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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2017 sorted by title, page: 9

» Optimization and New Structure of Superjunction With Isolator Layer
Abstract:
An optimization theory is developed for the balanced symmetric superjunction with the interface isolator layer (I-SJ) in this paper. The theory includes two parts: the electric field calculation by the Taylor series method; the design formulas by the minimum specific on-resistance optimization. Based on the theory, a new I-SJ structure with a single cell is proposed, which shows the minimum among the superjunction (SJ) devices with the shallow depths. of the new device is reduced by 53.5% compared with that of the conventional SJ lateral double diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (LDMOS) and 67.6% with the conventional LDMOS under the same breakdown voltage of 658 V.
Autors: Wentong Zhang;Bo Zhang;Ming Qiao;Zehong Li;Xiaorong Luo;Zhaoji Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 217 - 223
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimization of Near-Field Image Capture With Millimeter-Wave Bow-Tie Probes
Abstract:
A 60 GHz high-spatial resolution millimeter near-field scanning microwave microscope system is developed. Like in scanning near-field optical microscopy, it involves a modulation of the probe-sample distance. An analytical model of the near-field detection versus the minimum probe-sample distance is derived as a function of the harmonic rank used for lock-in detection. The model is validated owing to various probe sizes and materials. Both the model and experiments exhibit the filtering out of low spatial frequencies, the best efficiency being obtained at highest harmonics. It yields a resolution of (i.e., ) with an gap bow-tie probe and an optimized detection setup operating on the third harmonic.
Autors: Laurent Chusseau;Pierre Payet;Jérémy Raoult;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 61 - 68
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimized Train-Set Rostering Plan for Taiwan High-Speed Rail
Abstract:
Railway rolling stock is one of the most expensive assets of railway operators. Efficient utilization of rolling stock is one of the most important objectives pursued in practice. This research focuses on the improvement in rolling stock rostering efficiency for high-speed rail system. According to the circulation schedule and long-term maintenance plan, the rostering planner decides the assignment between rolling stock and duties subject to a set of practical constraints. Owing to its complexity, this task remains a manual process at the Taiwan High Speed Rail Corporation. Experienced railway practitioners can generally create a good and feasible plan, but they cannot guarantee optimality of the solution considering only short-term process. In this research, we developed an exact optimization model and a heuristic method to automate this process and improve the efficiency of rolling stock utilization. Results from the case studies demonstrate that the efficiency of the rolling stock usage can be increased by , and that the process time can be significantly reduced from hours to seconds.
Autors: Yung-Cheng (Rex) Lai;Shao-Wei Wang;Kwei-Long Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 286 - 298
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimizing Cache Placement for Heterogeneous Small Cell Networks
Abstract:
In this letter, we study the optimization for cache content placement to minimize the backhaul load subject to cache capacity constraints for caching enabled small cell networks with heterogeneous file and cache sizes. Multicast content delivery is adopted to reduce the backhaul rate exploiting the independence among maximum distance separable coded packets.
Autors: Jialing Liao;Kai-Kit Wong;Muhammad R. A. Khandaker;Zhongbin Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 120 - 123
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimizing End-to-End Big Data Transfers over Terabits Network Infrastructure
Abstract:
While future terabit networks hold the promise of significantly improving big-data motion among geographically distributed data centers, significant challenges must be overcome even on today’s 100 gigabit networks to realize end-to-end performance. Multiple bottlenecks exist along the end-to-end path from source to sink, for instance, the data storage infrastructure at both the source and sink and its interplay with the wide-area network are increasingly the bottleneck to achieving high performance. In this paper, we identify the issues that lead to congestion on the path of an end-to-end data transfer in the terabit network environment, and we present a new bulk data movement framework for terabit networks, called LADS. LADS exploits the underlying storage layout at each endpoint to maximize throughput without negatively impacting the performance of shared storage resources for other users. LADS also uses the Common Communication Interface (CCI) in lieu of the sockets interface to benefit from hardware-level zero-copy, and operating system bypass capabilities when available. It can further improve data transfer performance under congestion on the end systems using buffering at the source using flash storage. With our evaluations, we show that LADS can avoid congested storage elements within the shared storage resource, improving input/output bandwidth, and data transfer rates across the high speed networks. We also investigate the performance degradation problems of LADS due to I/O contention on the parallel file system (PFS), when multiple LADS tools share the PFS. We design and evaluate a meta-scheduler to coordinate multiple I/O streams while sharing the PFS, to minimize the I/O contention on the PFS. With our evaluations, we observe that LADS with meta-scheduling can further improve the performance by up t- 14 percent relative to LADS without meta-scheduling.
Autors: Youngjae Kim;Scott Atchley;Geoffroy R. Vallée;Sangkeun Lee;Galen M. Shipman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 188 - 201
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Output Feedback ILC for a Class of Nonminimum Phase Nonlinear Systems With Input Saturation: An Additive-State-Decomposition-Based Method
Abstract:
In this technical note, an additive-state-decomposition-based iterative learning control (ILC) method is proposed. Based on this method, the output feedback ILC problem is solved for a class of nonminimum phase (NMP) nonlinear systems with input saturation. This method is to “additively” decompose the output feedback ILC problem into two more tractable subproblems, namely an output feedback ILC problem for a linear time invariant (LTI) system and a state-feedback stabilization problem for a nonlinear system with input saturation. Then, a controller can be designed for each subproblem separately using existing methods, and the two designed controllers are combined together to achieve the original control goal. An illustrative example demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Zi-Bo Wei;Quan Quan;Kai-Yuan Cai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 62, issue:1, pages: 502 - 508
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Output-Based and Decentralized Dynamic Event-Triggered Control With Guaranteed $mathcal{L}_{p}$- Gain Performance and Zeno-Freeness
Abstract:
Networked control systems are often subject to limited communication resources. By only communicating output measurements when needed, event-triggered control is an adequate method to reduce the usage of communication resources while retaining desired closed-loop performance. In this work, a novel event-triggered control (ETC) strategy for a class of nonlinear feedback systems is proposed that can simultaneously guarantee a finite - gain and a strictly positive lower bound on the inter-event times. The new ETC scheme can be synthesized in an output-based and/or decentralized form, takes the specific medium access protocols into account, and is robust to (variable) transmission delays by design. Interestingly, in contrast with the majority of existing event-generators that only use static conditions, the newly proposed event-triggering conditions are based on dynamic elements, which has several advantages including larger average inter-event times. The developed theory leads to families of event-triggered controllers that correspond to different tradeoffs between (minimum and average) inter-event times, maximum allowable delays and - gains. A linear and a nonlinear numerical example will illustrate all the benefits of this new dynamic ETC scheme.
Autors: V. S. Dolk;D. P. Borgers;W. P. M. H. Heemels;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 62, issue:1, pages: 34 - 49
Publisher: IEEE
 
» PACES: A Partition-Centering-Based Symmetry Placement for Binary-Weighted Unit Capacitor Arrays
Abstract:
Capacitor matching influences linearity performance, which is a critical measure of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Various placement techniques have been proposed to eliminate both systematic and random mismatches of capacitor pairs. However, a placement technique that eliminates capacitor mismatches may not result in good linearity performance for successive-approximation-register ADCs because their linearity performance is related to the accuracy of their binary-weighted continued ratio. This paper addresses the critical problem of placement estimation based on ratio mismatch , overall correlation coefficient , and performance metrics. A low and a high value do not imply higher linearity performance. Therefore, we propose a partition-centering-based symmetry placement algorithm for the layout considering parasitic capacitance matching. The experimental results show that the proposed placement approach can achieve higher linearity performance and a shorter placement generation time compared with the conventional approach.
Autors: Chien-Chih Huang;Jwu-E Chen;Chin-Long Wey;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 134 - 145
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Packet Error Rate Analysis of Uncoded Schemes in Block-Fading Channels Using Extreme Value Theory
Abstract:
We present a generic approximation of the packet error rate (PER) function of uncoded schemes in the additive white Gaussian noise channel using extreme value theory (EVT). The PER function can assume both the exponential and the Gaussian -function bit error rate forms. The EVT approach leads us to a best closed-form approximation, in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency, of the average PER in block-fading channels. The numerical analysis shows that the approximation holds tight for any value of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and packet length whereas the earlier studies approximate the average PER only at asymptotic SNRs and packet lengths.
Autors: Aamir Mahmood;Riku Jäntti;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 208 - 211
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Pancreatic Tumor Growth Prediction With Elastic-Growth Decomposition, Image-Derived Motion, and FDM-FEM Coupling
Abstract:
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are abnormal growths of hormone-producing cells in the pancreas. Unlike the brain which is protected by the skull, the pancreas can be significantly deformed by its surrounding organs. Consequently, the tumor shape differences observable from images at different time points arise from both tumor growth and pancreatic motion, and tumor growth model personalization may be compromised if such motion is ignored. Therefore, we incorporate pancreatic motion information derived from deformable image registration in model personalization. For more accurate mechanical interactions between tumor growth and pancreatic motion, elastic-growth decomposition is used with a hyperelastic constitutive law to model the mass effect, which allows growth modeling while conserving the mechanical properties. Furthermore, a way of coupling the finite difference method and the finite element method is proposed to greatly reduce the computation time. With both 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomographic and contrast-enhanced computed tomographic images, functional, structural, and motion data are combined for a patient-specific model. Experiments on synthetic and clinical data show the importance of image-derived motion on estimating pathophysiologically plausible mechanical properties and the promising performance of our framework. From seven patient data sets, the recall, precision, Dice coefficient, relative volume difference, and average surface distance between the personalized tumor growth simulations and the measurements were 83.2 ±8.8%, 86.9 ±8.3%, 84.4 ±4.0%, 13.9 ±9.8%, and 0.6 ±0.1 mm, respectively.
Autors: Ken C. L. Wong;Ronald M. Summers;Electron Kebebew;Jianhua Yao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 111 - 123
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Paradigm Phase Shift: RF MEMS Phase Shifters: An Overview
Abstract:
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have been familiar in the field of microelectronics and device technology since 1965, when Harvey C. Nathanson invented the first MEMS device (known as the resonant gate transistor). Since that time, MEMS have represented a prominent field for academic research, with simplified implementations of several devices such as sensors, transducers, actuators, and accelerometers being fabricated. According to MEMS technology, all devices could be fabricated using standard integrated circuit (IC) techniques, with the device?s lateral dimensions normally ranging from a maximum of 500 nm to submicron ranges.
Autors: Amrita Chakraborty;Bhaskar Gupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 22 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Parallel High-Order Envelope-Following Method for Fast Transient Analysis of Highly Oscillatory Circuits
Abstract:
In this paper, a parallel high-order envelope-following (EF) method is presented. The proposed method exploits the high-order and -stable Obreshkov formula (ObF) to provide superior accuracy and speedup for the EF technique. Utilizing ObF provides accurate and faster analysis while keeping the same accuracy as the conventional low-order integration methods. In addition, a parallel method that is based on multiple-shooting (MS) techniques is used. Using MS allows partitioning and solving the sensitivity equations in parallel. It is also shown that with proper partitioning scheme, high CPU scalability can be achieved.
Autors: Mina A. Farhan;Michel S. Nakhla;Emad Gad;Ramachandra Achar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 261 - 270
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Parallel Interacting Multiple Model-Based Human Motion Prediction for Motion Planning of Companion Robots
Abstract:
We propose in this paper an autonomous motion planning framework for companion robots to accompany humans in a socially desirable manner, which takes safety and comfort requirements into account. The overall framework consists of two parts: first, a novel parallel interacting multiple model-unscented Kalman filter (PIMM-UKF) approach is developed to simultaneously estimate human motion states and model mismatch, and then systematically predict the position and velocity of the human for a finite horizon. Second, based on the predicted human states, a nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) technique is utilized for the robot motion planning. The simulation results have demonstrated the superior performance in prediction using the PIMM-UKF approach. The effectiveness of the MPC planner is also shown by successfully facilitating the socially desirable companion behavior.
Autors: Donghan Lee;Chang Liu;Yi-Wen Liao;J. Karl Hedrick;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 52 - 61
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Parameter Estimation of Hybrid Sinusoidal FM-Polynomial Phase Signal
Abstract:
This paper considers parameter estimation of a hybrid sinusoidal frequency modulated (FM) and polynomial phase signal (PPS) from a finite number of samples. We first show limitations of an existing method, the high-order ambiguity function (HAF), and then propose a new method by adopting the high-order phase function which was originally designed for the pure PPS. The proposed method estimates parameters of interest from peak locations in the time-frequency rate domain, which are less perturbed by the noise than peak values used by the HAF-based method. Numerical evaluation shows the proposed method can handle the hybrid FM-PPS signal with low sinusoidal frequency and improve estimation accuracy in terms of mean squared error for several orders of magnitude.
Autors: Pu Wang;Philip V. Orlik;Kota Sadamoto;Wataru Tsujita;Fulvio Gini;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 66 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Pareto Optimal Prediction Intervals of Electricity Price
Abstract:
This letter proposes a novel Pareto optimal prediction interval construction approach for electricity price combing extreme learning machine and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). The Pareto optimal prediction intervals are produced with respect to the formulated two objectives reliability and sharpness. The effectiveness of proposed approach has been verified through the numerical studies on Australia electricity market data.
Autors: Can Wan;Ming Niu;Yonghua Song;Zhao Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 817 - 819
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Passive Beam Switching and Dual-Beam Radiation Slot Antenna Loaded With ENZ Medium and Excited Through Ridge Gap Waveguide at Millimeter-Waves
Abstract:
A unique antenna design is presented to implement the dual-beam radiation simultaneously in both - and -planes for operation over 57–64 GHz. The slot antenna is excited through a ridge gap waveguide. The dual beam is realized by employing arrays of anisotropic epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) structures that are located vertically over the slot antenna. The proposed ENZ medium behaves analogously to a meta-lens, and consists of meander-line H-shaped unit cells printed on the host substrate with a permittivity of 2.2. Measured results confirm that the dual-beam radiation from the antenna has maxima at ±30° with respect to the broadside direction with a maximum gain of 10 dBi at 60 GHz.
Autors: Abdolmehdi Dadgarpour;Milad Sharifi Sorkherizi;Tayeb A. Denidni;Ahmed A. Kishk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 92 - 102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Passivity Enhancement of Grid-Tied Converters by Series LC-Filtered Active Damper
Abstract:
The series LC-filtered active damper can be used for stabilizing a grid converter tied to the nonideal grid. Its operation principle is to mimic a damping resistance at the resonance frequencies appearing in the grid. However, the selection of the damping resistance has not been fully analyzed in the literature. Its effect with parasitic capacitance present in the grid has also usually been ignored, even though it may bring new challenges to the active damper. To address these issues, passivity is applied to study the grid converter stability before the understanding gained is used for formulating a damping resistance selection method. The method formulated can further be improved by admittance shaping so that system stability can always be ensured even when considering grid parasitic capacitance and control imperfection. Experimental results obtained have verified the expectations, and, hence, the suitability of the presented methods for the series LC-filtered active damper.
Autors: Haofeng Bai;Xiongfei Wang;Poh Chiang Loh;Frede Blaabjerg;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 369 - 379
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Patient Flow Prediction via Discriminative Learning of Mutually-Correcting Processes
Abstract:
Over the past decade, the rate of care unit (CU) use in the United States has been increasing. With an aging population and ever-growing demand for medical care, effective management of patients’ transitions among different care facilities will prove indispensible for shortening the length of hospital stays, improving patient outcomes, allocating critical care resources, and reducing preventable re-admissions. In this paper, we focus on an important problem of predicting the so-called “patient flow” from longitudinal electronic health records (EHRs), which has not been explored via existing machine learning techniques. By treating a sequence of transition events as a point process, we develop a novel framework for modeling patient flow through various CUs and jointly predicting patients’ destination CUs and duration days. Instead of learning a generative point process model via maximum likelihood estimation, we propose a novel discriminative learning algorithm aiming at improving the prediction of transition events in the case of sparse data. By parameterizing the proposed model as a mutually-correcting process, we formulate the estimation problem via generalized linear models, which lends itself to efficient learning based on alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Furthermore, we achieve simultaneous feature selection and learning by adding a group-lasso regularizer to the ADMM algorithm. Additionally, for suppressing the negative influence of data imbalance on the learning of model, we synthesize auxiliary training data for the classes with extremely few samples, and improve the robustness of our learning method accordingly. Testing on real-world data, we show that our method obtains superior performance in terms of accuracy of predicting the destination CU transition and duration of each CU occupancy.
Autors: Hongteng Xu;Weichang Wu;Shamim Nemati;Hongyuan Zha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 157 - 171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» PCB Escape Routing and Layer Minimization for Digital Microfluidic Biochips
Abstract:
This paper introduces a multiterminal escape routing algorithm for the design of printed circuit boards (PCBs) that control digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs). The new algorithm extends a negotiated congestion-based single-terminal escape router that has been shown to be superior to previous methods. It relaxes the pin assignment to allow pin groups to be broken up when doing so can reduce the number of PCB layers. Experimental results indicate that the improved method can reduce both the number of PCB layers and average wirelength compared to existing DMFB escape routers.
Autors: Jeffrey McDaniel;Zachary Zimmerman;Daniel Grissom;Philip Brisk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 69 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Based on Frequency Self-Synchronization and Body Kinematics
Abstract:
A novel pedestrian dead reckoning method conceived to be used with sensors freely positioned not too far from the waist level is presented. Attitude and heading reference systems already built in in nowadays inertial measurements units (IMUs) are exploited to cast the sampled data into a global reference coordinate system, where human gait analysis can be used to figure out the motion related to each single step. In particular, vertical accelerations are processed by means of a phase locked loop to detect the pace and the steps, and then the step length is computed exploiting an empirical piecewise linear relationship with the pace, while the geometrical features of the planar acceleration are used to estimate the stride heading, based on the waist kinematics. Experiments show the good results of the proposed algorithm when using both a low-cost IMU embedded in a smartphone and a more expensive stand-alone device, highlighting the method robustness with respect to the implementing hardware.
Autors: Michele Basso;Matteo Galanti;Giacomo Innocenti;Davide Miceli;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 534 - 545
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Pedestrian Tracking Using Online Boosted Random Ferns Learning in Far-Infrared Imagery for Safe Driving at Night
Abstract:
Pedestrian-vehicle accidents that occur at night are a major social problem worldwide. Advanced driver assistance systems that are equipped with cameras have been designed to automatically prevent such accidents. Among the various types of cameras used in such systems, far-infrared (FIR) cameras are favorable because they are invariant to illumination changes. Therefore, this paper focuses on a pedestrian nighttime tracking system with an FIR camera that is able to discern thermal energy and is mounted on the forward roof part of a vehicle. Since the temperature difference between the pedestrian and background depends on the season and the weather, we therefore propose two models to detect pedestrians according to the season and the weather, which are determined using Weber–Fechner's law. For tracking pedestrians, we perform real-time online learning to track pedestrians using boosted random ferns and update the trackers at each frame. In particular, we link detection responses to trajectories based on similarities in position, size, and appearance. There is no standard data set for evaluating the tracking performance using an FIR camera; thus, we created the Keimyung University tracking data set (KMUTD) by combining the KMU sudden pedestrian crossing (SPC) data set [21] for summer nights with additional tracking data for winter nights. The KMUTD contains video sequences involving a moving camera, moving pedestrians, sudden shape deformations, unexpected motion changes, and partial or full occlusions between pedestrians at night. The proposed algorithm is successfully applied to various pedestrian video sequences of the KMUTD; specifically, the proposed algorithm yields more accurate tracking performance than other existing methods.
Autors: Joon-Young Kwak;Byoung Chul Ko;Jae Yeal Nam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 69 - 81
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Perfect Snake-in-the-Box Codes for Rank Modulation
Abstract:
For odd , the alternating group on elements is generated by the permutations that jump an element from an odd position to position 1. We prove Hamiltonicity of the associated directed Cayley graph for all odd (a result of Rankin implies that the graph is not Hamiltonian for ). This solves a problem arising in rank modulation schemes for flash memory. Our result disproves a conjecture of Horovitz and Etzion, and proves another conjecture of Yehezkeally and Schwartz.
Autors: Alexander E. Holroyd;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 104 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Analysis of LDPC-Based RFID Group Coding
Abstract:
In this paper, we analyze some recently proposed radio-frequency identification group codes based on low-density parity-check matrices that check the integrity of collections of tagged objects. These codes write additional data to the memory of tags to compute the number of missing tags. By studying the underlying requirements for these computations, we obtain bounds and show that there are simpler group codes that perform better, requiring less tag memory.
Autors: Mike Burmester;Jorge Munilla;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 398 - 402
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Comparison of Industrial Wireless Networks for Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications
Abstract:
Recently, the United Nations voted to grant a frequency band for wireless avionics intra-communications (WAICs) to replace the heavy and expensive cables used in aircraft with wireless systems. However, WAICs require extremely low failure probability for the flight certification of the safety-critical avionics applications. Existing industrial wireless networks are possible candidate technologies, since they are designed to meet the high reliability requirement of industrial automation within a harsh environment surrounded by metals. This letter provides a theoretical framework to compare the performance of representative industrial wireless networks against the system requirements of the flight certification. A mathematical model is proposed to evaluate the considered protocols in terms of the deadline missing probability per flight hour. Furthermore, the model is used to derive the maximum allowable packet loss probability while guaranteeing the flight certification.
Autors: Pangun Park;Woohyuk Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 116 - 119
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Improvements and Congestion Reduction for Routing-Based Synthesis for Digital Microfluidic Biochips
Abstract:
Routing-based synthesis for digital microfluidic biochips yields faster assay execution times compared to module-based synthesis. We show that routing-based synthesis can lead to deadlocks and livelocks in specific cases, and that dynamically detecting them and adjusting the probabilities associated with different droplet movements can alleviate the situation. We also introduce methods to improve the efficiency of wash droplet routing during routing-based synthesis, and to support nonreconfigurable modules, such as integrated heaters and detectors. We obtain increases in success rates when dealing with resource-constrained chips and reductions in average assay execution time.
Autors: Skyler Windh;Calvin Phung;Daniel T. Grissom;Paul Pop;Philip Brisk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 41 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance of Nanocrystal ZnO Thin-Film Schottky Contacts on Cu by Atomic Layer Deposition
Abstract:
To address a “number of emerging applications” it is advantageous to synthesize semiconductor material on top of metal contacts. This is among the first reports of ZnO grown on top of copper (Cu) to form a Schottky contact (SC). Electrical and analytical studies were performed on SCs with ultrathin ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in this work. Similar thickness films of 30 nm nanocrystal ZnO were deposited by plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) and thermal ALD (TALD). Devices with PEALD-ZnO thin films exhibited Schottky rectification with a barrier height of 0.55 eV and an ideality factor of 2.7 with an on/off rectification ratio about 75. A resultant avalanche breakdown strength of >2.4 MV/cm was achieved for PEALD-ZnO thin film. This is one of the highest reported values experimentally observed in ZnO. In contrast, devices with TALD-ZnO thin films demonstrated linear current–voltage characteristics. The PEALD-ZnO/Cu interface was characterized with glancing angel x-ray diffraction and an x-ray photoelectron spectrometer, demonstrating negligible oxidation on the Cu surface. This paper suggests that a metallic Cu bond to the ZnO thin film is critical for demonstrating a rectifying Schottky contact.
Autors: Mei Shen;Amir Afshar;Ying Yin Tsui;Kenneth C. Cadien;Douglas W. Barlage;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 135 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance of Topological Insulator Interconnects
Abstract:
The poor performance of copper interconnects at the nanometer scale calls for new material solutions for continued scaling of integrated circuits. We propose the use of 3-D time-reversal-invariant topological insulators (TIs), which host backscattering-protected surface states, for this purpose. Using semiclassical methods, we demonstrate that nanoscale TI interconnects have a resistance 1–3 orders of magnitude lower than copper interconnects and graphene nanoribbons at the nanometer scale. We use the nonequilibrium Green function formalism to measure the change in conductance of nanoscale TI and metal interconnects caused by the presence of impurity disorder. We show that metal interconnects suffer a resistance increase, relative to the clean limit, in excess of 500% due to disorder, while the TI’s surface states increase less than 35% in the same regime.
Autors: Timothy M. Philip;Mark R. Hirsbrunner;Moon Jip Park;Matthew J. Gilbert;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 138 - 141
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Verification of a 4-Axis Focus Variation Co-Ordinate Measuring System
Abstract:
The performance verification of a co-ordinate measuring system (CMS) is important for instrument acceptance, reverification, comparability, and measurement traceability to the definition of the meter. The state-of-the-art ISO 10360 standard series is the reference text about the procedure of verification for the CMS. Specifically, ISO 10360-8 considers optical distance sensor-based CMSs. This paper proposes procedures and artifacts for the performance verification of focus variation-based CMS for a simultaneous 4-axis measuring mode. The proposal is inspired by, but goes beyond, the ISO 10360 standard, proposing an original solution for simultaneous linear and rotational axes verification.
Autors: Giovanni Moroni;Wahyudin P. Syam;Stefano Petrò;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 113 - 121
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Periodic Event-Triggered Synchronization of Linear Multi-Agent Systems With Communication Delays
Abstract:
Multi-agent systems' cooperation to achieve global goals is usually limited by sensing, actuation, and communication issues. At the local level, continuous measurement and actuation is only approximated by the use of digital mechanisms that measure and process information in order to compute and update new control input values at discrete time instants. Interaction with other agents takes place, in general, through a digital communication channel with limited bandwidth where transmission of continuous-time signals is not possible. This technical note considers the problem of consensus (or synchronization of state trajectories) of multi-agent systems that are described by general linear dynamics and are connected using undirected graphs. The proposed event-triggered consensus protocol not only avoids the need for continuous communication between agents but also provides a decentralized method for transmission of information in the presence of time-varying communication delays, where each agent decides its own broadcasting time instants based only on local information. This method gives more flexibility for scheduling information broadcasting compared to periodic and sampled-data implementations.
Autors: Eloy Garcia;Yongcan Cao;David W. Casbeer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 62, issue:1, pages: 366 - 371
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Personalized and Situation-Aware Multimodal Route Recommendations: The FAVOUR Algorithm
Abstract:
Route choice in multimodal networks shows a considerable variation between different individuals and the current situational context. Personalization and situation awareness of recommendation algorithms are already common in many areas, e.g., online retail. However, most online routing applications still provide shortest distance or shortest travel-time routes only, neglecting individual preferences, as well as the current situation. Both aspects are of particular importance in a multimodal setting as attractivity of some transportation modes, such as biking, which crucially depend on personal characteristics and exogenous factors, such as the weather. As an alternative, this paper introduces the FAVourite rOUte Recommendation (FAVOUR) approach to provide personalized, situation-aware route proposals based on three steps: first, at the initialization stage, the user provides limited information (home location, work place, mobility options, sociodemographics) used to select one out of a small number of initial profiles. Second, based on this information, a stated preference survey is designed in order to sharpen the profile. In this step, a mass preference prior (MPP) is used to encode the prior knowledge on preferences from the class identified in step one. Third, subsequently, the profile is continuously updated during usage of the routing services. The last two steps use Bayesian learning techniques in order to incorporate information from all contributing individuals. The FAVOUR approach is presented in detail and tested on a small number of survey participants. The experimental results on this real-world dataset show that FAVOUR generates better quality recommendations w.r.t. alternative learning algorithms from the literature. In particular, the definition of the MPP for initialization of step two is shown to provide better predictions than a number of alternatives from the literature.
Autors: Paolo Campigotto;Christian Rudloff;Maximilian Leodolter;Dietmar Bauer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 92 - 102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Phase Corrected ${H}$ -Plane Horn Antenna in Gap SIW Technology
Abstract:
This communication introduces a modified substrate integrated waveguide (SIW), the gap SIW, and deduces an approximate closed-form expression for calculating its effective width, taking into account the fringing and coupling fields around the gap. As an immediate application, this new structure is used to correct the phase distribution of an H-plane SIW horn antenna. The achieved quasi-uniform distribution results in a greatly enhanced antenna gain without deteriorating the bandwidth. To further improve both radiation and impedance matching, printed tapered-ladder transitions are introduced in front of the horn aperture. Software optimization confirms the possibility of simultaneously achieving an excellent phase correction (and hence increased gain) and a good impedance matching in a probe-excited horn antenna model. Measurements on a homemade prototype validate the design strategy. The final compact Ka-band planar horn antenna achieves an enhanced gain of 10.3 dBi at 34 GHz, with an impedance bandwidth of 20%.
Autors: Lei Wang;Marc Esquius-Morote;Hongye Qi;Xiaoxing Yin;Juan R. Mosig;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 347 - 353
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Photosensitive Full-Swing Multi-Layer MoS2 Inverters With Light Shielding Layers
Abstract:
Multi-layered MoS2 inverters with light shielding layers were fabricated and demonstrated for application in highly sensitive photodetectors, exploiting the particular advantages of an atomically thin layer and a sizable electrical bandgap. The photoleakage behaviors of the inverters under changing wavelengths of light were experimentally demonstrated to occur in a controlled manner and were analytically validated by load-line analysis. When the inverters were operated with a depletion load in the light of blue light emitting diodes, the low noise margin and transition width were significantly enhanced, by approximately 20% and 220%, respectively, as compared with those of the inverters in the dark.
Autors: Jae Hyeon Ryu;Geun-Woo Baek;Seung Jae Yu;Seung Gi Seo;Sung Hun Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 67 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Physical Differences in Hot Carrier Degradation of Oxide Interfaces in Complementary (n-p-n+p-n-p) SiGe HBTs
Abstract:
This paper examines the fundamental reliability differences between n-p-n and p-n-p SiGe HBTs. The device profile, hot carrier transport, and oxide interface differences between the two device types are explored in detail as they relate to device reliability. After careful analysis under identical electrical stress conditions for n-p-n and p-n-p, the differences in activation energies for the damage of the oxide interfaces of the two devices is determined to be the primary cause for accelerated degradation seen in p-n-p SiGe HBTs. An analytical model has been adapted for simulating these aging differences between p-n-p and n-p-n devices. This paper has significant implications for predicting the degradation of complementary SiGe HBTs and even engineering future generations with well-matched n-p-n and p-n-p device-level reliability.
Autors: Uppili S. Raghunathan;Hanbin Ying;Brian R. Wier;Anup P. Omprakash;Partha S. Chakraborty;Tikurete G. Bantu;Hiroshi Yasuda;Philip Menz;John D. Cressler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 37 - 44
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Pilot Allocation and Power Control in D2D Underlay Massive MIMO Systems
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose pilot reuse among device-to-device (D2D) users (DUs) in a D2D underlay massive MIMO system to shorten pilot overhead. First, we derive a lower bound on the average signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio of DUs. Then, a revised graph coloring-based pilot allocation (RGCPA) algorithm is proposed to mitigate the pilot contamination. Finally, a power control problem to minimize D2D links’ data transmit power is formulated and an iterative scheme is adopted to solve the problem. The simulation results show that pilot overhead can be shortened greatly by pilot reuse, and the effect of pilot contamination can be almost cancelled using the proposed RGCPA algorithm. In addition, the power control scheme converges rapidly.
Autors: Hao Xu;Nuo Huang;Zhaohui Yang;Jianfeng Shi;Bingyang Wu;Ming Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 112 - 115
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ping-Pong Mesh: A New Resonant Clock Design for Surge Current and Area Overhead Reduction
Abstract:
In advanced technologies, on-chip-variation (OCV) has accounted for a large proportion of clock skew, which limits the performance of a circuit. To mitigate the OCV problem, a mesh structure has been widely used in high-performance designs. Unfortunately, clock mesh structure also causes large power consumption and large power-ground surge current. Therefore, recently, several approaches have been proposed to apply resonant clock to reduce power consumption. However, previous works often suffer from area overhead because of the need to insert large decoupling capacitors. In this paper, we propose a novel resonant clock mesh structure, called ping-pong mesh, to overcome these drawbacks. Our ping-pong mesh contains two submeshes, each of which plays the role of the decoupling capacitor of the other, and the clocks in two submeshes operate in completely opposite phases. Our ping-pong mesh has the following two advantages: 1) a ping-pong mesh does not need additional decoupling capacitors as in previous works and 2) a ping-pong mesh can reduce the power-ground surge current about half of previous works. Benchmark data consistently show that our ping-pong mesh does work well in practice.
Autors: Chung-Han Chou;Yen-Ting Lai;Yi-Chun Chang;Chih-Yu Wang;Liang-Chia Cheng;Shih-Hsu Huang;Shih-Chieh Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 146 - 155
Publisher: IEEE
 
» PLTD: Patch-Based Low-Rank Tensor Decomposition for Hyperspectral Images
Abstract:
Recent years has witnessed growing interest in hyperspectral image (HSI) processing. In practice, however, HSIs always suffer from huge data size and mass of redundant information, which hinder their application in many cases. HSI compression is a straightforward way of relieving these problems. However, most of the conventional image encoding algorithms mainly focus on the spatial dimensions, and they need not consider the redundancy in the spectral dimension. In this paper, we propose a novel HSI compression and reconstruction algorithm via patch-based low-rank tensor decomposition (PLTD). Instead of processing the HSI separately by spectral channel or by pixel, we represent each local patch of the HSI as a third-order tensor. Then, the similar tensor patches are grouped by clustering to form a fourth-order tensor per cluster. Since the grouped tensor is assumed to be redundant, each cluster can be approximately decomposed to a coefficient tensor and three dictionary matrices, which leads to a low-rank tensor representation of both the spatial and spectral modes. The reconstructed HSI can then be simply obtained by the product of the coefficient tensor and dictionary matrices per cluster. In this way, the proposed PLTD algorithm simultaneously removes the redundancy in both the spatial and spectral domains in a unified framework. The extensive experimental results on various public HSI datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the traditional image compression approaches and other tensor-based methods.
Autors: Bo Du;Mengfei Zhang;Lefei Zhang;Ruimin Hu;Dacheng Tao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 67 - 79
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Polarization-Independent Modulator by Partly Tilted Graphene-Induced Electro-Absorption Effect
Abstract:
A polarization-independent graphene-based electro-absorption optical modulator concept is presented. The device is based on a slanted silicon stripe upon which two graphene flakes reside; on this surface, another silicon waveguide is capped, forming a rectangular silicon-graphene waveguide (SGW). Simulation results show that effective mode index of both TE and TM modes in the SGW undergo almost the same variations under different biases across a broad wavelength range. For a 30--long silicon-graphene waveguide, throughout the S, C, and L communication bands, extinction ratio (ER) higher than 20 dB can be obtained by proper choosing of switching points for “ON” and “OFF” states. The ER discrepancy between TE and TM modes is smaller than 2.3 dB, and the polarization dependency is lower than 0.1 dB for “ON” state, which fulfills the requirement of polarization-independent modulation. Calculations show that the 3-dB modulation bandwidth higher than 100 GHz of our modulator is possible.
Autors: Sheng-Wei Ye;Dong Liang;Rong-Guo Lu;Manoj Kumar Shah;Xin-Hai Zou;Fei Yuan;Fan Yang;Yong Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 23 - 26
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Polarization-Insensitive 3-dB Coupler for Polarization and Wavelength Division Multiplexed Systems
Abstract:
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a polarization-insensitive 3-dB coupler by using tapered three-guide structure based on the silicon-on insulator. Owing to the symmetrical and tapered structure, the dependency on wavelength and polarization are both alleviated. The coupling length of the 3-dB coupler is about . The measured wavelength-dependent power imbalance is less than 1.1 dB and the maximum polarization-dependent imbalance is about 1.0 dB in the wavelength region from 1520 to 1600 nm. This letter shows potential applications in polarization and wavelength division multiplexed systems.
Autors: Yuchan Luo;Yu Yu;Wenhao Wu;Xinliang Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 102 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Polynomial Time Attack on Wild McEliece Over Quadratic Extensions
Abstract:
We present a polynomial-time structural attack against the McEliece system based on Wild Goppa codes defined over a quadratic finite field extension. We show that such codes can be efficiently distinguished from random codes. The attack uses this property to compute a filtration, that is to say, a family of nested subcodes which will reveal their secret algebraic description.
Autors: Alain Couvreur;Ayoub Otmani;Jean-Pierre Tillich;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 404 - 427
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Post-Quantum Cryptography on FPGA Based on Isogenies on Elliptic Curves
Abstract:
To the best of our knowledge, we present the first hardware implementation of isogeny-based cryptography available in the literature. Particularly, we present the first implementation of the supersingular isogeny Diffie-Hellman (SIDH) key exchange, which features quantum-resistance. We optimize this design for speed by creating a high throughput multiplier unit, taking advantage of parallelization of arithmetic in , and minimizing pipeline stalls with optimal scheduling. Consequently, our results are also faster than software libraries running affine SIDH even on Intel Haswell processors. For our implementation at 85-bit quantum security and 128-bit classical security, we generate ephemeral public keys in 1.655 million cycles for Alice and 1.490 million cycles for Bob. We generate the shared secret in an additional 1.510 million cycles for Alice and 1.312 million cycles for Bob. On a Virtex-7, these results are approximately 1.5 times faster than known software implementations running the same 512-bit SIDH. Our results and observations show that the isogeny-based schemes can be implemented with high efficiency on reconfigurable hardware.
Autors: Brian Koziel;Reza Azarderakhsh;Mehran Mozaffari Kermani;David Jao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 86 - 99
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Postdisaster Electric Power Recovery Using Autonomous Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper presents an architecture for the development of mobile microgrids using autonomous vehicles for the recovery of electrical power in postdisaster scenarios. The goal is to facilitate the integration of the different disciplines involved and address interrelated challenges in interaction between the disparate components of the system and the physical world. The architecture described in this paper has emerged through a combination of hardware development and experimental studies. The proposed layout will create an autonomous mobile microgrid system consisting of a team of ground robots capable of navigating in a disaster-affected area, making electrical connections, and supplying and controlling the electrical power needed by the loads in the area. This system has the scalability characteristics of an ad hoc system and can reconfigure itself depending on the changes in demanded performance of the microgrid.
Autors: Barzin Moridian;Nina Mahmoudian;Wayne W. Weaver;Rush D. Robinett;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 62 - 72
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Postsilicon Voltage Guard-Band Reduction in a 22 nm Graphics Execution Core Using Adaptive Voltage Scaling and Dynamic Power Gating
Abstract:
In high volume manufacturing, conventional approach to deal with inverse-temperature dependence (ITD) and aging is to add a postsilicon flat voltage guard band to all dies based on testing a small random sample of dies. Although this scheme guarantees error-free operation, it significantly degrades energy efficiency, as it penalize all dies for the maximum delay degradation due to ITD and aging as seen by the worst case die, while also assuming maximum aging condition. In this paper, a graphics execution core implemented in 22 nm trigate process uses per-die tunable replica circuit (TRC) to monitor delay degradation due to ITD and actual aging conditions. TRC triggers adaptive voltage scaling to dynamically adjust as needed during run time to maintain correct operation at minimum additional voltage. Measured data show up to 33% (14%) energy savings at 0.4 V (0.8 V) compared with baseline scheme. The TRC is also utilized in a dynamic power gating (DPG) scheme to lower energy overhead due to fast droop guard band. DPG introduces a load line effect during normal operation, thus saving energy, while deactivating this load line upon droop detection by the TRC to maintain ISO performance as baseline. Silicon data show that DPG can improve energy efficiency by 14.5% (7%) at 0.8 V (0.6 V).
Autors: Minki Cho;Stephen T. Kim;Carlos Tokunaga;Charles Augustine;Jaydeep P. Kulkarni;Krishnan Ravichandran;James W. Tschanz;Muhammad M. Khellah;Vivek De;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 52, issue:1, pages: 50 - 63
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Power Control of an Energy Harvesting Sensor for Remote State Estimation
Abstract:
We investigate sensor transmission power control for remote state estimation. Instead of using a conventional sensor, a sensor equipped with an energy harvester which can obtain energy from the external environment is utilized. We formulate power control of the energy harvesting sensor into an infinite time-horizon Markov decision process (MDP). To deal with the computation complexity associated with this multi-dimensional MDP, a continuous-time approach and perturbation analysis are used and a closed-form approximate value function is derived. Based on the approximation, we obtain a closed-form optimal power control solution which has a threshold-based structure. A numerical example is provided to evaluate the estimation performance of the optimal solution compared with other power scheduling schemes.
Autors: Yuzhe Li;Fan Zhang;Daniel E. Quevedo;Vincent Lau;Subhrakanti Dey;Ling Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 62, issue:1, pages: 277 - 290
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Power System Simulation Using the Multistage Adomian Decomposition Method
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new approach for power system transient stability simulation, which is based on a semi-analytical solution (SAS) of power system differential-algebraic equations. In this paper, an SAS is derived using the Adomian decomposition method as a closed-form explicit function of symbolic variables such as time, the initial state, and other variables on system conditions and; hence, it can directly give a power system's dynamic trajectory being accurate for a certain time window. Unlike a traditional numerical integration based simulation approach, the proposed new approach offline derives an SAS and online evaluates the SAS by plugging in values of symbolic variables for a series of time windows making up the desired simulation period. This paper further studies the maximum length of the time window for an SAS being accurate and proposes a divergence indicator for simulation using adaptive time windows. Implementation of this new approach on parallel computers is also studied. The new approach is validated through contingency simulation of the IEEE 10-generator 39-bus system with detailed generator models.
Autors: Nan Duan;Kai Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 430 - 441
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Precision Motion Control of Piezoelectric Nanopositioning Stage With Chattering-Free Adaptive Sliding Mode Control
Abstract:
This paper presents the precision motion control of a piezoelectric nanopositioning stage using a new scheme of adaptive sliding mode control with uncertainty and disturbance estimation (ASMC-UDE). One uniqueness of the reported ASMC-UDE scheme is that an inherent chattering-free control action is guaranteed by eliminating the use of discontinuous control term. The reported ASMC-UDE strategy is easy to realize because the hysteresis effect is not needed to be modeled. Instead, the hysteresis is estimated and compensated by the robust control scheme. The control scheme is applicable to a system plant with either matched or unmatched disturbances. Unlike the existing UDE-based SMC control schemes, a reference model is not required by the proposed ASMC-UDE scheme. The stability of the chattering-free SMC strategy is proved in theory under the Lyapunov framework. The superiority of the presented control scheme over conventional approaches has been confirmed through comparative experimental studies. Moreover, the robustness of the controller in the presence of model disturbance and external disturbance has been verified.
Autors: Qingsong Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 238 - 248
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Predictive Control of Cascaded H-Bridge Converters Under Unbalanced Power Generation
Abstract:
This paper presents a predictive control strategy for grid-connected cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converters under unbalanced power generation among each converter phase. The proposed controller belongs to the finite-control-set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) family and is designed to extract unbalanced power from each CHB converter phase while providing balanced power to the grid. The key novelty of this strategy lies in the way the unbalanced power generation among the phases is explicitly considered into the optimal control problem. Power balance is achieved by enforcing the CHB converter to work with a suitable zero-sequence voltage component. The proposed predictive controller is directly formulated in the original -framework to account for the common-mode voltage. Simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed FCS-MPC strategy.
Autors: Ricardo P. Aguilera;Pablo Acuna;Yifan Yu;Georgios Konstantinou;Christopher D. Townsend;Bin Wu;Vassilios G. Agelidis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 4 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Predictor-Based Control of a Class of Time-Delay Systems and Its Application to Quadrotors
Abstract:
In this paper, a new robust control strategy based on a predictor and the uncertainty and disturbance estimator is developed for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with input/output delays. The closed-loop system is analyzed and sufficient stability conditions are derived based on Lyapunov analysis. The proposed strategy is applied to the particular case of quadrotor systems and validated through extensive simulations to evaluate performance and robustness. The controller is also implemented in a quadrotor prototype and validated in flight tests.
Autors: Ricardo Sanz;Pedro García;Qing-Chang Zhong;Pedro Albertos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 459 - 469
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Preparing Linearity and Efficiency for 5G: Digital Predistortion for Dual-Band Doherty Power Amplifiers with Mixed-Mode Carrier Aggregation
Abstract:
As new wireless communication standards seek to meet the myriad demands of today's end users, the traditional RF transmitter chain is faced with an evolving set of challenges. To maximize information throughput, signal bandwidths are continuously growing. In fourth-generation longterm evolution-advanced (also called LTE-A), for example, to meet the stated goals of 1-Gb/s downlink and 500-Mb/s uplink speeds, the carrier aggregation (CA) technique was introduced, expanding the maximum transmit bandwidth up to 100 MHz [1]. With mobile traffic expected to increase by a factor of 1,000 over the next decade, future fifth-generation (5G) systems will continue to place new demands on the transmit chain [2].
Autors: Noel Kelly;Wenhui Cao;Anding Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 76 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Prescriptive Modeling and Compensation of In-Plane Shape Deformation for 3-D Printed Freeform Products
Abstract:
Although 3-D printing or additive manufacturing (AM) holds great promise as a direct manufacturing technology, the geometric accuracy of AM built products remains a critical issue, especially for freeform products with complex geometric shapes. Efforts have long been attempted to improve the accuracy of AM built freeform products. But there is a lack of generic and prescriptive methodology transparent to specific designs and AM processes. This paper fills the gap by establishing the methodology to predict and compensate the in-plane ( plane) geometric deformation of AM built freeform products based on a limited number of simple trial shapes. Built upon our previous predictive model and optimal compensation study for the cylinder and polyhedron shapes, this paper makes a breakthrough by directly controlling arbitrary freeform shape deformation from computer-aided design. Experimental investigation using stereolithography process successfully validates the proposed prescriptive modeling and compensation methodology. This paper provides the prospect of proactively improving printing accuracy of arbitrary products built by a variety of AM processes.
Autors: He Luan;Qiang Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 73 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Prius: Hybrid Edge Cloud and Client Adaptation for HTTP Adaptive Streaming in Cellular Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we present Prius, a hybrid edge cloud and client adaptation framework for HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) by taking advantage of the new capabilities empowered by recent advances in edge cloud computing. In particular, emerging edge clouds are capable of accessing an application layer and radio access networks (RANs) information in real time. Coupled with powerful computation support, an edge cloud-assisted strategy is expected to significantly enrich mobile services. Meanwhile, although HAS has established itself as the dominant technology for video streaming, one key challenge for adapting HAS to mobile cellular networks is in overcoming the inaccurate bandwidth estimation and unfair bitrate adaptation under the highly dynamic cellular links. Edge cloud-assisted HAS presents a new opportunity to resolve these issues and achieve systematic enhancement of quality of experience (QoE) and QoE fairness in cellular networks. To explore this new opportunity, Prius overlays a layer of adaptation intelligence at the edge cloud to finalize the adaptation decisions while considering the initial bandwidth-irrelevant bitrate selection at the clients. Prius is able to exploit RAN channel status, client device characteristics, and application-layer information in order to jointly adapt the bitrate of multiple clients. Prius also adopts a QoE continuum model to track the cumulative viewing experience and an exponential smoothing estimation to accurately estimate a future channel under different moving patterns. Extensive trace-driven simulation results show that Prius with hybrid edge cloud and client adaptation is promising under both slow and fast-moving environments. Furthermore, the Prius adaptation algorithm achieves a near-optimal performance that outperforms the exiting strategies.
Autors: Zhisheng Yan;Jingteng Xue;Chang Wen Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 209 - 222
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Probabilistic Load Flow Based on Generalized Polynomial Chaos
Abstract:
An analytical method based on generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) is proposed for probabilistic load flow (PLF). The method preserves the nonlinearity of power flow equations whose rectangular formulations are adopted to facilitate the gPC expansion. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by case studies from a 9-bus system.
Autors: Hao Wu;Yongzhi Zhou;Shufeng Dong;Yonghua Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 820 - 821
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Probabilistic Security-Constrained Unit Commitment With Generation and Transmission Contingencies
Abstract:
System operators maintain sufficient reserve in power systems in order to respond to generation and transmission contingencies. Traditionally, the reserve requirements have been determined using deterministic criteria (e.g., ). These amounts of reserve allocate sufficient spare generation capacity and transmission margins to protect the system against any contingency of magnitude lower or equal to the chosen criterion. However, these criteria ignore the probability of individual contingencies as well as energy redistribution and transmission limitations in post-contingency states. In this paper, we propose to optimize the amount, location, and chronological procurement of the reserve in a given power system using probabilistic criteria. The proposed approach factors the probability of individual contingencies in a cost/benefit analysis, which balances the pre-contingency operating costs against the post-contingency cost of interruptions. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated using a modified IEEE Reliability Test System.
Autors: Ricardo Fernández-Blanco;Yury Dvorkin;Miguel A. Ortega-Vazquez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 228 - 239
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Probability of Outage Due to Self-Interference in Indoor Wireless Environments
Abstract:
In this letter, we derive a mathematically tractable expression for the outage probability in the presence of self-interference over indoor wireless environments modeled through the recently proposed joint fading and two-path shadowing channel model. The effect of self-interference is studied under two different conditions encountered in single-frequency network architectures: 1) long propagation delay and correlated shadow fading in a densely deployed single access point to single mobile user communication scenario and 2) interference between radiated and received signal power in full-duplex radios equipped with multiple antennas both for transmission and reception of data. The analysis is validated numerically both for single-channel and multiple-channel receivers.
Autors: Indrakshi Dey;P. Salvo Rossi;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 8 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Process Aspects and Social Dynamics of Contemporary Code Review: Insights from Open Source Development and Industrial Practice at Microsoft
Abstract:
Many open source and commercial developers practice contemporary code review, a lightweight, informal, tool-based code review process. To better understand this process and its benefits, we gathered information about code review practices via surveys of open source software developers and developers from Microsoft. The results of our analysis suggest that developers spend approximately 10-15 percent of their time in code reviews, with the amount of effort increasing with experience. Developers consider code review important, stating that in addition to finding defects, code reviews offer other benefits, including knowledge sharing, community building, and maintaining code quality. The quality of the code submitted for review helps reviewers form impressions about their teammates, which can influence future collaborations. We found a large amount of similarity between the Microsoft and OSS respondents. One interesting difference is that while OSS respondents view code review as an important method of impression formation, Microsoft respondents found knowledge dissemination to be more important. Finally, we found little difference between distributed and co-located Microsoft teams. Our findings identify the following key areas that warrant focused research: 1) exploring the non-technical benefits of code reviews, 2) helping developers in articulating review comments, and 3) assisting reviewers’ program comprehension during code reviews.
Autors: Amiangshu Bosu;Jeffrey C. Carver;Christian Bird;Jonathan Orbeck;Christopher Chockley;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 56 - 75
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Properties of the Frequency–Amplitude Curve
Abstract:
The frequency–amplitude (F-A) curve has been proposed to characterize the electromechanical oscillation frequency of a single-machine-infinite-bus (SMIB) system considering nonlinearity of the swing equation. For a multi-machine system, the F-A curve regarding one oscillation mode is a projection of the system trajectory between the stable equilibrium point and the stability boundary onto the F-A plane. This letter provides rigorous proofs of six general properties of the F-A curve.
Autors: Bin Wang;Xiaowen Su;Kai Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 826 - 827
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Protective Devices and Safety [Electrical Safety]
Abstract:
Reports on safety standards for protective devices.
Autors: Daniel Doan;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 5 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Pulsed Eddy Current Inspection of Wall Loss in Steam Generator Trefoil Broach Supports
Abstract:
Inspection for corrosion in steam generator (SG) tube support structures is a significant component of monitoring SG condition, since support degradation can lead to SG tube flaws, and thereby further SG deterioration. A pulsed eddy current probe was developed to augment SG inspection at carbon steel trefoil broach supports. The probe demonstrated capability to measure far side wall loss as small as 20% of the original 2.7-mm-thick broach support ligament from within the Alloy 800 SG tube. A power law fit of the data was found to describe signal variation at later times under conditions of varying wall thickness and lift-off. The associated power law exponent varied linearly with wall thickness and was observed to be largely independent of lift-off and angular orientation of the probe, identifying it as a potential parameter for ligament wall thickness monitoring. Voltage response integrated over time also provided a low-noise means of measuring the wall loss when lift-off variation and misalignment were not present.
Autors: Sarah G. Mokros;Peter Ross Underhill;Jordan E. Morelli;Thomas W. Krause;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 444 - 449
Publisher: IEEE
 
» PWM and PFM Hybrid Control Method for LLC Resonant Converters in High Switching Frequency Operation
Abstract:
High switching frequency is an effective method to improve power density for LLC resonant converters. However, conventional digital controllers, such as general-purpose digital signal processors and microprocessors, have limited frequency resolution, which induces high primary- and secondary-side current variation and leads to poor output voltage regulation. In this paper, a hybrid control method combining pulse frequency modulation (PFM) and pulse width modulation is proposed to overcome the limited frequency resolution issue. The proposed hybrid control method focuses on steady-state operation, and its operating principles are introduced and analyzed. In addition, the proper magnetizing inductance and dead time duration are derived to ensure that the power mosfets achieve zero voltage switching with the proposed control method. The improved voltage regulation performance is compared with the conventional PFM control and verified through simulation and experimental results using a 240 W prototype converter operating at a switching frequency of 1 MHz.
Autors: Hwa-Pyeong Park;Jee-Hoon Jung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 253 - 263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» QoE-Driven Delay Announcement for Cloud Mobile Media
Abstract:
As a useful tool for improving the user’s quality of experience (QoE), delay announcement has received substantial attention recently. However, how to make a simple and efficient delay announcement in the cloud mobile media environment is still an open and challenging problem. Unfortunately, traditional convex and stochastic optimization-based methods cannot address this issue due to the subjective user response with respect to the announced delay. To resolve this problem, this paper analytically studies the characteristics of delay announcement by analyzing the components of the user response and designs a QoE-driven delay announcement scheme by establishing an objective user response function. On the methodology end, the user response associated with the announced delay is approximated in the framework of fluid model, where the interaction between the system performance and delay announcement is well described by a series of mathematical functions. On the technology end, this paper develops a novel state-dependent announcement scheme that is more reliable than the other competing ones and can improve the user’s QoE dramatically. Extensive simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed delay announcement scheme.
Autors: Liang Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 84 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 
» QoS-Aware Resource Allocation for Video Transcoding in Clouds
Abstract:
As the biggest big data, video data streaming in the network contributes the largest portion of global traffic nowadays and in the future. Due to heterogeneous mobile devices, networks, and user preferences, the demands of transcoding source videos into different versions have increased significantly. However, video transcoding is a time-consuming task, and how to guarantee quality-of-service (QoS) for large video data is very challenging, particularly for those real-time applications that hold strict delay requirement such as live TV. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based online video transcoding (COVT) system aiming to offer economical and QoS guaranteed solution for online large-volume video transcoding. COVT utilizes the performance profiling technique to obtain the different performances of transcoding tasks in different infrastructures. Based on the profiles, we model the cloud-based transcoding system as a queue and derive the QoS values of the system based on the queuing theory. With the analytically derived relationship between QoS values and the number of CPU cores required for transcoding workloads, COVT is able to solve the optimization problem and obtain the minimum resource reservation for specific QoS constraints. A task scheduling algorithm is further developed to dynamically adjust the resource reservation and schedule the tasks so as to guarantee the QoS in runtime. We implement a prototype system of COVT and experimentally study the performance on real-world workloads. Experimental results show that the COVT effectively provisions a minimum number of resources for predefined QoS. To validate the effectiveness of our proposed method under large-scale video data, we further perform simulation evaluation, which again shows that the COVT is capable of achieving economical and QoS-aware video transcoding in cloud environment.
Autors: Lei Wei;Jianfei Cai;Chuan Heng Foh;Bingsheng He;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 49 - 61
Publisher: IEEE
 
» QoS-Driven Energy-Efficient Power Control With Random Arrivals and Arbitrary Input Distributions
Abstract:
This paper studies energy-efficiency (EE) and throughput optimization in the presence of randomly arriving data and quality of service (QoS) constraints. For this purpose, maximum average arrival rates supported by transmitting signals with arbitrary input distributions are initially characterized in closed form by employing the effective bandwidth of time-varying sources (e.g., discrete-time Markov and Markov fluid sources, and discrete-time and continuous-time Markov modulated Poisson sources) and effective capacity of the time-varying wireless channel. Subsequently, EE is formulated as the ratio of the maximum average arrival rate to the total power consumption, in which circuit power is also taken into account. Following these characterizations, the optimal power control policies maximizing the EE or maximizing the throughput under a minimum EE constraint are obtained. Through numerical results, the performance of the optimal power control policies is evaluated for different signal constellations and is also compared with that of constant power transmission. The impact of QoS constraints, source characteristics, circuit power, input distributions on the EE, and the throughput is analyzed.
Autors: Gozde Ozcan;Mustafa Ozmen;M. Cenk Gursoy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 376 - 388
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Quantification of Secrecy in Partially Observed Stochastic Discrete Event Systems
Abstract:
While cryptography is used to protect the content of information (e.g., a message) by making it undecipherable, behaviors (as opposed to information) may not be encrypted and may only be protected by partially or fully hiding through creation of ambiguity (by providing covers that generate indistinguishable observations from secrets). Having a cover together with partial observability does cause ambiguity about the system behaviors desired to be kept secret, yet some information about secrets may still be leaked due to statistical difference between the occurrence probabilities of the secrets and their covers. In this paper, we propose a Jensen–Shannon divergence (JSD)-based measure to quantify secrecy loss in systems modeled as partially observed stochastic discrete event systems, which quantifies the statistical difference between two distributions, one over the observations generated by secret and the other over those generated by cover. We further show that the proposed JSD measure for secrecy loss is equivalent to the mutual information between the distributions over possible observations and that over possible system status (secret versus cover). Since an adversary is likely to discriminate more if he/she observes for a longer period, our goal is to evaluate the worst case loss of secrecy as obtained in the limit over longer and longer observations. Computation for the proposed measure is also presented. Illustrative examples, including the one with side-channel attack, are provided to demonstrate the proposed computation approach.
Autors: Jun Chen;Mariam Ibrahim;Ratnesh Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 185 - 195
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Quantifying the Termination Mechanism Along the North Tabriz-North Mishu Fault Zone of Northwestern Iran via Small Baseline PS-InSAR and GPS Decomposition
Abstract:
Quantitative understanding of stress transfer between major fault systems can elucidate the kinematics of large-scale plate interactions. This study analyzed right-lateral strike-slip motion on the North Tabriz fault (NTF) in an area where this structure appears to transition into a thrust fault known as the North Mishu fault (NMF). These faults play an important but cryptic role in accommodating stress related to the Arabia-Eurasia plate collision. We analyzed regional velocity vectors from permanent and temporary GPS arrays to estimate changes in fault-parallel and fault-normal slip rates in the transition zone between the NTF and NMF. Independent of its compressional motion, the NMF exhibits a dextral strike-slip rate of ∼2.62 mm/yr. Along the NTF, the right-lateral slip rate decreases and the vertical slip rate on increases at rates of 0.08 and 0.38 mm/yr km, respectively, as the NTF approaches the NMF. This study also used small baseline (SBAS) PS-InSAR results to reveal a NE-SW-striking reverse fault and a developing syncline hidden beneath the Tabriz Basin. Additionally, we calculated the vertical displacement rates using horizontal vectors from the GPS data and mean line-of-sight rate estimates from the SBAS data. While the study area does not express large-scale extrusion, such as that observed in the Anatolian Plate, the transformation of strike-slip motion into thrusting and crustal shortening along the NMF-NTF fault zone accommodates most of the N–S compression affecting the northwestern Iranian Plateau. In this region, small-sized, right-lateral strike-slip faults, and other folded structures form horsetail features. These dispersed structures accommodate eastward extrusion of the northwestern Iranian Plateau.
Autors: Zhe Su;Er-Chie Wang;Jyr-Ching Hu;Morteza Talebian;Sadra Karimzadeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 130 - 144
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Quantitative SSR Analysis of Series-Compensated DFIG-Based Wind Farms Using Aggregated RLC Circuit Model
Abstract:
A new type of subsynchronous resonance (SSR), namely, subsynchronous control interaction (SSCI), was recently observed in doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) interfaced with series-compensated power networks. In this paper, a more accurate method based on aggregated RLC circuit model is proposed to intuitively explain and quantitatively evaluate this type of SSR. For a practical power system containing multiple DFIGs and fixed series compensation, an improved impedance model (IM) is derived, which incorporates DFIG's full-scale control system. Around the series-resonant frequency, IM can be further represented with an aggregated RLC circuit model. Its equivalent parameters are worked out and then used for the quantitative assessment of potential SSR risk. The proposed method is applied for SSR analysis of a practical wind farm system in North China that experienced actual SSR incidents. The consistence between the obtained results and field measured data verifies its effectiveness very well. Further, its advantage in accuracy over existing impedance-based approaches is validated by both eigenvalue analysis and time-domain simulations. The method is also used to quantitatively investigate the impact on SSR stability from the various factors, including wind speed, number of online DFIGs and their control parameters.
Autors: Huakun Liu;Xiaorong Xie;Chuanyu Zhang;Yu Li;Hui Liu;Yinghong Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 474 - 483
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Quantitative Surface Crack Evaluation Based on Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography
Abstract:
Eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT) is an emerging non-destructive testing technology and has an increasing span of application with capabilities of rapid contactless and large surface area detection. The close process loop of ECPT that contains pre-processing, post-processing, and objective quantitative assessment is rarely presented. This paper proposed a complete strategy aims to perform pre- and post- processing for surface crack detection based on ECPT platform. In addition, the quantitative evaluation is involved to objectively evaluate detectability. Specially, a new post-image segmentation algorithm is proposed which based on the idea of grouping histogram and iterative adaption approach that leads to better performance for quantitatively identifying and sizing the defect. Experimental tests on man-made metal and natural defects have been conducted to show the reliability of the proposed strategy. This paper can be further applied for other types of defects detection, quantitative evaluation, and aid in the development of machine vision industry for automated visual inspection.
Autors: Xiaoqing Li;Bin Gao;Wai Lok Woo;Gui Yun Tian;Xueshi Qiu;Liangyong Gu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 412 - 421
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Radar Signal Penetration and Horizons Detection on Europa Through Numerical Simulations
Abstract:
We propose a strategy to evaluate the performance of a radar sounder for the subsurface exploration of the Europa icy crust and, in particular, the possibility to detect liquid water at the base of the ice shell. The approach integrates the information coming from experimental measurements of the dielectric properties of icy materials, thermal models related to different crustal scenarios, and numerical simulations of radar signal propagation. The radar response has been evaluated in terms of cumulative attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and reflectivity. Our simulations indicate that a subsurface radar operating at 9 MHz can identify shallow-buried targets and to detect the ice/water interface in various thermal scenarios. Under our assumptions the ice/water interface can be detected almost down to a depth of 15 km under a conductive ice shell, whereas for a convective ice shell, the maximum depth is about 12 km (in the cold downwelling plume). We also discuss the possibility to detect shallow targets associated with interfaces between pure water ice and ice mixtures at various salt contents, using the data of laboratory dielectric measurements.
Autors: Federico Di Paolo;Sebastian E. Lauro;Davide Castelletti;Giuseppe Mitri;Francesca Bovolo;Barbara Cosciotti;Elisabetta Mattei;Roberto Orosei;Claudia Notarnicola;Lorenzo Bruzzone;Elena Pettinelli;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 118 - 129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ramp Requirement Design for Reliable and Efficient Integration of Renewable Energy
Abstract:
With increasing renewable penetration, several ISOs are instituting ramp capability products to manage the operational challenge of balancing power in real-time. For example, in MISO's plan, ramp capabilities would be secured 10 min ahead based on the Gaussian-sigma rule (2.5 standard deviations for 99% confidence level). These products are used to manage both net load variations (foreseeable changes) and uncertainties (unforeseeable changes) through economic dispatches every 5 min. Ramp capabilities secured at time t may not be available to meet the uncertain net load at after the dispatch at . As a result, the required confidence level may not be satisfied. Also, the Gaussian-sigma rule is for reliability only, and might not be cost efficient. The requirement design can thus be subtle. This paper is on the analysis and design of reliable and efficient ramp capability products. To truly satisfy the required confidence level, our idea is to keep enough of the ramp capabilities secured at t for by adding constraints on the dispatch at . Moreover, costs are minimized by selecting the proper number of standard deviations through simulation-based optimization. Numerical results show that net load variations and uncertainties are effectively managed with significant cost savings.
Autors: Congcong Wang;Peter Bao-Sen Luh;Nivad Navid;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 562 - 571
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Random Access in C-RAN for User Activity Detection With Limited-Capacity Fronthaul
Abstract:
Cloud-radio access network (C-RAN) is characterized by a hierarchical structure, in which the baseband-processing functionalities of remote radio heads (RRHs) are implemented by means of cloud computing at a central unit (CU). A key limitation of C-RANs is given by the capacity constraints of the fronthaul links connecting RRHs to the CU. In this letter, the impact of this architectural constraint is investigated for the fundamental functions of random access and active user equipment (UE) identification in the presence of a potentially massive number of UEs. In particular, the standard C-RAN approach based on quantize-and-forward and centralized detection is compared to a scheme based on an alternative CU-RRH functional split that enables local detection. Both techniques leverage Bayesian sparse detection. Numerical results illustrate the relative merits of the two schemes as a function of the system parameters.
Autors: Zoran Utkovski;Osvaldo Simeone;Tamara Dimitrova;Petar Popovski;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 17 - 21
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ray-Based Model for Spatial Coherence of Ocean-Surface-Generated Noise and Its Approximation in a Triplet Array
Abstract:
In this paper, a ray-based noise model is developed to calculate the two-point spatial coherence function for ocean-surface-generated noise in a hydrophone triplet, which consists of three hydrophones arranged as an equilateral triangle with side length . While existing ray-based models employ the semianalytic approach, this model is more generally formulated for the 3-D noise field with vertical and azimuthal directivity using a ray-tracing model. Moreover, we derive a Maclaurin series of the formulated spatial coherence function for the ratio of the hydrophone spacing and the acoustic wavelength . This series explicitly reveals the feature of spatial coherence for the noise field as a function of the orientation of the hydrophone pair and the ocean environmental coefficients. At small , the leading-order terms alone provide a good approximate solution for the spatial coherence function, which enables rapid computation of six coherence functions for the hydrophone triplet. Especially, for the ocean environment with weakly azimuth-dependent ocean bathymetry, the contribution from each term in the derived series is analyzed and a simpler formula for the spatial coherence function is suggested.
Autors: Keunhwa Lee;Woojae Seong;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 42, issue:1, pages: 199 - 207
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reactive Molecular Dynamics on Massively Parallel Heterogeneous Architectures
Abstract:
We present a parallel implementation of the ReaxFF force field on massively parallel heterogeneous architectures, called PuReMD-Hybrid. PuReMD, on which this work is based, along with its integration into LAMMPS, is currently used by a large number of research groups worldwide. Accelerating this important community codebase that implements a complex reactive force field poses a number of algorithmic, design, and optimization challenges, as we discuss in detail. In particular, different computational kernels are best suited to different computing substrates—CPUs or GPUs. Scheduling these computations requires complex resource management, as well as minimizing data movement across CPUs and GPUs. Integrating powerful nodes, each with multiple CPUs and GPUs, into clusters and utilizing the immense compute power of these clusters requires significant optimizations for minimizing communication and, potentially, redundant computations. From a programming model perspective, PuReMD-Hybrid relies on MPI across nodes, pthreads across cores, and CUDA on the GPUs to address these challenges. Using a variety of innovative algorithms and optimizations, we demonstrate that our code can achieve over 565-fold speedup compared to a single core implementation on a cluster of 36 state-of-the-art GPUs for complex systems. In terms of application performance, our code enables simulations of over 1.8M atoms in under 0.68 seconds per simulation time step.
Autors: Sudhir B. Kylasa;Hasan Metin Aktulga;Ananth Y. Grama;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 202 - 214
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reactive Power and AC Voltage Control of LCC HVDC System With Controllable Capacitors
Abstract:
It is well known that traditional line-commutated converter (LCC) based high voltage direct current (HVDC) system is not able to control its reactive power and terminal AC voltages. This paper investigates the reactive power and AC voltage control at the inverter side of the LCC HVDC system with controllable capacitors. The system's ability of operating under negative extinction angle is utilized to achieve a wide range of reactive power control and, in particular, the ability of exporting reactive power. In connection with the inverter AC terminal voltage or reactive power control, among different control possibilities at the rectifier side, active power control is desirable since large variations of active power transfer is very unfavorable. Detailed theoretical analysis is carried out first to show the reactive power controllability, and the capacitor voltage level is selected based on the desired control range. In addition, a new extinction angle measurement approach is proposed for negative extinction angle measurements. The effectiveness of the reactive power/voltage control capability for the proposed system is validated through simulation results using Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). To verify the effectiveness of the reactive power and voltage control, CCC HVDC and LCC HVDC with SVC are also set up in RTDS, and simulation comparisons are made. Furthermore, contribution to AC voltage control in power system using the proposed method is demonstrated through simulation results of the modified two-area four-machine AC power system.
Autors: Ying Xue;Xiao-Ping Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 753 - 764
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Real-Time 10GbE Data Transmission Over a Converged RoF Links and 96-GHz Wireless Bridge
Abstract:
In this letter, we present a proof-of-concept of a real-time 10-Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) standard data connectivity over a seamlessly converged intermediate frequency IF-over-fiber and millimeter wave links with remotely fed optical local oscillator (LO) signals. We demonstrate an error-free real-time transmission of -DQPSK-mapped 10GbE frames at 5-Gbit/s over -km single mode fiber and 20-m W-band (i.e., 96 GHz) wireless bridge. The 10GbE traffic is adjusted to the actual system capacity and transmitted using two parallel channels with a maximum rate of 1.25-GBaud per channel. We experimentally investigate and evaluate the impact of RoF and W-band links characteristics on the overall system performance. The obtained results demonstrate the potential use of the proposed system for the next generation agile and resilient access networks.
Autors: Abdelmoula Bekkali;Takashi Kobayashi;Kosuke Nishimura;Nobuhiko Shibagaki;Kenichi Kashima;Yosuke Sato;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 15 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Real-Time Composition Monitoring Using Support Vector Regression of Laser-Induced Plasma for Laser Additive Manufacturing
Abstract:
Laser additive manufacturing has gained widespread adoption in recent years. However, process diagnosis and process control lag behind the progresses of other key technologies, which make the product quality control a challenging problem. This work proposes an operating parameter conditioned support vector regression (SVR) method that uses processing parameter conditioned kernel function to achieve a processing parameter independent in-situ composition prediction. Two different features of laser-induced plasma, spectral line-intensity-ratio, and both spectral line-intensity-ratio and spectral integrated intensity were used to train the SVR. Composition measurements using a calibration curve method, partial least square regression, and artificial neural networks are also performed for comparison. The results show that the SVR with both spectral line-intensity-ratio and spectral integrated intensity as inputs has the best performance due to linearly separable point clusters in the high-dimensional space. Laser power independent composition prediction is achieved and real-time composition predictions are validated. It is proved that the operating parameter conditioned SVR provides a more accurate, a more universal, and an operating parameter independent prediction. Moreover, operating parameter conditioned SVR provides a potential data-driven-based approach for real-time composition monitoring of the laser additive manufacturing process.
Autors: Lijun Song;Wenkang Huang;Xu Han;Jyoti Mazumder;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 633 - 642
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Real-Time Demand Bidding for Energy Management in Discrete Manufacturing Facilities
Abstract:
During periods of power system stress, demand bidding (DB) programs encourage large electricity consumers to submit curtailment capacity bids and carry out load reduction, in return for financial rewards. In this paper, a real-time DB (RT-DB) program with applications in discrete manufacturing facilities is considered. A discrete manufacturing production model is constructed and an automated RT-DB algorithm is designed. An optimization problem, where the objective is to maximize the profits for manufacturers, is formulated. Solving this problem enables the RT-DB algorithm to automatically generate optimal load-reduction bids with adjusted production and energy plans. A case study is described, which shows that the proposed algorithm reduced the load demand during an RT-DB event, increasing the manufacturer's profits. Furthermore, the relationship between the incentive rate and the demand elasticity of the consumer, as well as the production volume and profits is described.
Autors: Yi-Chang Li;Seung Ho Hong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 739 - 749
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Real-Time Generation and Reception of OFDM Signals for $X$ -Band RoF Uplink With Heterodyne Detection
Abstract:
A field-programmable gate arrays-based real-time orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transceiver is implemented for the uplink of an -band radio-over-fiber (RoF) system with heterodyne detection for the first time. Digital intermediate-frequency modulation and demodulation, and forward error correction are applied. Minn’s timing synchronization method is slightly modified with reduced implementation complexity for the proposed OFDM-RoF system. By using Reed–Solomon code with symbol interleaving technique, the real-time transmission of the -band 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation OFDM-RoF signal over 10-m wireless and 2.26-km single mode fiber link is successfully achieved with a post-FEC bit error rate below .
Autors: Ming Chen;Xin Xiao;Jianjun Yu;Xinying Li;Fan Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 51 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Real-Time Optimization of the Mid-Columbia Hydropower System
Abstract:
This paper presents a coordinated model predictive control scheme for the Mid-Columbia hydropower system. The Mid-Columbia system consists of seven hydropower plants on the Columbia River in the United States. The state-space model used in the control scheme accounts for system hydraulics, modeling time-delayed hydraulic coupling and dynamic tailrace elevations. We approximate the power generation from a hydropower plant using a piecewise planar function of turbine discharge and hydraulic head, and we demonstrate how this approximation can be written as a set of linear constraints and integrated into a quadratic program. We introduce a flow minimizing objective function that maximizes system hydraulic potential by efficiently allocating water. Compared to historical operations, the proposed control scheme reduces ramping, increases total system hydraulic head, increases system energy content, and operates the system within all elevation and flow constraints.
Autors: Andrew Hamann;Gabriela Hug;Stan Rosinski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 157 - 165
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Rebooting Computing: The Road Ahead
Abstract:
The IEEE Rebooting Computing Initiative, proposed in 2012, has launched a 15-year technology roadmap to address escalating computing-performance pressures: stalled device-physics advances coupled with big data demands, novel machine-learning problems, and complex software paradigms. Potential solutions range from new transistor technology to quantum computing.
Autors: Thomas M. Conte;Erik P. DeBenedictis;Paolo A. Gargini;Elie Track;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 50, issue:1, pages: 20 - 29
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Receiver-Initiated Spectrum Management for Underwater Cognitive Acoustic Network
Abstract:
Cognitive acoustic (CA) is emerging as a promising technique for environment-friendly and spectrum-efficient underwater communications. Due to the unique features of underwater acoustic networks (UANs), traditional spectrum management systems designed for cognitive radio (CR) need an overhaul to work efficiently in underwater environments. In this paper, we propose a receiver-initiated spectrum management (RISM) system for underwater cognitive acoustic networks (UCANs). RISM seeks to improve the performance of UCANs through a collaboration of physical layer and medium access control (MAC) layer. It aims to provide efficient spectrum utilization and data transmissions with a small collision probability for CA nodes, while avoiding harmful interference with both “natural acoustic systems”, such as marine mammals, and “artificial acoustic systems”, like sonars and other UCANs. In addition, to solve the unique challenge of deciding when receivers start to retrieve data from their neighbors, we propose to use a traffic predictor on each receiver to forecast the traffic loads on surrounding nodes. This allows each receiver to dynamically adjust its polling frequency according to the variation of a network traffic. Simulation results show that the performance of RISM with smart polling scheme outperforms the conventional sender-initiated approach in terms of throughput, hop-by-hop delay, and energy efficiency.
Autors: Yu Luo;Lina Pu;Haining Mo;Yibo Zhu;Zheng Peng;Jun-Hong Cui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 198 - 212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Recognition and Calibration of Rail Profile Under Affine-Distortion-Based Point Set Mapping
Abstract:
Rail section profile accurate measurement techniques are critical to guarantee the transport security and reduce the maintenance cost. However, the profile may make an affine transformation under vehicle vibration. It is a challenge to identify and calibrate the affine distorted profiles in the 2-D laser displacement system (LDS). By profound observation and discussion on triple primitives including rail jaw, railhead inner line, and rail waist curve, we found the difference between normal profiles and distorted ones. To measure the difference quantitatively, we proposed a novel curve similarity measurement method, i.e., point set mapping (PSM), in this paper. By constructing PSM from the standard profile to the measured one on the triple matching primitives, the fast recognition and accurate calibration of rail profile under affine distortion were implemented. The accuracy and efficiency of the system were verified by experiments and comparisons with related methods. The results show that the PSM is faster and more robust than the universal Hausdorff distance on the similarity measure, and the performance of the modified particle swarm optimization is superior for profile distortion calibration. Furthermore, the LDS can run at a speed of 12.86 km/h under our experimental setup, which is far higher than that of the rail maintenance train (up to 5 km/h).
Autors: Hongli Liu;Yanfu Li;Ziji Ma;Chao Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 131 - 140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Recursive Frequency Domain Decomposition for Multidimensional Ambient Modal Estimation
Abstract:
This paper proposes a multidimensional recursive ambient modal analysis algorithm called recursive frequency domain decomposition (recursive FDD or RFDD). The method enables simultaneous processing of a large number of synchrophasor measurements for real-time ambient modal estimation. The method combines a previously proposed multidimensional block processing algorithm FDD with a single input recursive least square (RLS) algorithm into developing a new frequency domain multidimensional recursive algorithm. First, an auto-regressive model is fitted onto the sampled data of each signal using the time-domain RLS approach. Subsequent modal analysis is carried out in frequency domain in the spirit of FDD. The conventional FDD method uses non-parametric methods for power spectrum density (PSD) estimation. The proposed method in this paper by estimating PSD with a parametric method provides smoother PSD estimation which results in less standard deviation in RFDD estimates compared to FDD. The algorithm is tested on archived synchrophasor data from a real power system.
Autors: Hamed Khalilinia;Vaithianathan Venkatasubramanian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 822 - 823
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Recursive Geometric Simplex Growing Analysis for Finding Endmembers in Hyperspectral Imagery
Abstract:
Simplex growing algorithm (SGA) is an endmember finding algorithm which searches for endmembers one after another by growing simplexes one vertex at a time via maximizing simplex volume (SV). Unfortunately, several issues arise in calculating SV. One is the use of dimensionality reduction (DR) because the dimensionality of a simplex is usually much smaller than data dimensionality. Second, calculating SV requires calculating the determinant of an ill-ranked matrix in which case singular value decomposition (SVD) is generally required to perform DR. Both approaches generally do not produce true SV. Finally, the computing time becomes excessive and numerically instable as the number of endmembers grows. This paper develops a new theory, called geometric simplex growing analysis (GSGA), to resolve these issues. It can be considered as an alternative to SGA from a rather different point of view. More specifically, GSGA looks into the geometric structures of a simplex whose volume can be actually calculated by multiplication of its base and height. As a result, it converts calculating maximal SV to finding maximal orthogonal projection as its maximal height becomes perpendicular to its base. To facilitate GSGA in practical applications, GSGA is further used to extend SGA to recursive geometric simplex growing algorithm (RGSGA) which allows GSGA to be implemented recursively in a similar manner that a Kalman filter does. Consequently, RGSGA can be very easily implemented with significant saving of computing time. Best of all, RGSGA is also shown to be most efficient and effective among all SGA-based variants.
Autors: Chein-I Chang;Hsiao-Chi Li;Chao-Cheng Wu;Meiping Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 296 - 308
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reduced-Order Distributed Consensus Controller Design via Edge Dynamics
Abstract:
This technical note proposes a novel approach to design fully distributed reduced-order consensus controllers for multi-agent systems (MASs) with identical general linear dynamics of agents. A new model namely edge dynamics representing the differences on connected agents' states is first presented. Then the distributed consensus controller design is shown to be equivalent to the synthesis of a distributed stabilizing controller for this edge dynamics. Consequently, based on LQR approach, the globally optimal and locally optimal distributed stabilizing controller designs are proposed, of which the locally optimal distributed stabilizing design for the edge dynamics results in a fully distributed consensus controller for the MAS with no conservative bound on the coupling strength. This approach is then further developed to obtain reduced-order distributed consensus controllers for linear MASs. Finally, a numerical example is introduced to demonstrate the theoretical results.
Autors: Dinh Hoa Nguyen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 62, issue:1, pages: 475 - 480
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reducing Latency for Multimedia Broadcast Services Over Mobile Networks
Abstract:
Multimedia services over mobile networks pose several challenges, such as the efficient management of radio resources or the latency induced by network delays and buffering requirements on the multimedia players. In Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks, the definition of multimedia broadcast services over a common radio channel addresses the shortage of radio resources but introduces the problem of network error recovery. In order to address network errors on LTE multimedia broadcast services, the current standards propose the combined use of forward error correction and unicast recovery techniques at the application level. This paper shows how to efficiently synchronize the broadcasting server and the multimedia players and how to reduce service latency by limiting the multimedia player buffer length. This is accomplished by analyzing the relation between the different parameters of the LTE multimedia broadcast service, the multimedia player buffer length, and service interruptions. A case study is simulated to confirm how the quality of the multimedia service is improved by applying our proposals.
Autors: Carlos M. Lentisco;Luis Bellido;Encarna Pastor;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 173 - 182
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reduction of Periodic Motion Artifacts in Photoplethysmography
Abstract:
Periodic motion artifacts affect photoplethysmography (PPG) signals in activities of daily living (ADL), cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX), and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This hampers measurement of interbeat intervals (IBIs) and oxygen saturation (SpO ). Our objective was to develop a generic algorithm to remove periodic motion artifacts, recovering artifact-reduced PPG signals for beat-to-beat analysis. Methods: The algorithm was retrospectively evaluated on forehead PPG signals measured while walking on a treadmill. The step rate was tracked in a motion reference signal via a second-order generalized integrator with a frequency-locked loop. Two reference signals were compared: sensor motion relative to the skin () measured via self-mixing interferometry and head motion () measured via accelerometry. The step rate was used in a quadrature harmonic model to estimate the artifacts. Quadrature components need only two coefficients per frequency leading to a short filter and prevent undesired frequency-shifted components in the artifact estimate. Subtracting the estimate from the measured signal reduced the artifacts. Results: Compared to , had a better signal-to-noise ratio and more consistently contained a component at the step rate. Artifact reduction was effective for distinct step rate and pulse rate, since the artifact-reduced signals provided more stable IBI and SpO measurements. Conclusion: Accelerometry provided a more rel- able motion reference signal. The proposed algorithm can be of significance for monitoring in ADL, CPX, or CPR, by providing artifact-reduced PPG signals for improved IBI and SpO measurements during periodic motion.
Autors: Ralph W. C. G. R. Wijshoff;Massimo Mischi;Ronald M. Aarts;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 196 - 207
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Redundancy Allocation Based on the Weighted Mismatch-Rate Slope for Multiple Description Video Coding
Abstract:
Multiple description coding (MDC) is a robust coding technique for video transmission over error prone networks, whereby the video is encoded into multiple descriptions with some redundancy between the descriptions. This redundancy leads to error resiliency in the case of packet loss during the network transport. However, the amount of this redundancy has a critical role in MDC performance. Therefore, a crucial problem in MDC is to find what the optimum amount of redundancy budget is, and then how this redundancy budget can be optimally allocated to the frames. To solve this problem, we propose a scheme in which the redundancy budget is allocated to the frames based on the weighted mismatch-rate slopes so that this additional bitrate can attain maximum distortion reduction. The redundancy is added gradually so that fine tuning of the utilized bitrate is achievable. We have verified our proposed scheme by implementing it in H.264/AVC reference software JM16.0, and running experiments against two representative reference methods. Our experiments show that our scheme not only minimizes the end-to-end distortion with a rate-distortion performance that is better than the reference methods, especially for high PLRs, but also entirely uses the available bandwidth, unlike the reference methods.
Autors: Mohammad Kazemi;Razib Iqbal;Shervin Shirmohammadi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 54 - 66
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Redundancy-Based Trust in Question-Answering Systems
Abstract:
By combining user preferences, redundancy analysis, and trust-network inference, the proposed trust model can augment candidate answers with information about target sources on the basis of connections with other web users and sources. Experiments show that the model is more effective overall than trust analyses based on inference alone.
Autors: John Atkinson;Alvaro Maurelia;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 50, issue:1, pages: 58 - 65
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Region Formation for Efficient Offline Location Prediction
Abstract:
As low-power devices continue to be integrated into daily life, we are presented with the challenge of deciding when it's beneficial for these devices to interrupt us. Predicting a user's movements provides valuable insight to solve this problem. Here, the authors present a new approach for offline location prediction for low-power devices, representing a user's mobility patterns as an optimal set of geographical regions. Their approach yielded a 27 percent increase in precision and a 13 percent increase in recall over standard time- and place-based approaches against GPS data for hundreds of users. Their approach requires minimal additional cost and opens up potential for further development.
Autors: Ian Craig;Mark Whitty;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 66 - 73
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Region-of-Interest Coding Based on Saliency Detection and Directional Wavelet for Remote Sensing Images
Abstract:
With growing contradiction between the high-speed acquisition of remote sensing data and the low-speed data storage and transmission, the advantages of giving higher priority to a region of interest (ROI) in compression have become prominent. Previous research focused on ROI coding, rather than automatic ROI extraction. However, accurate ROI extraction can significantly improve coding efficiency. In this letter, we propose an automatic ROI extraction based on the improved normal directional lifting wavelet transform (LWT). Then, the compression efficiency is enhanced by a novel tangent directional LWT to reduce the signal energy of high-frequency subbands. Finally, the autogenerated ROIs are encoded by a new multibitplane alternating shift method, which supports not only arbitrarily shaped ROI coding, but also flexible adjustment of compression quality in the ROI and the background. The experimental results demonstrate that our method can effectively highlight the ROIs with well-defined boundaries, meanwhile improving the ROI coding with better visual quality.
Autors: Libao Zhang;Jie Chen;Bingchang Qiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 23 - 27
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Regulation of a DC/DC Boost Converter Under Parametric Uncertainty and Input Voltage Variation Using Nested Reduced-Order PI Observers
Abstract:
DC/DC boost converters are known for presenting highly nonlinear and nonminimum phase properties. This paper combines a predesigned cascade controller and nested reduced-order proportional-integral observers (PIOs) to maintain the desirable voltage regulation performance of the cascade controller for a dc/dc boost converter subject to load change, parametric uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics, and input voltage variations. In the proposed cascade controller design, the fast inner current loop adopts proportional-integral control and the slow outer voltage loop employs integral-proportional control based on a linearized model at a single nominal operating point. Unified theoretical analysis is performed by applying singular perturbation theory, which confirms the desired approximation of the augmented system with the PIOs to the nominal closed-loop system using the cascade controller without accounting for the uncertainties. The validity of the proposed observer-based control scheme is tested via computer simulations and comparative experiments using a laboratory prototype. Both results show that the closed-loop performance remains nearly nominal under load change, parametric uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics, and input voltage variations, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Autors: In Hyuk Kim;Young Ik Son;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 552 - 562
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Relay-Assisted OFDM for Ultraviolet Communications: Performance Analysis and Optimization
Abstract:
Ultraviolet (UV) communication enables non-line-of-sight (NLOS) outdoor wireless connectivity and is particularly desirable to relax or eliminate pointing and tracking requirements of infrared links. In comparison to infrared counterparts, UV links are subject to relatively higher path loss as well as intersymbol interference resulting from frequency selective nature of the channel. In this paper, we propose the powerful combination of relay-assisted transmission and multi-carrier architecture based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Specifically, we consider a cooperative diversity system with orthogonal cooperation protocol and use DC-biased optical OFDM as the underlying physical layer. We consider both amplify-and-forward (AF) and detect-and-forward (DF) relaying. We investigate the error rate performance of the proposed relay-assisted OFDM UV system under consideration and demonstrate performance gains over point-to-point OFDM UV systems. We further determine optimal power allocation schemes to improve the performance. We also propose a variable-rate UV OFDM system and improve system throughput via bit loading.
Autors: Maryam Haghighi Ardakani;Murat Uysal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 607 - 618
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reliable Low-Latency Viterbi Algorithm Architectures Benchmarked on ASIC and FPGA
Abstract:
The Viterbi algorithm is commonly applied to a number of sensitive usage models including decoding convolutional codes used in communications such as satellite communication, cellular relay, and wireless local area networks. Moreover, the algorithm has been applied to automatic speech recognition and storage devices. In this paper, efficient error detection schemes for architectures based on low-latency, low-complexity Viterbi decoders are presented. The merit of the proposed schemes is that reliability requirements, overhead tolerance, and performance degradation limits are embedded in the structures and can be adapted accordingly. We also present three variants of recomputing with encoded operands and its modifications to detect both transient and permanent faults, coupled with signature-based schemes. The instrumented decoder architecture has been subjected to extensive error detection assessments through simulations, and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) [32 nm library] and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) [Xilinx Virtex-6 family] implementations for benchmark. The proposed fine-grained approaches can be utilized based on reliability objectives and performance/implementation metrics degradation tolerance.
Autors: Mehran Mozaffari Kermani;Vineeta Singh;Reza Azarderakhsh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 208 - 216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reliable Next-Generation Cortical Interfaces for Chronic Brain–Machine Interfaces and Neuroscience
Abstract:
This review focuses on recent directions stemming from work by the authors and collaborators in the emerging field of neurotechnology. Neurotechnology has the potential to provide a greater understanding of the structure and function of the complex neural circuits in the brain, as well as impacting the field of brain–machine interfaces (BMI). We envision ultralow-power wireless neural interface systems that are life-lasting, fully integrated, and that supports bidirectional data flow with high bandwidth. Moreover, we believe in the importance of building neural interface technology that is truly tetherless, has a very small recording footprint, and little to no mechanical coupling between the sensor and the external world. We believe these developments will impact both neuroscience and neurology, revealing fundamental insight about how the nervous system functions in health and disease.
Autors: Michel M. Maharbiz;Rikky Muller;Elad Alon;Jan M. Rabaey;Jose M. Carmena;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 105, issue:1, pages: 73 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reliable Output Feedback Control of Discrete-Time Fuzzy Affine Systems With Actuator Faults
Abstract:
This article studies the robust and reliable static output feedback (SOF) control for nonlinear systems with actuator faults in a descriptor system framework. The nonlinear plant is characterized by a discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy affine model with parameter uncertainties, and the Markov chain is utilized to describe the actuator-fault behaviors. Specifically, by adopting a state-output augmentation approach, the original system is firstly reformulated into the descriptor fuzzy affine system. Based upon a novel piecewise Markovian Lyapunov function (LF), the performance analysis condition for the underlying system is then presented, and furthermore the robust and reliable SOF controller synthesis is carried out. It is shown that by invoking the redundancy properties induced by the descriptor formulation, combined with some convexifying techniques, the existence of the desired reliable controller can be explicitly determined by the solution of a convex optimization problem. Finally, simulation studies are applied to confirm the effectiveness of the developed method.
Autors: Yanling Wei;Jianbin Qiu;Hamid Reza Karimi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 170 - 181
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reliable Wireless Communication Technology of Adaptive Channel Diversity (ACD) Method Based on ISA100.11a Standard
Abstract:
A method called “adaptive channel diversity” (ACD), which improves wireless performance in terms of reliability and latency, is proposed. With ACD, the optimum frequency channels are selected on the basis of the amount of dynamic radio interference. ACD was implemented in two prototype systems operating in the 2.4-GHz industry–science–medical band based on the ISA100.11a standard, namely, time-division multiple access and frequency channel hopping. According to an evaluation of the prototype systems, a 10−4 packet error rate was achieved within a 1.3-s latency for a 30-terminal star topology and within a 0.85-s latency for a 5-terminal multihop topology. These evaluation results are consistent with the results of simulations based on probabilistic analysis.
Autors: Yasutaka Serizawa;Ryosuke Fujiwara;Takashi Yano;Masayuki Miyazaki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 624 - 632
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Remedial Field-Oriented Control of Five-Phase Fault-Tolerant Permanent-Magnet Motor by Using Reduced-Order Transformation Matrices
Abstract:
A five-phase fault-tolerant permanent-magnet (FTPM) motor can offer high torque density, low torque ripple, and good fault-tolerant capability. In order to improve operation performance under an open-circuit fault condition, this paper proposes a new remedial field-oriented control (RFOC) strategy for a five-phase FTPM motor. The novelty of the proposed RFOC strategy lies in the orthogonal reduced-order transformation matrix, which is derived from the fault-tolerant current references, and a new zero-sequence current related to torque ripple. The pulsation of the neutral voltage can be neglected in the RFOC strategy, having no effect on the control action. Also, the effect of the open-circuit fault on the motor drive model under the transformation matrix is discussed. A five-phase FTPM motor drive is prototyped and the proposed RFOC strategy is evaluated in terms of the steady-state and dynamic performances. The simulated and experimental results are given to verify the proposed strategy.
Autors: Huawei Zhou;Wenxiang Zhao;Guohai Liu;Ran Cheng;Ying Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 169 - 178
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Remote Sensing Image Registration With Modified SIFT and Enhanced Feature Matching
Abstract:
The scale-invariant feature transform algorithm and its many variants are widely used in feature-based remote sensing image registration. However, it may be difficult to find enough correct correspondences for remote image pairs in some cases that exhibit a significant difference in intensity mapping. In this letter, a new gradient definition is introduced to overcome the difference of image intensity between the remote image pairs. Then, an enhanced feature matching method by combining the position, scale, and orientation of each keypoint is introduced to increase the number of correct correspondences. The proposed algorithm is tested on multispectral and multisensor remote sensing images. The experimental results show that the proposed method improves the matching performance compared with several state-of-the-art methods in terms of the number of correct correspondences and aligning accuracy.
Autors: Wenping Ma;Zelian Wen;Yue Wu;Licheng Jiao;Maoguo Gong;Yafei Zheng;Liang Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 3 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Residual Demand Curves for Modeling the Effect of Complex Offering Conditions on Day-Ahead Electricity Markets
Abstract:
Residual demand curves (RDCs) can be used to represent the strategic interaction of participants in electricity markets. RDCs relate the energy that an agent can buy or sell in one hour with the clearing market price that would be obtained in such hour, assuming the market is organized as simple bid independent auctions. Despite the fact that they have been widely used in the literature, the existence of time and/or spatial constraints in the market clearing algorithm makes the RDCs not directly applicable. This paper tries to overcome these difficulties by extending the concept of RDCs to zonal pricing markets where complex offering conditions and transmission constraints are taken into account. Therefore, the RDCs are redefined in order to capture such effects, which are usually neglected or oversimplified. A new method for computing the redefined RDCs is established and its application to the Iberian electricity market is presented. The results show that modeling complex conditions and transmission constraints in RDCs can have a significant effect when compared to the standard approach found in the literature. Therefore, the method presented in this paper modeling the effect of firm's decisions on market prices in a more accurate way.
Autors: José Portela González;Antonio Muñoz San Roque;Eugenio F. Sánchez-Úbeda;Javier García-González;Rafael González Hombrados;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 50 - 61
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Resilience of DoS Attacks in Designing Anonymous User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) include spatially allotted autonomous instruments that employ sensors to check environmental or physical conditions. These autonomous instruments or nodes blend with routers or gateway to make several WSN-based real-time applications. In many critical applications, an external user can directly access the real-time data from sensor node. In this context, before offering access, the legitimacy of the user is required to be verified through a secure authentication scheme. Since, in WSN-based real-time applications, the privacy of the user is greatly important, the authentication scheme for such environment should be anonymous. Till now, impressive efforts have been made in designing lightweight anonymous authentication protocol for WSN-based real-time applications. However, most of such protocols are vulnerable to DoS attacks, which are occurred due to the loss of synchronization between the participants. Furthermore, to rebuilt synchronization between the participants, a protocol may need to compromise un-link-ability property. Therefore, it can be argued that the problem of DoS attack has not been addressed properly in the existing literatures. In this paper, we present a way to deal with DoS attacks in designing lightweight anonymous authentication protocol for WSN-based real-time applications without compromising any anonymity support. We argue that our proposed solution can easily be incorporated with the existing schemes to be resilient to DoS attacks.
Autors: Prosanta Gope;Jemin Lee;Tony Q. S. Quek;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 498 - 503
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Resonant Frequency [Enigmas, etc.]
Abstract:
Various puzzles, humorous definitions, or mathematical recreations - usually having some relevance to electrical engineering - that should engage the interest of readers.
Autors: Takashi Ohira;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 140 - 140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Resonantly Coupled Wireless Power Transfer for Non-Stationary Loads With Application in Automotive Environments
Abstract:
Resonantly coupled wireless power transfer (RWPT) has become a popular means to deliver energy without direct contact between the source and load. One challenging application is nonstationary loads; those that move spatially in time. Such loads change the coupling between the source and load and with it the efficiency and maximum power transfer possible. One emerging application is in the automotive environment, where nonstationary loads such as powered seats and doors exist. Moreover, the automotive environment is particularly challenging due to the presence of metallic objects and the safety requirements of the passengers. In this work, we examine RWPT for nonstationary loads and present a design methodology for optimal efficiency and power transfer and show an RWPT of 70 W across a 24 cm distance in an automotive environment. We also examine the impact of the metallic environment and show how its effects can be mitigated. Finally, we examine the field intensity during RWPT and examine the safety of the passengers. We show that 70 W can be transmitted within 10 cm of a passenger while operating below safety limits.
Autors: Matthew Chabalko;Jordan Besnoff;Moshe Laifenfeld;David S. Ricketts;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 91 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 

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