, one improved deadbeat-based predictive current control (DPCC) scheme based sliding mode is proposed in this paper. First, one novel PMSM model is derived by considering uncertainties of both parameters and external disturbances. Second, in order to improve the dynamic response of PMSM drive system, both sliding mode control (SMC) and DPCC are employed to control the speed and current, respectively. Third, a unified high-order sliding mode observer is designed for the estimation of disturbances and uncertainties in the speed and current loops. Furthermore, the estimated values are compensated with feedback to the designed SMC and DPCC to increase the speed robustness and current tracking accuracy. Comprehensive simulation and experiments demonstrate that the proposed control strategy is strongly robust to acute variations of load and machine parameters, and it is testified to have better speed and current tracking performance.
Autors: Yajie Jiang;Wei Xu;Chaoxu Mu;Yi Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 251 - 263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Frequency Regulation in an Islanded Mixed Source Microgrid Through Coordinated Operation of DERs and Smart Loads
Abstract:
The advent of microgrids paved the way for energy decentralization and self-sufficiency among consumers. Reciprocating engine-driven synchronous generators (also known as gensets) are one of the most commonly found distributed energy resources (DERs) installed in a microgrid. A key concern in microgrid operation is the frequency regulation, especially when it is islanded from the main grid. In recent years, the inverter-based DERs have witnessed huge growth. When fast-responding inverter-based DERs are working in parallel with the slow-acting gensets within the islanded mixed source microgrid, many challenges exist in coordinating their operation. In particular, an inverter-based DER is susceptible to collapse due to its large transient loading and this can bring down the entire system. This paper investigates load sharing and proposes new techniques for improved frequency regulation in an islanded mixed source microgrid. An improved coordination scheme between DERs is presented in this paper by accounting for their inertial and governor response characteristics. The unequal transient load sharing between gensets and inverter-based DERs is redistributed to prevent system collapse as well as achieve desired frequency regulation. For dealing with extreme scenarios, a smart load shedding scheme is integrated into the coordinated operation of DERs.
Autors: Abrez Mondal;Mahesh S. Illindala;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 112 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved High-Frequency Voltage Injection Based Permanent Magnet Temperature Estimation for PMSM Condition Monitoring for EV Applications
Abstract:
Permanent magnet (PM) temperature is critical to ensure high-performance and reliable control of permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) for electric vehicle (EV) applications. High-frequency (HF) voltage injection based approach has been shown to be capable of PM temperature estimation under all-speed range with simple implementation. This paper improves existing HF voltage injection based PM temperature estimation approach by considering the cross-coupling effect. The key to PM temperature estimation is the temperature-dependent HF resistance estimated from the injected HF voltage and the current response. It is found that the cross-coupling effect has a great influence on the HF resistance estimation. This paper firstly improves the HF voltage injection model by considering the cross-coupling effect. Then, a comparative numerical investigation is conducted to analyze the estimation errors induced by the cross-coupling effect. A novel HF resistance estimation approach is derived from the proposed improved model and the PM temperature is calculated from the HF resistance with a linear thermal model. The influence of inverter nonlinearity is also analyzed. Experimental investigations demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to improve the performance of PM temperature estimation.
Autors: Guodong Feng;Chunyan Lai;K. Lakshmi V. Iyer;Narayan C. Kar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 216 - 225
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Optimal Decentralized Load Modulation for Power System Primary Frequency Regulation
Abstract:
Nowadays the interest in smart load technologies for primary frequency regulation is spurred due to the increasing penetration of renewable energy resources. In this paper, an improved optimal load control (improved OLC) is introduced by applying a multiobjective optimization-based gain-tuning method to the conventional OLC approach. The objective is to minimize the frequency nadir, time response, steady-state error, total load shed, and aggregated disutility of controllable loads subject to power balance over the network. Simulation results indicate that enabling a multiobjective optimization-based gain-tuning procedure in the OLC approach can provide better power system frequency regulation. Time-domain analysis confirms the superior performance of improved OLC in terms of frequency nadir (Hz), steady-state error (Hz), control effort, and NERC-based performance metrics (MW/0.1 Hz), with detailed load and wind farm models. Furthermore, small-signal analysis demonstrates that the improved OLC enhances the system closed-loop performance and stability margins by increasing the damping ratio of the system's critical modes.
Autors: Atieh Delavari;Innocent Kamwa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1013 - 1025
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Performance of Amorphous InGaMgO Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetector by Post Deposition Annealing in Oxygen
Abstract:
In this paper, the impact of O2 postdeposition annealing treatment on the material and UV detection characteristics of amorphous InGaMgO (IGMO) thin films was intensively studied. With the replacement of Zn by Mg, amorphous InGaMgO possesses an optical bandgap larger than that of the conventional amorphous InGaZnO by over 0.5 eV. Furthermore, it was found the post-deposition annealing in O2 effectively suppressed the oxygen vacancies in the amorphous IGMO thin film, resulting in a significant reduction in its dark current. Due to strong hole trapping, all the samples except the 480-min annealed one exhibited large photocurrent and accordingly high responsivity over @ 10 V. Moreover, both photocurrent and responsivity improve with increasing annealing time up to 240 min. As a result, the Metal-Semiconductor-Metal photodetector based on the 240-min annealed amorphous InGaMgO thin film exhibited a very prominent performance, including a high responsivity of and a large photo-to-dark current ratio of . We attribute such excellent properties to the improved carrier mobility as well as the reduction of recombination centers in the O2-annealed film. However, some degradations in device performance were observed when the annealing time reached 480 min, which can be explained by the suppression of localized tail states, as demonstrated by the abruptly reduced Urbach energy, and accordingly the inhibition of related extrinsic excitation. This work has provided a promising candidate for the application in transparent contact-free interactive display.
Autors: Y. Y. Zhang;L. X. Qian;Z. H. Wu;P. T. Lai;X. Z. Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 29 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Sensitivity in Ultrasound Molecular Imaging With Coherence-Based Beamforming
Abstract:
Ultrasound molecular imaging (USMI) is accomplished by detecting microbubble (MB) contrast agents that have bound to specific biomarkers, and can be used for a variety of imaging applications, such as the early detection of cancer. USMI has been widely utilized in preclinical imaging in mice; however, USMI in humans can be challenging because of the low concentration of bound MBs and the signal degradation caused by the presence of heterogenous soft tissue between the transducer and the lesion. Short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) beamforming has been proposed as a robust technique that is less affected by poor signal quality than standard delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming. In this paper, USMI performance was assessed using contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging combined with DAS (conventional CEUS) and with SLSC (SLSC-CEUS). Each method was characterized by flow channel phantom experiments. In a USMI-mimicking phantom, SLSC-CEUS was found to be more robust to high levels of additive thermal noise than DAS, with a 6dB SNR improvement when the thermal noise level was +6dB or higher. However, SLSC-CEUS was also found to be insensitive to increases in MB concentration, making it a poor choice for perfusion imaging. USMI performance was also measured in vivo using VEGFR2-targeted MBs in mice with subcutaneous human hepatocellular carcinoma tumors, with clinical imaging conditions mimicked using a porcine tissue layer between the tumor and the transducer. SLSC-CEUS improved the SNR in each of ten tumors by an average of 41%, corresponding to 3.0dB SNR. These results indicate that the SLSC beamformer is well-suited for USMI applications because of its high sensitivity and robust properties under challenging imaging conditions.
Autors: Dongwoon Hyun;Lotfi Abou-Elkacem;Valerie A. Perez;Sayan Mullick Chowdhury;Juergen K. Willmann;Jeremy J. Dahl;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 241 - 250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Turbo Decoding With Multivariable Taylor Series Expansion
Abstract:
In this letter, a new method is proposed to approximate -input () max* operation. Bi-variable Taylor series expansion, for the first time, is applied to approximate the correction term of -input () max* operation. It avoids the recursive computation of bi-variable Jacobian logarithm. To improve the approximation performance, multiple expansion points are considered. The proposed method is evaluated for 3GPP LTE turbo codes. The simulation results show that the approximation with five expansion points, applied with scaling factor to extrinsic information, has performance degradation of 0.01 dB compared with radix-4 Log-MAP algorithm. Furthermore, the approximation with three expansion points will bring minor performance loss but almost the same computational complexity compared with five expansion points.
Autors: Zhen Liu;Bin Wu;Tian-Chun Ye;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 37 - 40
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement of Power Quality by Using Advanced Reactive Power Compensation
Abstract:
In the same feeder, it will decline the power quality of power supply when the quality is poor at load side, which can cause other equipment malfunction and even damage devices. Therefore, a reactive power compensation method is suggested to improve the power quality of the electric arc furnace in a distribution power system. Both the static var compensator (SVC) and an active filter can modify power factor and balance three phase currents simultaneously. The active filter can solve the problem of instantaneous state of an SVC. Then, an SVC can reduce power quantity of the active filter. Finally, field measurement data in a metal factory were analyzed. Simulation results confirmed the feasibility of correcting the power factor and balancing load currents simultaneously using the proposed method.
Autors: Yu-Wei Liu;Shiuan-Hau Rau;Chi-Jui Wu;Wei-Jen Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 18 - 24
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvements to the NMR Method With Flowing Water at CMI
Abstract:
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a very important technique for making accurate measurements of the magnetic flux density B of dc magnetic fields in a wide range of values. This paper presents improvements to the NMR method with flowing water (the nutation method). The method is used at the Czech Metrology Institute and provides an improved signal-to-noise ratio of the amplitude of the NMR signal, new resonance frequency value by searching nutation double pattern recording, and an improved calibration uncertainty value. This method is used for calibration of the coil standards of magnetic flux density with a constant value below 20 mT/A. Using the improved nutation method presented here, the magnetic flux density coil standard can be calibrated within a period of less than 30 min in the range of 0.1 to 100 mT with expanded uncertainty of 20 to 60 ppm.
Autors: Michal Ulvr;Josef Kupec;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 204 - 208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving Channel Capacity in Indoor $4 times 4$ MIMO Base Station Utilizing Small Bidirectional Antenna
Abstract:
Preparing toward the new-generation communication by improving the capacity in the channel can be achieved by employing a MIMO system with polarization diversity means. This paper presents a low-profile MIMO bidirectional antenna consisting of two composite antennas mounted on a ground plane. The composite antenna is constructed by stacking a notch antenna and a loop antenna on top of each other and each antenna is fed independently. This antenna is capable of dual-polarized radiation patterns pointing in two different directions, where the notch antenna produces a horizontally polarized wave in the -axis direction while the loop antenna gives a vertically polarized wave in the -axis direction. The combination of two composite antennas has good isolation between the elements and is capable of improving the channel capacity for indoor MIMO base station applications. This paper includes the validation of both the fabrication of the proposed antenna design and the channel propagation measurement using the proposed antenna, confirming the excellent antenna performance for long term evolution application at a frequency of 3.5 GHz.
Autors: Bakar Rohani;Kanata Takahashi;Hiroyuki Arai;Yasuko Kimura;Taisuke Ihara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 393 - 400
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving Grid Power Availability in Rural Telecom Exchanges
Abstract:
India has seen a huge surge in the telecom sector with total rural telecom subscribers doubling from 200.81 million to 404.16 million between 2010 and 2015. Therefore, telecom exchanges are built throughout the country to support this development. With severe electric power shortages in rural India, it poses a challenge to power these exchanges. It is observed that power supply in rural areas is not always available in three phase and can sometimes be available in two or single phase depending on fault in the three-phase system. Currently, used power plants in telecom exchanges are not designed to adapt to these variable input phase conditions. In this paper, a method is proposed to modify the currently used power plants such that they easily adapt to variable input phase conditions. This will lead to the utmost utilization of grid power and save valuable diesel fuel used in back-up diesel generators. The proposed method is designed and verified to have reasonable input power quality as per international standards. A quantitative estimation of diesel savings is also presented to estimate the percentage of diesel savings as a function of power outage.
Autors: Santanu Mishra;Abhishek Maji;Soumya Shubhra Nag;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 636 - 646
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving the Safety and Security of Wide-Area Cyber–Physical Systems Through a Resource-Aware, Service-Oriented Development Methodology
Abstract:
This paper presents a service-oriented development methodology for wide-area cyber–physical systems (CPS) such as smart grid and vehicular networks. Unlike the traditional task-based development approach from the domains of automotive and avionics, the proposed service-oriented development methodology inherently enables disruption-free incremental system deployment and reconfiguration that are fundamental requirements for handling the “always-online” nature of emerging wide-area CPS application domains such as smart grid and vehicular networks. The proposed service-oriented CPS development methodology extends the traditional service-oriented computing (SOC) paradigm for handling hard real-time CPS aspects by introducing resource-aware service deployment and quality-of-service (QoS)-aware service operation phases. The proposed CPS development methodology also supports a streamlined formal interface between the traditional computer-aided feedback controller design environments and SOC paradigm. The paper utilizes a simulation-based smart grid case study to illustrate the advantages of the proposed methodology for developing wide-area cyber–physical systems with improved safety and security characteristics. The paper also identifies a set of technological requirements for the proposed service-oriented CPS development methodology that should guide future research in this area.
Autors: Muhammad Umer Tariq;Jacques Florence;Marilyn Wolf;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 106, issue:1, pages: 144 - 159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IMS2017 Student Design Competition Results
Abstract:
Presents information on the IMS2017 Student Design Competition.
Autors: Robert Caverly;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 67 - 68
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Light and In Darkness, In Motion and In Stillness: A Reliable and Adaptive Receiver for the Internet of Lights
Abstract:
LEDs in our buildings, vehicles, and consumer products are rapidly gaining visible light communication capabilities. LED links however are notorious for being unreliable: shadowing, blockage, mobility, external light, all of these issues can disrupt the connectivity easily. Therefore, unless a reliable and cost-efficient data link layer is designed, VLC will be confined to niche applications. In this paper, we reveal a reason for unreliable VLC: a single type of photodetector at the receiver cannot establish a reliable link. We show that the photodetectors with complementary properties, in terms of optical spectral response and field-of-view, are necessary to handle the wide dynamic range of optical noise (such as the sun and other unwanted light sources) and mobility of users. Motivated by our experimental observations, we design a reliable and adaptive receiver for VLC (REAL-VLC) for low-end communication systems, an inexpensive receiver that senses light with complementary photodetectors and configures itself (physical and data link layers) dynamically to maintain the communication link. We implement the hardware and the software of REAL-VLC in low-end platforms, and experimentally validate it in representative test scenarios and a proof-of-concept application that consists of mobile nodes maintaining a VLC link under various lighting and path conditions.
Autors: Qing Wang;Domenico Giustiniano;Marco Zuniga;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 149 - 161
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In-Road Microwave Sensor for Electronic Vehicle Identification and Tracking: Link Budget Analysis and Antenna Prototype
Abstract:
To reduce the cost and increase reliability of the vehicle radio-frequency identification and tracking systems, an alternative placement of the interrogator is investigated. Conventional systems make use of an overhead interrogator that reads a tag in a windscreen or a license plate. The alternative approach is to embed the interrogator in the road and exclusively read license plate tags. In this paper, the link budget of such a system is fully characterized assuming the ISO/IEC 18000-63 UHF Type-C RFID standard. The obtained results indicate that a microwave sensor that has an elevated toroidal radiation pattern at around a 20°–30° elevation angle above the horizon is desired. This is a challenging task as road regulations dictate that the sensor cannot exceed a profile of 2.5 cm above the road surface. As an example of a sensor that meets those requirements, a modified discone antenna with an improved impedance matching method is presented. To reduce the antenna’s profile and give the required mechanical strength to withstand the weight of different vehicles on the road, the area between the disc and the cone is filled with Acetal, which has a high dielectric constant. The proposed microwave sensor is fabricated and successfully tested in a real-road environment. The results confirm that the sensor meets the aforementioned strict requirements from the link budget analysis.
Autors: Yifan Wang;Konstanty S. Bialkowski;Albertus J. Pretorius;Abraham G. W. du Plooy;Amin M. Abbosh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 123 - 128
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Inadequate Software Testing Can Be Disastrous [Essay]
Abstract:
In October 2007, Activision published the Guitar Hero III: Legends of Rock video game for the Nintendo Wii gaming console. The extremely popular game sold 1.4 million copies during the first six days of its release. Guitar Hero III: Legends of Rock was a game that allowed players to play songs with a guitar-like controller. Music was the primary output of this highly entertaining game.
Autors: Edwin Torres;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 9 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» InAlN/GaN HEMTs on Si With High ${{f}}_{text {T}}$ of 250 GHz
Abstract:
In this letter, InAlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with 40–200 nm rectangular gates and 300–700 nm source-to-drain distances were fabricated on Si substrates. The device with 40-nm gate and 300-nm source-to-drain distance exhibited a high drain current of 2.66 A/mm, a transconductance () of 438 mS/mm, and a high current gain cutoff frequency () of 250 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest value reported so far for GaN-based transistors on Si. An effective electron velocity of cm/s was extracted, which is comparable with those reported for InAlN/GaN HEMTs on SiC. These excellent results indicate that GaN HEMTs on Si have a great potential for low-cost emerging mm-Wave applications.
Autors: Weichuan Xing;Zhihong Liu;Haodong Qiu;Kumud Ranjan;Yu Gao;Geok Ing Ng;Tomás Palacios;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 75 - 78
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Incorporating an Optical Clock Into a Time Scale
Abstract:
This paper discusses the results of a simulation of a time scale based on continuously operating commercial hydrogen masers and an optical frequency standard that does not operate continuously as a clock. The simulation compares the performance of this time scale with one that is based on the same commercial devices but incorporates a continuously operating cesium fountain instead of the optical standard. The results are independent of the detailed characteristics of the optical frequency standard; the only requirement is that the optical device be much more stable than the masers in the ensemble. We discuss two methods for realizing the results of this simulation in an operational time scale.
Autors: Jian Yao;Thomas E. Parker;Neil Ashby;Judah Levine;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 127 - 134
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Indirect Power-System Contingency Screening for Real-Time Applications Based on PCA
Abstract:
This letter introduces the application of a data mining method with the purpose of contingency screening, by rapid recognition of hazardous, reoccurring power-system operating conditions. The method, suitable for real-time applications, is demonstrated on the north-western part of the Slovenian power-system, for first-swing stability issues. The presented demonstration consists of two steps: First, a database containing a set of prefault operating states and the corresponding critical clearing times of several contingencies is constructed. Second, the prefault measurements matrix is decomposed using the principal component analysis method and represented in a coordinate system, defined by the principal components. Since operating states form dense clusters of points in this coordinate system, the similarity between current and past conditions is established by identifying the shortest Euclidean distance metric. In this manner, the indication of each contingency impact is provided rapidly as long as a similar operating state exists within the database. Otherwise, the case is thoroughly investigated and included in the database. This approach is applicable to a wide spectrum of dynamic problems, providing that problem-relevant sets of input data are considered.
Autors: Teodora Dimitrovska;Urban Rudez;Rafael Mihalic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1080 - 1081
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Indoor Positioning Algorithm Based on Nonlinear PLS Integrated With RVM
Abstract:
Indoor positioning based on received signal strength indicator of WLAN has received more and more attention because of low cost and easy implementation. However, traditional localization algorithms often fail to achieve better positioning results because of multi-path effect and shadow effect. In order to solve the problem of multi-collinearity and more noise in WLAN indoor location data, this paper presents a novel nonlinear partial least square (PLS) method to address the problem of low precision in WLAN location. The proposed method integrates an inner relevant vector machine (RVM) function with an external linear PLS framework. First, the localization area is divided into a number of small areas by K-means algorithm. Then, PLS is applied to extract the features of the fingerprint database to reduce the number of the variable dimensions and eliminate the correlations. The obtained score matrices are used as the input and output of RVM. Finally, the coordinates of test points are regressed and predicted by the RVM-PLS algorithm. Simulation and experiments in real scenario prove the effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with SVM-PLS, RBF-PLS, SVM-PCA, EBQPLS, PLS, SVM, RBF, RVM, and WKNN algorithm, the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher positioning accuracy.
Autors: Chen Chen;Yujie Wang;Yong Zhang;Yan Zhai;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 660 - 668
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Infinite Horizon Optimal Transmission Power Control for Remote State Estimation Over Fading Channels
Abstract:
This paper studies the joint design over an infinite horizon of the transmission power controller and remote estimator for state estimation over fading channels. A sensor observes a dynamic process and sends its observations to a remote estimator over a wireless fading channel characterized by a time-homogeneous Markov chain. The successful transmission probability depends on both the channel gains and the transmission power used by the sensor. The transmission power control rule and the remote estimator should be jointly designed, aiming to minimize an infinite-horizon cost consisting of the power usage and the remote estimation error. We formulate the joint optimization problem as an average cost belief-state Markov decision process and prove that there exists an optimal deterministic and stationary policy. We then show that when the monitored dynamic process is scalar or the system matrix is orthogonal, the optimal remote estimates depend only on the most recently received sensor observation, and the optimal transmission power is symmetric and monotonically increasing with respect to the norm of the innovation error.
Autors: Xiaoqiang Ren;Junfeng Wu;Karl Henrik Johansson;Guodong Shi;Ling Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 85 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Infinitesimal Dipole Model Using Space Mapping Optimization for Antenna Placement
Abstract:
The infinitesimal dipole model (IDM) is very appealing for antenna placement problems, especially since antenna design details need not be available. The method has been mainly used to model antennas radiating in free space or above an infinite perfectly conducting ground plane, with synthetic data. The direct application of the method considering finite ground planes is impracticable because of the complexity of the associated Green's functions. In this letter, we propose a methodology to devise the equivalent model, taking into account edge diffraction effects due to the finite ground plane, but still maintaining a relatively low computational cost. We combine the classical IDM with the output space mapping technique so that the burden of model optimization is placed on the analytical model, and the more accurate but computationally intensive model is evaluated only a few times. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, we model a radar altimeter antenna operating at 4.3 GHz in a typical case of antenna integration: Only the measured far-field data are available. The equivalent model obtained is then incorporated into a commercial electromagnetic simulation package to compare its installed radiation pattern with the actual antenna measured pattern. An excellent agreement is verified.
Autors: Igor A. Baratta;Cassio B. de Andrade;Rodrigo R. de Assis;Elson J. Silva;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 17 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Influence of Chemical Potential on Graphene-Based SPR Sensor’s Performance
Abstract:
Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on “ZBLAN fluoride glass-Ag-graphene” plasmonic structure is proposed in the near-IR region. The influence of graphene chemical potential () in combination with the number of layers (L) of graphene on the sensor’s performance has been analyzed in detail. The analysis suggests that for graphene monolayer (L = 1), the maximum and almost constant sensing performance may be achieved for eV.
Autors: Anuj K. Sharma;Anumol Dominic;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 95 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Information Capacity of Vesicle Release in Neuro-Spike Communication
Abstract:
Information transmission in the nervous system is performed through the propagation of spikes among neurons, which is done by vesicle release to chemical synapses. Understanding the fundamentals of this communication can lead to the implementation of bio-inspired nanoscale communication paradigms. In this letter, we utilize a realistic pool-based model for vesicle release and replenishment in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and evaluate the capacity of information transmission in this process by modeling it as a binary channel with memory. Then, we derive a recurrence relation for the number of available vesicles, which is used to find successful bit transmission probabilities and mutual information between input and output. Finally, we evaluate the spiking probability that maximizes mutual information and derive the capacity of the channel.
Autors: Hamideh Ramezani;Ozgur B. Akan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 41 - 44
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Information Geometry Approach to Verification of Dynamic Models in Power Systems
Abstract:
This paper describes a new class of system identification procedures that are tailored to electric power systems, in particular to synchronous generators (SGs) and other dynamic components. Our procedure builds on computational advances in differential geometry, and offers a new, global characterization of challenges frequently encountered in system identification of electric power systems. The approach also benefits from increasing availability of high-quality measurements. While the proposed procedure is illustrated on SG example in a multimachine benchmark (IEEE 14-bus and real-world 441-bus power systems), it is equally applicable to identification of other system components, such as loads.
Autors: Mark K. Transtrum;Andrija T. Sarić;Aleksandar M. Stanković;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 440 - 450
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Initial Evaluation of SAR Capabilities in UAV Multicopter Platforms
Abstract:
Airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors have been commonly used during the last decades to monitor different phenomena in medium-scale areas of observation, such as object detection and characterization or topographic mapping. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is a cost-effective solution that offers higher operational flexibility than airborne systems to monitor these types of scenarios. The Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya has developed the first fully polarimetric SAR system at X-band integrated into a small UAV multicopter platform (UAV MP). The sensor, called AiR-based remote sensing, has been integrated into the platform overcoming restrictions of weight, space, robustness, and power consumption. To demonstrate the validity of the developed system, some measurement campaigns have been conducted in the outskirts of Barcelona, Spain.
Autors: Marc Lort;Albert Aguasca;Carlos López-Martínez;Tomás Martínez Marín;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 127 - 140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Injection Locked Triple Contact F–P LDs for Uncooled WDM Systems
Abstract:
We propose an injection locked triple contact Fabry–Pérot laser diode (TC F–P LD) for an uncooled wavelength division multiplexing systems. By controlling injection currents to three electrodes of the TC F–P LD, we are able to tune the cavity mode for an optimum injection locking without using temperature control. Then, we transmitted 20-Gb/s/channel quadrature phase shift keying signal using the LD as either an optical carrier or a local oscillator. We identified contributions of the performance degradation as: 1) intensity noise resulting from a finite common mode rejection ratio associated with a relative intensity noise and 2) decrease of the effective LO power for coherent detection. Finally, we show the uniform bit error rate performance with change of the injection wavelength by 2.8 nm. This is corresponding to 28 °C change of operating temperature.
Autors: Myeonggyun Kye;Chang-Hee Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 213 - 216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Inkjet-Printed Wideband Circularly Polarized Microstrip Patch Array Antenna on a PET Film Flexible Substrate Material
Abstract:
In this letter, a wideband right-hand circularly polarized high-gain 4 × 4 microstrip patch array antenna on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film flexible substrate material is investigated. A comparison between the planar and curved surface study is also presented to show impact of curving the array on antenna performance parameters since it is employing a flexible substrate material. Due to some unknown properties of the PET material, some disagreement is noticed between the simulated and measured results in reflection coefficient magnitude, axial ratio, and gain in addition to radiation patterns. The radiation patterns are consistent with some rise in cross-polarization levels.
Autors: Alejandro T. Castro;Satish Kumar Sharma;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 176 - 179
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Input-to-State Stability and Inverse Optimality of Linear Time-Varying-Delay Predictor Feedbacks
Abstract:
For linear systems with time-varying input delay and additive disturbances we show that the basic predictor feedback control law is inverse optimal, with respect to a meaningful differential game problem, and establish its robustness to constant multiplicative perturbations appearing at the system input. Both of these properties of the basic predictor feedback controller have not been established so far, even for the constant-delay case. We then show that the basic predictor feedback controller, when applied through a low-pass filter, is again inverse optimal and study its input-to-state stability as well as its robustness, to the low-pass filter time constant properties. All of the stability and inverse optimality proofs are based on the infinite-dimensional backstepping transformation, which allows us to construct appropriate Lyapunov functionals. A numerical example is also provided.
Autors: Xiushan Cai;Nikolaos Bekiaris-Liberis;Miroslav Krstic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 233 - 240
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Insensitivity Characteristics in the Dual Polarization of Deployable CFRP Reflector Antennas for SAR
Abstract:
A large deployable reflector antenna is considered and designed for the application of a synthetic aperture radar system requiring high gain for the high resolution of a detected image within a distance of a few hundred kilometers. For its lightweight and strong characteristics, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is introduced as a composite material and fabricated for conductivity evaluation. Effective electrical characteristics are obtained as a function of carbon fiber direction, using measured S-parameters in a rectangular waveguide. By taking into account the changes of the effective electrical characteristics that depend on the fiber direction of reflector antenna, the radiation pattern is investigated at X-band in terms of gain and polarization variation effects. The proposed reflector antenna made of quasi-isotropic CFRP panel can realize the insensitive characteristics depending on the incident polarization.
Autors: Seong Sik Yoon;Jae W. Lee;Taek-Kyung Lee;Jin Ho Roh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 88 - 95
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Instant Construction and Visualization of Crowded Biological Environments
Abstract:
We present the first approach to integrative structural modeling of the biological mesoscale within an interactive visual environment. These complex models can comprise up to millions of molecules with defined atomic structures, locations, and interactions. Their construction has previously been attempted only within a non-visual and non-interactive environment. Our solution unites the modeling and visualization aspect, enabling interactive construction of atomic resolution mesoscale models of large portions of a cell. We present a novel set of GPU algorithms that build the basis for the rapid construction of complex biological structures. These structures consist of multiple membrane-enclosed compartments including both soluble molecules and fibrous structures. The compartments are defined using volume voxelization of triangulated meshes. For membranes, we present an extension of the Wang Tile concept that populates the bilayer with individual lipids. Soluble molecules are populated within compartments distributed according to a Halton sequence. Fibrous structures, such as RNA or actin filaments, are created by self-avoiding random walks. Resulting overlaps of molecules are resolved by a forced-based system. Our approach opens new possibilities to the world of interactive construction of cellular compartments. We demonstrate its effectiveness by showcasing scenes of different scale and complexity that comprise blood plasma, mycoplasma, and HIV.
Autors: Tobias Klein;Ludovic Autin;Barbora Kozlíková;David S. Goodsell;Arthur Olson;M. Eduard Gröller;Ivan Viola;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 862 - 872
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Integrated Circuit for Super-Regenerative Low-Frequency Amplification
Abstract:
An improved topology for the baseband super-regenerative sampling amplifier is proposed and analyzed, which employs a series-capacitors output load to realize positive feedback. As in the conventional circuit, the gain of the amplifier is continuously variable by controlling the length of the capacitor charging phase. It is shown that decreasing feedback enhances the linearity of the circuit while trading off with a lower sampling speed. Entirely removing the feedback yields the integrating amplifier circuit. This is a practical implementation in terms of linearity, power, noise, and gain in low-frequency applications, including biomedical signal amplification. The analysis is verified by measured results from an integrated circuit prototype in 180-nm CMOS technology.
Autors: Robert Rieger;Nanang Sulistiyanto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 31 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Integrated MIMO Slot Antenna on Laptop Computer for Eight-Band LTE/WWAN Operation
Abstract:
This paper proposes a two-element multi-input multi-output (MIMO) open-slot antenna implemented on the display ground plane of a laptop computer for eight-band long-term evolution/wireless wide-area network operations. The metal surroundings of the antennas have been well integrated as a part of the radiation structure. In the single-element open-slot antenna, the nearby hinge slot (which is bounded by two ground planes and two hinges) is relatively large as compared with the open slot itself and acts as a good radiator. In the MIMO antenna consisting of two open-slot elements, a T slot is embedded in the display ground plane and is connected to the hinge slot. The T and hinge slots when connected behave as a radiator; whereas, the T slot itself functions as an isolation element. With the isolation element, simulated isolations between the two elements of the MIMO antenna are raised from 8.3–11.2 to 15–17.1 dB in 698–960 MHz and from 12.1–21 to 15.9–26.7 dB in 1710–2690 MHz. Measured isolations with the isolation element in the desired low- and high-frequency ranges are 17.6–18.8 and 15.2–23.5 dB, respectively. Measured and simulated efficiencies for the two-element MIMO antenna with either element excited are both larger than 50% in the desired operating frequency bands.
Autors: Shu-Chuan Chen;Po-Wei Wu;Chung-I G. Hsu;Jia-Yi Sze;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 105 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Integrated Networking, Caching, and Computing for Connected Vehicles: A Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach
Abstract:
The developments of connected vehicles are heavily influenced by information and communications technologies, which have fueled a plethora of innovations in various areas, including networking, caching, and computing. Nevertheless, these important enabling technologies have traditionally been studied separately in the existing works on vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework that can enable dynamic orchestration of networking, caching, and computing resources to improve the performance of next generation vehicular networks. We formulate the resource allocation strategy in this framework as a joint optimization problem, where the gains of not only networking but also caching and computing are taken into consideration in the proposed framework. The complexity of the system is very high when we jointly consider these three technologies. Therefore, we propose a novel deep reinforcement learning approach in this paper. Simulation results with different system parameters are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Ying He;Nan Zhao;Hongxi Yin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 44 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Integrated Optimization of Network Topology and DG Outputs for MVDC Distribution Systems
Abstract:
Medium-voltage DC (MVDC) distribution systems are receiving more and more attractions. For a MVDC distribution system, less network power losses can be obtained if the network topology and the outputs of distributed generations are optimized together. However, this is a tough optimization problem due to the mixed integer non-convex programming property. To efficiently address this problem, a convex mixed-integer quadratic programming (MIQP) based integrated optimization approach is proposed in this letter, which is validated via three MVDC systems.
Autors: Yi Tan;Yong Li;Yijia Cao;Mohammad Shahidehpour;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1121 - 1123
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Integrated Planar Three-Beam Electron Optics System for 220-GHz Folded Waveguide TWT
Abstract:
An integrated planar three-beam electron optics system is designed for our 220-GHz cascaded folded waveguide TWT. First, a planar three-beam gun is designed based on Pierce theory and Vaughan’s synthesis method with simplification of the focus electrode and the anode to facilitate manufacture and assembly, which is characteristic with 20 kV, A, and beam radius of 0.1 mm. Simulation results show that the gun model performs well. Next, a uniform magnetic focusing structure used for constraining the three-beam array with adjacent beam separation of 8 mm is designed. Magnetic saturation analysis of the pole piece and structure parameters optimization of the magnets is considered thoroughly, which may guarantee the transport stability of the three-beam array and keep down the volume of the magnet. Simulation results show that the transmission of three-beam array up to 18 mm is 100% with the maximum ripple of 11.2% in the designed focusing structure. And the integrated planar three-beam electron optics system is verified as a stable system with the beam characteristics analyses of matching error, beam voltage fluctuation, and variation of peak .
Autors: Hongtao Liang;Qianzhong Xue;Cunjun Ruan;Jinjun Feng;Shilong Wang;Xiaohui Liu;Zhaochuan Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 270 - 276
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Integrated Systems-in-Package: Heterogeneous Integration of Millimeter-Wave Active Circuits and Passives in Fan-Out Wafer-Level Packaging Technologies
Abstract:
Recent advances in silicon semiconductor technology with transit and maximum oscillation frequencies above 300 GHz have enabled the integration of complex transceiver front ends operating in the millimeter-wave (mmW) regime for a variety of applications. Among these, the most prominent frequency ranges (and their associated applications) are currently the 60-GHz short-range communication frequency band [1]-[2] and E-band wireless back-haul solutions [3]-[4], as well as the 76-81-GHz band for automotive radar sensor realizations [5]-[6].
Autors: Amelie Hagelauer;Maciej Wojnowski;Klaus Pressel;Robert Weigel;Dietmar Kissinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 48 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Integration of Learning-Based Testing and Supervisory Control for Requirements Conformance of Black-Box Reactive Systems
Abstract:
A fundamental requirement of the supervisory control theory (SCT) of discrete-event systems is a finite automaton model of the plant. The requirement does not hold for black-box systems whose source code and logical model are not accessible. To apply SCT to black-box systems, we integrate automaton learning technology with SCT and apply the new method to improve the requirements conformance of software reuse. If the reused software component does not satisfy a requirement, the method adds a supervisor component to prevent the black-box system from reaching “faulty sections.” The method employs learning-based testing (LBT) to verify whether the reused software meets all requirements in the new context. LBT generates a large number of test cases and iteratively constructs an automaton model of the system under test. If the system fails the test, the learned model is applied as the plant model for control synthesis using SCT. Then, the supervisor is implemented as an executable program to monitor and control the system to follow the requirement. Finally, the integrated system, including the supervisory program and the reused component, is tested by LBT to assure the satisfiability of the requirement. This paper makes two contributions. First, we innovatively integrate LBT and SCT for the control synthesis of black-box reactive systems. Second, software component reuse is still possible even if it does not satisfy user requirements at the outset.

Note to Practitioners—In black-box software reuse, if a component does not satisfy user requirements in a new context, the developer has to abandon it and develop a new one, which is costly. The proposed method enables software reuse for black-box reactive systems by combining learning-based testing (LBT) and supervisory control theory (SCT). LBT can test whether the requirements hold in new settings and infer hypothesis models of the component at - he same time. If the component does not pass the test, the learned hypothesis is used as a plant model to compute a supervisor using SCT. Then, a supervisory program is developed according to the control actions of the supervisor to govern the system to follow the behavior of the requirements. We illustrate the proposed method through an example of a simple cruise control module. The effectiveness of the new method is demonstrated with a larger software component brake-by-wire with floating point data types. The case studies show not only the methodology of the new approach but also a working tool chain to perform it.

Autors: Huimin Zhang;Lei Feng;Naiqi Wu;Zhiwu Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 2 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Intelligent Bearing Fault Diagnosis Method Combining Compressed Data Acquisition and Deep Learning
Abstract:
Effective intelligent fault diagnosis has long been a research focus on the condition monitoring of rotary machinery systems. Traditionally, time-domain vibration-based fault diagnosis has some deficiencies, such as complex computation of feature vectors, excessive dependence on prior knowledge and diagnostic expertise, and limited capacity for learning complex relationships in fault signals. Furthermore, following the increase in condition data, how to promptly process the massive fault data and automatically provide accurate diagnosis has become an urgent need to solve. Inspired by the idea of compressed sensing and deep learning, a novel intelligent diagnosis method is proposed for fault identification of rotating machines. In this paper, a nonlinear projection is applied to achieve the compressed acquisition, which not only reduces the amount of measured data that contained all the information of faults but also realizes the automatic feature extraction in transform domain. For exploring the discrimination hidden in the acquired data, a stacked sparse autoencoders-based deep neural network is established and performed with an unsupervised learning procedure followed by a supervised fine-tuning process. We studied the significance of compressed acquisition and provided the effects of key factors and comparison with traditional methods. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated using data sets from rolling element bearings and the analysis shows that it is able to obtain high diagnotic accuracies and is superior to the existing methods. The proposed method reduces the need of human labor and expertise and provides new strategy to handle the massive data more easily.
Autors: Jiedi Sun;Changhong Yan;Jiangtao Wen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 185 - 195
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Intelligent NLOS Backhaul for 5G Small Cells
Abstract:
Millimeter wave (mmW) technologies are currently being proposed as backhaul for outdoor urban small cells. However, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) operation must be addressed before solutions can be fully realised. This letter proposes a reinforcement learning algorithm for improving the reliability of an mmW NLOS small cell backhaul system based on propagation by diffraction. Simulation results show that the algorithm achieves the desired data rate and can detect malfunctioning on a path within a predetermined time, and make a decision to switch to an alternative path, adjust transmission power, or change the operating mode in order to improve system performance.
Autors: Bessie Malila;Olabisi Falowo;Neco Ventura;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 189 - 192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Intelligent Time-Adaptive Transient Stability Assessment System
Abstract:
Online identification of postcontingency transient stability is essential in power system control, as it facilitates the grid operator to decide and coordinate system failure correction control actions. Utilizing machine learning methods with synchrophasor measurements for transient stability assessment has received much attention recently with the gradual deployment of wide-area protection and control systems. In this paper, we develop a transient stability assessment system based on the long short-term memory network. By proposing a temporal self-adaptive scheme, our proposed system aims to balance the trade-off between assessment accuracy and response time, both of which may be crucial in real-world scenarios. Compared with previous work, the most significant enhancement is that our system learns from the temporal data dependencies of the input data, which contributes to better assessment accuracy. In addition, the model structure of our system is relatively less complex, speeding up the model training process. Case studies on three power systems demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed transient stability as sessment system.
Autors: James J. Q. Yu;David J. Hill;Albert Y. S. Lam;Jiatao Gu;Victor O. K. Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1049 - 1058
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interactions Between Indirect DC-Voltage Estimation and Circulating Current Controllers of MMC-Based HVDC Transmission Systems
Abstract:
Estimation-based indirect dc-voltage control in MMCs interacts with circulating current control methods. This paper proposes an estimation-based indirect dc-voltage control method for MMC-HVDC systems and analyzes its performance compared to alternative estimations. The interactions between estimation-based indirect dc-voltage control and circulating current control methods, active/reactive power regulation are also investigated. The proposed method delivers similar performance to measurement-based direct dc-voltage control, regardless of the circulating current control method. Steady-state and transient performance is demonstrated using a benchmark MMC-HVDC transmission system, implemented in a real-time digital simulator. The results verify the theoretical evaluations and illustrate the operation and performance of the proposed indirect dc-voltage control method.
Autors: Harith R. Wickramasinghe;Georgios Konstantinou;Josep Pou;Vassilios G. Agelidis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 829 - 838
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interactions Between Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks are Captured by Sparse Coupled HMMs
Abstract:
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a window on the human brain at work. Spontaneous brain activity measured during resting-state has already provided many insights into brain function. In particular, recent interest in dynamic interactions between brain regions has increased the need for more advanced modeling tools. Here, we deploy a recent fMRI deconvolution technique to express resting-state temporal fluctuations as a combination of large-scale functional network activity profiles. Then, building upon a novel sparse coupled hidden Markov model (SCHMM) framework, we parameterised their temporal evolution as a mix between intrinsic dynamics, and a restricted set of cross-network modulatory couplings extracted in data-driven manner. We demonstrate and validate the method on simulated data, for which we observed that the SCHMM could accurately estimate network dynamics, revealing more precise insights about direct network-to-network modulatory influences than with conventional correlational methods. On experimental resting-state fMRI data, we unraveled a set of reproducible cross-network couplings across two independent datasets. Our framework opens new perspectives for capturing complex temporal dynamics and their changes in health and disease.
Autors: Thomas A. W. Bolton;Anjali Tarun;Virginie Sterpenich;Sophie Schwartz;Dimitri Van De Ville;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 230 - 240
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interactive Communication for Data Exchange
Abstract:
Two parties observing correlated data seek to exchange their data using interactive communication. How many bits must they communicate? We propose a new interactive protocol for data exchange, which increases the communication size in steps until the task is done. We also derive a lower bound on the minimum number of bits that is based on relating the data exchange problem to the secret key agreement problem. Our single-shot analysis applies to all discrete random variables and yields upper and lower bounds of a similar form. In fact, the bounds are asymptotically tight and lead to a characterization of the optimal rate of communication needed for data exchange for a general source sequence, such as a mixture of independent and identically distributed (IID) random variables as well as the optimal second-order asymptotic term in the length of communication needed for data exchange for IID random variables, when the probability of error is fixed. This gives a precise characterization of the asymptotic reduction in the length of optimal communication due to interaction; in particular, two-sided Slepian–Wolf compression is strictly suboptimal.
Autors: Himanshu Tyagi;Pramod Viswanath;Shun Watanabe;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 26 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interactive Design and Visualization of Branched Covering Spaces
Abstract:
Branched covering spaces are a mathematical concept which originates from complex analysis and topology and has applications in tensor field topology and geometry remeshing. Given a manifold surface and an -way rotational symmetry field, a branched covering space is a manifold surface that has an -to-1 map to the original surface except at the ramification points, which correspond to the singularities in the rotational symmetry field. Understanding the notion and mathematical properties of branched covering spaces is important to researchers in tensor field visualization and geometry processing, and their application areas. In this paper, we provide a framework to interactively design and visualize the branched covering space (BCS) of an input mesh surface and a rotational symmetry field defined on it. In our framework, the user can visualize not only the BCSs but also their construction process. In addition, our system allows the user to design the geometric realization of the BCS using mesh deformation techniques as well as connecting tubes. This enables the user to verify important facts about BCSs such as that they are manifold surfaces around singularities, as well as the Riemann-Hurwitz formula which relates the Euler characteristic of the BCS to that of the original mesh. Our system is evaluated by student researchers in scientific visualization and geometry processing as well as faculty members in mathematics at our university who teach topology. We include their evaluations and feedback in the paper.
Autors: Lawrence Roy;Prashant Kumar;Sanaz Golbabaei;Yue Zhang;Eugene Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 843 - 852
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interactive Dynamic Volume Illumination with Refraction and Caustics
Abstract:
In recent years, significant progress has been made in developing high-quality interactive methods for realistic volume illumination. However, refraction — despite being an important aspect of light propagation in participating media — has so far only received little attention. In this paper, we present a novel approach for refractive volume illumination including caustics capable of interactive frame rates. By interleaving light and viewing ray propagation, our technique avoids memory-intensive storage of illumination information and does not require any precomputation. It is fully dynamic and all parameters such as light position and transfer function can be modified interactively without a performance penalty.
Autors: Jens G. Magnus;Stefan Bruckner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 984 - 993
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interactive Image Segmentation Using Semi-transparent Wearable Glasses
Abstract:
Since it is difficult to automatically and precisely extract an object of interest, interactive image segmentation techniques exploit user-provided segmentation seeds. In previous interactive segmentation applications, the segmentation seeds are typically provided by mouse clicks or finger touches. In this paper, the segmentation of an object is studied from the scene that the user sees through semi-transparent wearable glasses. In this application scenario, a front-view camera is used to obtain the segmentation seeds from the user's fingertip position. In particular, two segmentation methodologies called transparent segmentation and semi-transparent segmentation are considered to determine an effective segmentation scheme for the wearable glasses. Extensive user studies are performed to evaluate the user preferences and the segmentation accuracies of the two methodologies.
Autors: Kyumok Kim;Seung-Won Jung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 20, issue:1, pages: 208 - 223
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Intercalibrating the MODIS and AVHRR Visible Bands Over Homogeneous Land Surfaces
Abstract:
Sensor intercalibration has been widely performed over low-latitude deserts and circumpolar regions where surface conditions are generally well characterized. This letter proposes a new method for intercalibrating visible bands of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) over homogenous land surfaces that differ in brightness, in order to improve calibration results. The method is based on the extended simultaneous nadir overpass events. Initially, the spectral band adjustment factors are calculated using surface reflectances in the MODIS 552 and 645-nm bands. Sensor differences related to atmospheric effects are corrected using MODIS atmospheric parameters and MODIS/AVHRR sun-target-sensor geometries. In view of excellent MODIS calibration accuracy, the residual MODIS–AVHRR difference may result from AVHRR calibration bias. A preliminary validation study over radiometric sites shows <1.0% uncertainty for the high-gain calibration and <2.0% uncertainty for the low-gain calibration. The proposed method allows sensor intercalibration over varying land surfaces, and contributes to a collection of sensor calibration and intercalibration results of AVHRR sensors.
Autors: Xingwang Fan;Yuanbo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 83 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interface Design of a Physical Human–Robot Interaction System for Human Impedance Adaptive Skill Transfer
Abstract:
It has been established that the transfer of human adaptive impedance is of great significance for physical human–robot interaction (pHRI). By processing the electromyography (EMG) signals collected from human muscles, the limb impedance could be extracted and transferred to robots. The existing impedance transfer interfaces rely only on visual feedback and, thus, may be insufficient for skill transfer in a sophisticated environment. In this paper, physical haptic feedback mechanism is introduced to result in muscle activity that would generate EMG signals in a natural manner, in order to achieve intuitive human impedance transfer through a designed coupling interface. Relevant processing methods are integrated into the system, including the spectral collaborative representation-based classifications method used for hand motion recognition; fast smooth envelop and dimensionality reduction algorithm for arm endpoint stiffness estimation. The tutor’s arm endpoint motion trajectory is directly transferred to the robot by the designed coupling module without the restriction of hands. Haptic feedback is provided to the human tutor according to skill learning performance to enhance the teaching experience. The interface has been experimentally tested by a plugging-in task and a cutting task. Compared with the existing interfaces, the developed one has shown a better performance. Note to Practitioners—This paper is motivated by the limited performance of skill transfer in the existing human–robot interfaces. Conventional robots perform tasks independently without interaction with humans. However, the new generation of robots with the characteristics, such as flexibility and compliance, become more involved in interacting with humans. Thus, advanced human robot interfaces are required to enable robots to learn human manipulation skills. In this paper, we propose a novel- interface for human impedance adaptive skill transfer in a natural and intuitive manner. The developed interface has the following functionalities: 1) it transfers human arm impedance adaptive motion to the robot intuitively; 2) it senses human motion signals that are decoded into human hand gesture and arm endpoint stiffness that ia employed for natural human robot interaction; and 3) it provides human tutor haptic feedback for enhanced teaching experience. The interface can be potentially used in pHRI, teleoperation, human motor training systems, etc.
Autors: Chenguang Yang;Chao Zeng;Peidong Liang;Zhijun Li;Ruifeng Li;Chun-Yi Su;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 329 - 340
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interface to Network Security Functions for Cloud-Based Security Services
Abstract:
Network functions virtualization and cloudbased security services will become increasingly common in enterprise network systems to reduce the system operation costs and take advantage of the diverse network security functions (NSFs) developed by multiple vendors. In such a network environment, standardizing the interfaces to the NSFs of different vendors is essential to simplify the management of these heterogeneous NSFs. In addition, software-defined networking can be imposed to optimize the security service process in such cloud-based service environments by enforcing some types of packet filtering rules at the SDN switches, instead of NSFs possibly placed in remote clouds. The Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF) Working Group, which is part of the Internet Engineering Task Force, is currently developing a set of standard interfaces to such heterogeneous NSFs. In this article, we present the design and development of an I2NSF architecture and propose improving its efficiency by integrating it with SDN. In our work, we implement the SDN-integrated I2NSF architecture and its security applications. This article also discusses several standardization and research challenges for I2NSF.
Autors: Sangwon Hyun;Jinyong Kim;Hyoungshick Kim;Jaehoon Jeong;Susan Hares;Linda Dunbar;Adrian Farrel;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 171 - 178
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interfacial Crystal Structures and Non-Local Spin Signals of Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/n-GaAs Junctions
Abstract:
We have investigated interfacial crystal structures and non-local spin signals of Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 (CFAS)/n-GaAs junctions. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observations indicated that with the exception of Ga diffusion into CFAS of the sample deposited at 400 °C, the interfacial structure of the junctions and defect density at the interface were not very different for different CFAS fabrication temperatures of the substrate (. The obtained reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns showed that all samples fabricated at varying from room temperature to 400 °C exhibited the L21 ordered structure in the vicinity of CFAS/n-GaAs junctions. It is found that the junctions with larger rectifying characteristic as indicated by the conduction ratio show larger spin signal . This may strongly affect the spin injection/detection efficiency.
Autors: Kohei Kataoka;Tatsuya Saito;Nobuki Tezuka;Masashi Matsuura;Satoshi Sugimoto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interference Cancelation at Receivers in Cache-Enabled Wireless Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose to exploit the limited cache packets as side information to cancel incoming interference at the receiver side. We consider a stochastic network where the random locations of base stations and users are modeled using Poisson point processes. Caching schemes to reap both the local caching gain and the interference cancelation gain for the users are developed based on two factors: the densities of different user subsets and the packets cached in the corresponding subsets. The packet loss rate (PLR) is analyzed, which depends on both the cached packets and the channel state information available at the receiver. Theoretical results reveal the tradeoff between caching resource and wireless resource. The performance for different caching schemes is analyzed, and the lowest achievable PLR for the distributed caching is investigated.
Autors: Chenchen Yang;Bin Xia;Weiliang Xie;Kaibin Huang;Yao Yao;Yong Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 842 - 846
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interference Management and User Association for Nested Array-Based Massive MIMO HetNets
Abstract:
The nested array, implemented by nonuniform antenna placement, is an effective approach to achieve degrees of freedom (DOF) with an antenna array of antennas. Such DOF refers to the number of directions of incoming signals that can be resolved. With the increased number of DOF, an important application of nested array is to nullify interference signals from multiple directions. In this paper, we apply nested array in a massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) heterogeneous network (HetNet) for interference management. With a nested array, a base station (BS) can nullify a certain number of interference signals based on their directions. Then, a key design issue is how to select the set of interference sources to be nullified at each BS. As the DOF of each BS is used to resolve both desired signals and interference, the number of interference signals that can be nullified depends on the number of users served by the BS. Thus, user association is another factor that impacts the system performance and should be jointly considered with interference nulling. We formulate the joint interference nulling scheduling and user association problem as an integer programming problem, aiming to maximize the sum rate of all users subject to BS DOF constraints. We first investigate the case of interference nulling with a given user association, and propose a scheme to solve a relaxed problem as well as derive a performance upper bound. Then, we propose a distributed joint interference nulling and user association scheme based on a poly matching between users and BSs. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes effectively improve the sum rate and achieves a near optimal performance.
Autors: Mingjie Feng;Shiwen Mao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 454 - 466
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interference Mitigation for Automotive Radar Using Orthogonal Noise Waveforms
Abstract:
To improve traffic safety, millimeter wave radars have been widely used for sensing traffic environment. As radars also operate on a narrow small road and in the same frequency band, mutual interference between different automotive radars that arises cannot be easily reduced by frequency or polarization diversity. This letter presents novel orthogonal noise waveforms to reduce such neighboring interferences. First, the spectral density distribution function of the proposed waveforms is defined by using an optimized Kaiser function. Subsequently, the phases of the noise waveforms are formulated as a problem of phase retrieval and are explored. Thanks to nonuniqueness solutions, the proposed method generates the orthogonal signals with a good random phase diversity. The proposed method was tested on a representative scenario for interference reduction. The experimental results show that the proposed method can produce visually convincing radar images, and the signal-to-interference and noise ratio is better than the existing methods.
Autors: Zhihuo Xu;Quan Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 137 - 141
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Interference Model Similarity Index and Its Applications to Millimeter-Wave Networks
Abstract:
In wireless communication networks, interference models are routinely used for tasks, such as performance analysis, optimization, and protocol design. These tasks are heavily affected by the accuracy and tractability of the interference models. Yet, quantifying the accuracy of these models remains a major challenge. In this paper, we propose a new index for assessing the accuracy of any interference model under any network scenario. Specifically, it is based on a new index that quantifies the ability of any interference model in correctly predicting harmful interference events, that is, link outages. We consider specific wireless scenario of both conventional sub-6 GHz and millimeter-wave networks and demonstrate how our index yields insights into the possibility of simplifying the set of dominant interferers, replacing a Nakagami or Rayleigh random fading by an equivalent deterministic channel, and ignoring antenna sidelobes. Our analysis reveals that in highly directional antenna settings with obstructions, even simple interference models (such as the classical protocol model) are accurate, while with omnidirectional antennas, more sophisticated and complex interference models (such as the classical physical model) are necessary. Our new approach makes it possible to adopt the simplest interference model of adequate accuracy for every wireless network.
Autors: Hossein Shokri-Ghadikolaei;Carlo Fischione;Eytan Modiano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 71 - 85
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Intrinsic Entropies of Log-Concave Distributions
Abstract:
The entropy of a random variable is well-known to equal the exponential growth rate of the volumes of its typical sets. In this paper, we show that for any log-concave random variable , the sequence of the intrinsic volumes of the typical sets of in dimensions grows exponentially with a well-defined rate. We denote this rate by , and call it the intrinsic entropy of . We show that is a continuous function of over the range [0, 1], thereby providing a smooth interpolation between the values 0 and at the endpoints 0 and 1, respectively.
Autors: Varun Jog;Venkat Anantharam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 93 - 108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Intrinsic Resolution of Compton Electrons in CeBr3 Scintillator Using Compact CCT
Abstract:
CeBr3 is emerging as one of the best scintillators having properties almost similar to cerium-doped lanthanum halide scintillators. We have measured, for the first time, the intrinsic energy resolution of Compton electrons in a cylindrical detector using the sources, namely,137Cs, 22Na, and 60Co employing Compton coincidence technique. We have used the PIXIE-4 data acquisition system that makes the measurement setup quite compact. The measurements of intrinsic energy resolution of Compton electrons were made in the energy range of 0.1–1 MeV. The measurements of intrinsic energy resolution of gamma rays were also made, for the comparison. The preliminary results have clearly suggested that -ray component is a major contributor to the intrinsic resolution of CeBr3.
Autors: V. Ranga;S. Rawat;Snigdha Sharma;Mukesh Prasad;S. Panwar; Kalyani;M. Dhibar;Anil Kumar Gourishetty;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 616 - 620
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Intrinsically Safe Grounding Systems and Global Grounding Systems
Abstract:
This paper introduces a characterization of grounding systems (GSs) and defines their condition of “conventionally safe” and “intrinsically safe.” A single GS and a set of GSs are intrinsically safe if they guarantee touch/step voltages permanently permissible for an assigned ground fault value. A new definition of global grounding systems (GGSs) is proposed, revising that offered by the Standards IEC 61936-1/EN 50522. A safety criterion, useful for urban and industrial areas with reduced accessibility, allows identifying the safety zone of influence, and the intrinsically safe condition of a single GS and of a GGS, constituted by a set of interconnected single GSs.
Autors: Giuseppe Parise;Luigi Parise;Luigi Martirano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 25 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Introducing Information Measures via Inference [Lecture Notes]
Abstract:
Information measures, such as the entropy and the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, are typically introduced using an abstract viewpoint based on a notion of "surprise." Accordingly, the entropy of a given random variable (rv) is larger if its realization, when revealed, is on average more "surprising" (see, e.g., [1]-[3]). The goal of this lecture note is to describe a principled and intuitive introduction to information measures that builds on inference, i.e., estimation and hypothesis testing. Specifically, entropy and conditional entropy measures are defined using variational characterizations that can be interpreted in terms of the minimum Bayes risk in an estimation problem. Divergence metrics are similarly described using variational expressions derived via mismatched estimation or binary hypothesis testing principles. The classical Shannon entropy and the KL divergence are recovered as special cases of more general families of information measures.
Autors: Osvaldo Simeone;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 167 - 171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Introduction to the January Special Issue on the 2017 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference
Abstract:
The IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC) is the premier global forum for presenting advances in solid-state circuits and system-on-a-chip. Every year since its first issue, the IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits has highlighted some well-received papers from the most recent ISSCC in special issues. This Special Issue covers the ISSCC Conference held in San Francisco, CA, USA, on February11–15, 2017.
Autors: Keith A. Bowman;Muhammad M. Khellah;Takashi Kono;Joseph Shor;Pui-In Mak;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 3 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Inversion-Driven Attenuation Compensation Using Synchrosqueezing Transform
Abstract:
Attenuation is a fundamental mechanism as seismic wave propagates through the earth. The loss of high-frequency energy and concomitant phase distortion can be compensated by inverse filtering to enhance the resolution of seismic data. Since the attenuation process depends on time and frequency, it is routinely performed in the time–frequency domain. The synchrosqueezing transform (SST), which provides highly localized time–frequency representations for the nonstationary signals due to reduced spectral smearing, is applied to implement the inverse filtering scheme. However, the amplitude compensation process is unstable because energy amplification is involved. To stabilize it, the amplitude compensation is regarded as an inverse problem with an L1-norm regularization term in the SST domain. The iteratively reweighted least-squares algorithm is used to solve the regularized inverse problem. Synthetic and real data examples illustrate the stability and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Guowei Zhang;Jinghuai Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 132 - 136
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Investigation and Modeling of Ice Clouds Affecting Earth-Space Communication Systems
Abstract:
A model for ice clouds oriented to provide a useful tool for the accurate assessment of the impact of ice particles on Earth-space communications systems is presented. The model, developed starting from the data collected by the CloudSat LEO satellite, allows to synthesize vertical profiles of the ice water content from the sole knowledge of the whole integrated ice water content, which, in turn, can be typically obtained from numerical weather prediction models or as a remote sensing product of Earth observation satellites. Moreover, the base of ice clouds is investigated and modeled, separately for mid- and high-altitude clouds, mostly consisting only of ice particles, and for low-level clouds, typically composed by both ice and liquid water. In addition, the impact of ice clouds on Earth-space optical links is preliminary investigated. Results, obtained for two sites, indicate that the attenuation due to ice is not negligible at optical wavelengths, as it can be in the order of tens of decibels on zenithal paths. The present model is intended to be integrated into a broader simulator of weather disturbances affecting electromagnetic wave propagation, conceived to support the design and performance assessment of Earth-space communication systems (EHF range or optical wavelengths).
Autors: Lorenzo Luini;Andrea Quadri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 360 - 367
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Investigation of Load Frequency Relief From Field Measurements and Its Impact on Contingency Reserve Evaluation
Abstract:
Any mismatch between load and generation (due to a generator or an interconnection trip) is intended to be balanced and stabilized by contingency reserve, which is also known as contingency Frequency Control Ancillary Services (FCAS) requirement. Load Frequency Relief (LFR), which represents the effect of frequency dependent loads on power system frequency excursion, is crucial for correctly evaluating contingency reserve requirement during generation dispatch to ensure an adequate frequency response. Over estimation of LFR can be accountable for less planned reserve during an economic dispatch that may cause undesirable frequency performance. On the other hand, under estimation of LFR can result in an excessive reserve and hence could unnecessarily increase system operational cost. Conventionally, LFR is considered as a fixed quantity during the evaluation of FCAS requirement. However, recent experience in the Australian power grid suggests that such an assumption may lead to an inaccurate outcome. To explore the above issue, this research investigates the LFR using field measurement data, which were captured at different locations of the southern states of Australia (e.g., Tasmania and Victoria). An approach is developed to identify the predominating factors affecting the LFR and subsequently a technique is proposed to appropriately determine contingency FCAS requirement.
Autors: Nahid-Al- Masood;Ruifeng Yan;Tapan Kumar Saha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 567 - 577
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Investigation of the Double Current Path Phenomenon in Gate-Grounded Tunnel FET
Abstract:
Gate-grounded tunnel field-effect transistors (ggTFETs) are considered as basic electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection devices in TFET-integrated circuits. It has been reported that two current paths exist when the ggTFET is turned on under the ESD events. In this letter, the double current path phenomenon in ggTFETs is further investigated using TCAD simulation. It is found that the upper path is a hole current path, while the lower path mainly consists of electrons, and the grounded gate is a major factor that influences the double current path phenomenon. The heat and lattice temperature distributions in ggTFETs are also discussed.
Autors: Zhaonian Yang;Yue Zhang;Yuan Yang;Ningmei Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 103 - 106
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Investigation on Iodine Concentration of Electrolyte for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell With Platinum Counter Electrode Modified by Graphene Oxide and Magnetic Beads
Abstract:
In this study, we used graphene oxide (GO) and magnetic beads (MBs) to modify the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The titanium dioxide (TiO2) colloid was mixed with GO and MBs which was deposited on the top of platinum-counter electrode. In addition, we measured the photovoltaic performances of dssc with different iodide concentrations of electrolyte. Furthermore, we investigated the photovoltaic performances of DSSC under different light intensities. The DSSC achieves a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 6.78% under the light intensity of 30 mw/cm2 for the electrolyte of 0.0125 m iodide.
Autors: Jung-Chuan Chou;Wan-Yu Hsu;Yi-Hung Liao;Chih-Hsien Lai;Pei-Hong You;Chien-Hung Kuo;Yu-Chi Huang;Chang-Chia Lu;Yu-Hsun Nien;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 133 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Investigations of Asymmetric Spacer Tunnel Layer Diodes for High-Frequency Applications
Abstract:
A complete description of physical models for fabricated asymmetric spacer tunnel layer (ASPAT) diodes is reported in this paper. A novel In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs design is presented and compared to the conventional GaAs/AlAs material system. For both material schemes, physical models were developed based on experimental measurements. Simulated dc characteristics of the devices are given for both planar- and back-contacted structures to highlight the impact of spreading resistance on device behavior. Furthermore, full S-parameter derivations from numerical simulation for tunnel diodes are demonstrated for the first time on the basis of quantum-mechanical ac modeling of the capacitance–voltage and conductance–voltage performances of these ASPAT diodes. A negligibly small difference between measured and simulated zero-biased intrinsic capacitances is observed (i.e., ≤ 0.2 fF). These are beneficial for accurate predictive models for device characteristics. In addition, key parameters which can be extracted from simulation results are obtained to aid in the development of millimeter-wave/terahertz applications of these types of heterostructure tunnel devices.
Autors: K. N. Zainul Ariffin;Y. Wang;M. R. R. Abdullah;S. G. Muttlak;O. S. Abdulwahid;J. Sexton;Ka Wa Ian;M. J. Kelly;M. Missous;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 64 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ionizing Radiation Effects on the Noise of 65 nm CMOS Transistors for Pixel Sensor Readout at Extreme Total Dose Levels
Abstract:
This paper is focused on the study of the noise performance of 65 nm CMOS transistors at extremely high total ionizing dose (TID) levels of the order of several hundreds of Mrad(SiO2). Noise measurements are reported and discussed, analyzing radiation effects on noise and channel thermal noise. In nMOSFETs, up to 10 Mrad(SiO2), the experimental behavior is consistent with a damage mechanism mainly associated with lateral isolation oxides, and can be modeled by parasitic transistors turning on after irradiation and contributing to the total noise of the device. At very high dose, these parasitic transistors tend to be turned off by negative charge accumulating in interface states and compensating radiation-induced positive charge building up inside thick isolation oxides. Effects associated with ionization and hydrogen transport in spacer oxides may become dominant at 600 Mrad(SiO2) and may explain the observed noise behavior at extremely high TID. The results of this analysis provide an understanding of noise degradation effects in analog front-end circuits integrated in readout chips for pixel detectors operating in very harsh radiation environments such as the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider.
Autors: Valerio Re;Luigi Gaioni;Massimo Manghisoni;Lodovico Ratti;Elisa Riceputi;Gianluca Traversi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 550 - 557
Publisher: IEEE
 

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