Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2017 sorted by title, page: 8

» Helical Fiber Interferometer Using Flame-Heated Treatment for Torsion Sensing Application
Abstract:
An interferometer using a single-mode fiber helix (SFH) was fabricated by the flame-heated treatment for torsion sensing application. For the first time to the best of our knowledge, this kind of interferometer was designed and experimentally demonstrated. By launching a linear polarized beam into the SFH, the interference was formed at the output of the structure because of the fiber bending-induced birefringence. Theoretical analysis shows that the geometrical change will bring a resonant dip wavelength shift when torsion is applied to the sensor part. Additionally, by adjusting the helix radius and pitch, the torsion sensitivity can be further optimized. From the experiment data, the torsion sensitivity reaches 1.691 nm/rad from −9.39 to 13.42 rad/m for the SFH with a radius of 0.89 mm and a pitch of 2.04 mm.
Autors: Xin-Yu Li;Wei-Gang Zhang;Lei Chen;Yan-Xin Zhang;Song Wang;Tie-Yi Yan;Quan Zhou;Biao Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 161 - 164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Help from the Sky: Leveraging UAVs for Disaster Management
Abstract:
This article presents a vision for future unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)-assisted disaster management, considering the holistic functions of disaster prediction, assessment, and response. Here, UAVs not only survey the affected area but also assist in establishing vital wireless communication links between the survivors and nearest available cellular infrastructure. A perspective of different classes of geophysical, climate-induced, and meteorological disasters based on the extent of interaction between the UAV and terrestrially deployed wireless sensors is presented in this work, with suitable network architectures designed for each of these cases. The authors outline unique research challenges and possible solutions for maintaining connected aerial meshes for handoff between UAVs and for systems-specific, security- and energy-related issues. This article is part of a special issue on drones.
Autors: Milan Erdelj;Enrico Natalizio;Kaushik R. Chowdhury;Ian F. Akyildiz;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 24 - 32
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Here comes 5G-whatever that is [Top Tech 2017]
Abstract:
Unlike most epochs, those of the wireless age have come and gone with convenient numerical designations. And with each came marvelous new capabilities: 2G let us all text for the first time, for example, and 3G empowered us to surf the Web.
Autors: Amy Nordrum;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 44 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Heterogeneous Networks in Shared Spectrum Access Communications
Abstract:
We investigate an advanced two-phase shared spectrum access communication scheme as an efficient approach to enhance the spectral utilization of a network. In the first phase, we devise a spectrum-sharing policy based on demands, fairness, and so on, which utilizes a priority scheme in fulfilling operators’ demands, and envision a secure operator-specific information sharing policy where no critical information is exchanged between the operators. In the second phase, a macro cell network (MCN) benefits through offloading services offered by small cell network (SCN). This allows the MCN to satisfy its users’ capacity demands, improve its quality of services and coverage under Nakagami fading channel. As a repayment, the SCN is rewarded with licenses to share and operate on the spectrum originally owned by the MCN. We devise a density division-based shared spectrum access model, where the density of the licensee’s SCN deployment is exploited as network resources. A fair division of the densities of the licensee operator’s small cell base stations into fractions of licensed small cell base stations serving its own users and offloading small cells is presented. Unlike most of the previous research works that considered Poisson point process (PPP) to model the distribution of the network entities even when PPP modeling is not accurate for the networks, where the number of MCN/SCN base stations is definite and the number of MCN/SCN base stations in disjoint areas is not independent, we employ a more realistic network model known as binomial point process to perform an analytical analysis of the cumulative interference and performance of the system. Furthermore, we analyze the rate coverage and outage performances considering a wide range of values for path-loss exponent and fading severity parameter of Nakagami fading.
Autors: Mirza Golam Kibria;Gabriel Porto Villardi;Kien Nguyen;Kentaro Ishizu;Fumihide Kojima;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 145 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hexagonal TSV Bundle Topology for 3-D ICs
Abstract:
Through-substrate vias (TSVs) are key for enabling 3-D integrated circuits (ICs). A hexagonal topology for TSV bundles in 3-D ICs is introduced in this brief. The topology exhibits superior symmetry as compared to the standard mesh topology. A comparison between the hexagonal and mesh topologies in terms of area per TSV, capacitive coupling, effective inductance, and shielding characteristics is offered. The hexagonal topology exhibits a reduction of 13% and 7% in, respectively, area per TSV and capacitive coupling. In addition, a two- to three-orders-of-magnitude decrease in effective inductance within the hexagonal topology is observed.
Autors: Boris Vaisband;Eby G. Friedman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 11 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical and Networked Vehicle Surveillance in ITS: A Survey
Abstract:
Traffic surveillance has become an important topic in intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), which is aimed at monitoring and managing traffic flow. With the progress in computer vision, video-based surveillance systems have made great advances on traffic surveillance in ITSs. However, the performance of most existing surveillance systems is susceptible to challenging complex traffic scenes (e.g., object occlusion, pose variation, and cluttered background). Moreover, existing related research is mainly on a single video sensor node, which is incapable of addressing the surveillance of traffic road networks. Accordingly, we present a review of the literature on the video-based vehicle surveillance systems in ITSs. We analyze the existing challenges in video-based surveillance systems for the vehicle and present a general architecture for video surveillance systems, i.e., the hierarchical and networked vehicle surveillance, to survey the different existing and potential techniques. Then, different methods are reviewed and discussed with respect to each module. Applications and future developments are discussed to provide future needs of ITS services.
Autors: Bin Tian;Brendan Tran Morris;Ming Tang;Yuqiang Liu;Yanjie Yao;Chao Gou;Dayong Shen;Shaohu Tang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 25 - 48
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Clustering Multi-Task Learning for Joint Human Action Grouping and Recognition
Abstract:
This paper proposes a hierarchical clustering multi-task learning (HC-MTL) method for joint human action grouping and recognition. Specifically, we formulate the objective function into the group-wise least square loss regularized by low rank and sparsity with respect to two latent variables, model parameters and grouping information, for joint optimization. To handle this non-convex optimization, we decompose it into two sub-tasks, multi-task learning and task relatedness discovery. First, we convert this non-convex objective function into the convex formulation by fixing the latent grouping information. This new objective function focuses on multi-task learning by strengthening the shared-action relationship and action-specific feature learning. Second, we leverage the learned model parameters for the task relatedness measure and clustering. In this way, HC-MTL can attain both optimal action models and group discovery by alternating iteratively. The proposed method is validated on three kinds of challenging datasets, including six realistic action datasets (Hollywood2, YouTube, UCF Sports, UCF50, HMDB51 UCF101), two constrained datasets (KTH TJU), and two multi-view datasets (MV-TJU IXMAS). The extensive experimental results show that: 1) HC-MTL can produce competing performances to the state of the arts for action recognition and grouping; 2) HC-MTL can overcome the difficulty in heuristic action grouping simply based on human knowledge; 3) HC-MTL can avoid the possible incon istency between the subjective action grouping depending on human knowledge and objective action grouping based on the feature subspace distributions of multiple actions. Comparison with the popular clustered multi-task learning further reveals that the discovered latent relatedness by HC-MTL aids inducing the group-wise multi-task learning and boosts the performance. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first work that breaks the assumption that all actions are either independent for individual learning or correlated for joint modeling and proposes HC-MTL for automated, joint action grouping and modeling.
Autors: An-An Liu;Yu-Ting Su;Wei-Zhi Nie;Mohan Kankanhalli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 102 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Maximum Likelihood Clustering Approach
Abstract:
Objective: In this paper, we focused on developing a clustering approach for biological data. In many biological analyses, such as multiomics data analysis and genome-wide association studies analysis, it is crucial to find groups of data belonging to subtypes of diseases or tumors. Methods: Conventionally, the k-means clustering algorithm is overwhelmingly applied in many areas including biological sciences. There are, however, several alternative clustering algorithms that can be applied, including support vector clustering. In this paper, taking into consideration the nature of biological data, we propose a maximum likelihood clustering scheme based on a hierarchical framework. Results: This method can perform clustering even when the data belonging to different groups overlap. It can also perform clustering when the number of samples is lower than the data dimensionality. Conclusion: The proposed scheme is free from selecting initial settings to begin the search process. In addition, it does not require the computation of the first and second derivative of likelihood functions, as is required by many other maximum likelihood-based methods. Significance: This algorithm uses distribution and centroid information to cluster a sample and was applied to biological data. A MATLAB implementation of this method can be downloaded from the web link http://www.riken.jp/en/research/labs/ims/med_sci_math/.
Autors: Alok Sharma;Keith A. Boroevich;Daichi Shigemizu;Yoichiro Kamatani;Michiaki Kubo;Tatsuhiko Tsunoda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 112 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Multi-Area State Estimation via Sensitivity Function Exchanges
Abstract:
A new hierarchical multi-area power system state estimation method is proposed in this paper. Instead of exchanging boundary measurements or state estimates, the proposed technique is based on exchanging the sensitivity functions of local state estimators. The main benefit of the proposed scheme is the improved convergence speed, which also reduces the amount of information exchange required. Extensive numerical results involving IEEE standard systems and a utility scale system are presented.
Autors: Ye Guo;Lang Tong;Wenchuan Wu;Hongbin Sun;Boming Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 442 - 453
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Gain Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna Using Uniaxial Material at Fundamental Mode
Abstract:
The use of uniaxial anisotropic materials in rectangular dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) increases the radiation from their side walls compared to their top walls due to the fundamental radiating mode, which leads to the improvement of boresight directivity. The different boundary conditions on the walls of DRA are also investigated. The main phenomenon of gain enhancement is also theoretically explained. The proposed method is validated by comparing the simulation results for the cases of isotropic DRAs and anisotropic DRAs (ADRAs). The measured results for an aperture-coupled uniaxial ADRA show an impedance bandwidth of 20.65% between 3.17 and 3.9 GHz and a peak broadside gain of 8.4 dB.
Autors: Saeed Fakhte;Homayoon Oraizi;Ladislau Matekovits;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 342 - 347
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Light-Load Efficiency Power Conversion Scheme Using Integrated Bidirectional Buck Converter for Paralleled Server Power Supplies
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new power conversion scheme for paralleled server power supplies. The snubber capacitor voltage is utilized for the secondary voltage source, from which bidirectional buck converter provides output power to the load under a very light-load condition. To increase the energy of the secondary voltage source, an additional voltage bus is connected between the snubber capacitors from each power supply. The main advantage of the proposed scheme is that high efficiency can be achieved especially under a very light-load condition because of the low switching and core loss achieved by using the buck converter instead of the conventional structure composed of a primary inverter, an isolation transformer, and a secondary rectifier. Furthermore, the buck converter is integrated into the secondary rectifier circuits, so additional components are minimized. The validity of the proposed converter is confirmed by the experimental results from two 12-V/750-W prototype modules.
Autors: Jae-Kuk Kim;Deok-Ki Yang;Jae-Bum Lee;Jae-Il Baek;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 236 - 243
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Performance and High Scalable Packet Classification Algorithm for Network Security Systems
Abstract:
Packet classification is a core function in network and security systems; hence, hardware-based solutions, such as packet classification accelerator chips or Ternary Content Addressable Memory (T-CAM), have been widely adopted for high-performance systems. With the rapid improvement of general hardware architectures and growing popularity of multi-core multi-threaded processors, software-based packet classification algorithms are attracting considerable attention, owing to their high flexibility in satisfying various industrial requirements for security and network systems. For high classification speed, these algorithms internally use large tables, whose size increases exponentially with the ruleset size; consequently, they cannot be used with a large rulesets. To overcome this problem, we propose a new software-based packet classification algorithm that simultaneously supports high scalability and fast classification performance by merging partition decision trees in a search table. While most partitioning-based packet classification algorithms show good scalability at the cost of low classification speed, our algorithm shows very high classification speed, irrespective of the number of rules, with small tables and short table building time. Our test results confirm that the proposed algorithm enables network and security systems to support heavy traffic in the most effective manner.
Autors: Wooguil Pak;Young-June Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 37 - 49
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensor Based on Highly Overcoupled Tapered Fiber-Optic Couplers
Abstract:
In this paper, a simple and compact fiber-optic sensor based on an overcoupled tapered fiber coupler is studied. The coupler is fabricated to be operated well beyond the initial coupling cycles, where the rapid exchange of energy between outputs ports enable the fabrication of a highly sensitive device. The suitability and sensitivity of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by measuring refractive index (RI) variations of sugar concentrations in water. The device presents a linear response in terms of power transmission or wavelength shift versus RI changes. The best achieved sensitivity is 0.442 units of normalized transmission per unit of sugar concentration, with a noise detection limit of 0.003 weight percentage of sugar concentration (wt %). From this result the minimum detectable RI change is estimated as RI unit (RIU). The sensor can be also wavelength-encoded, exhibiting a sensitivity of 2171 nm/RIU, maintaining a linear response in a large range of RI. These experimental results are within the best results reported in the framework of fiber couplers and modal interferometer-based RI sensors.
Autors: Marco V. Hernández-Arriaga;Miguel A. Bello-Jiménez;A. Rodríguez-Cobos;R. López-Estopier;Miguel V. Andrés;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 333 - 339
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High stress wet aging of cable dielectrics-meeting new challenges
Abstract:
The development of large wind farms is seen as a part of the solution to lowering global carbon emissions through bulk renewable energy generation, and in Europe many wind farms have mainly been constructed offshore where wind and land resources are advantageous compared to onshore sites. Whether onshore or offshore, lowering the cost of production is driving the industry to build wind farms with more turbines each capable of generating more power [1]–[4]. In the UK, the Offshore Windfarm Accelerator, a collaborative R&D program led by the Carbon Trust, is aiming to reduce the cost of wind generation by 10% through a combination of technological advances.
Autors: Simon J. Sutton;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 7 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Efficiency Transmission of a Wireless Power Transmission System for Low-Frequency Using REBCO Double-Pancake Coils
Abstract:
Wireless power transmission has been investigated to realize more efficient and more convenient noncontact power transmission systems for electric tramways, electric vehicles, portable telephones, and so on. Since the magnetic resonance type wireless power transmission system is often used in frequency regions of megahertz, there are some problems, such as the increase of wire resistance due to skin effect and a switching loss in converter. Therefore, it is expected to realize high-power wireless power transmission in low-frequency regions of kilohertz. In a wireless power transmission system using copper coils, however, the transmission efficiency decreases with the decrease of resonance frequency because quality factor decreases with the decrease of the resonance frequency. Therefore, we fabricated a model system using high-temperature superconducting (HTS) double-pancake coils composed of REBCO tape and investigated the transmission efficiency characteristics to evaluate the possibility of application of the HTS coil to a high-efficiency wireless power transmission system operated in the low-frequency region of kilohertz. In the copper coil system, the transmission efficiency increases with the resonance frequency. In the HTS coil system, however, a high-efficiency transmission was obtained, even at a low-resonance frequency, due to a large quality factor at low frequency. Moreover, in the wireless power transmission system using HTS coils, the transmission efficiency was high not only at the resonance frequency but also around the resonance frequency. From these results, we believe that HTS coil can realize the high-efficiency wireless power transmission in a low-frequency region of kilohertz.
Autors: Ryota Inoue;Daisuke Miyagi;Makoto Tsuda;Hidetoshi Matsuki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Efficiency Urban Traffic Management in Context-Aware Computing and 5G Communication
Abstract:
With the increasing number of vehicle and traffic jams, urban traffic management is becoming a serious issue. In this article, we propose novel four-tier architecture for urban traffic management with the convergence of VANETs, 5G networks, software-defined networks, and mobile edge computing technologies. The proposed architecture provides better communication and more rapid responsive speed in a more distributed and dynamic manner. The practical case of rapid accident rescue can significantly shorten the rescue time. Key technologies with respect to vehicle localization, data pre-fetching, traffic lights control, and traffic prediction are also discussed. Obviously, the novel architecture shows noteworthy potential for alleviating traffic congestion and improving the efficiency of urban traffic management.
Autors: Jianqi Liu;Jiafu Wan;Dongyao Jia;Bi Zeng;Di Li;Ching-Hsien Hsu;Haibo Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 34 - 40
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Level Feature Selection With Dictionary Learning for Unsupervised SAR Imagery Terrain Classification
Abstract:
Features are of great importance for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery terrain classification, but low-level features usually readily suffer from the speckle noise and they are incapable or inaccurate to capture some complex and irregular texture structure. In this paper, a novel feature learning framework is proposed to address this problem, in which some mid-level and high-level features are simultaneously learned by exploiting the spatial context constraints and sparse priors. More specifically, the mid-level features served as the intermediates are extracted from several initialized low-level features by the spatial constraints to reduce the influence of the speckle noise. Then, more abstract and discriminative high-level features are learned with an effective dictionary learning algorithm so as to represent the complex structures in SAR imagery. Finally, both artificial synthesis and real SAR imagery are utilized to verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework. It is demonstrated from both quantitative evaluations and visual results that the proposed algorithm performs better than other compared algorithms and the learned high-level feature is robust to the speckle noise and can improve the classification performance.
Autors: Jiawei Chen;Licheng Jiao;Zaidao Wen;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 145 - 160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Depletion/Enhancement-ode $beta$ -Ga2O3 on Insulator (GOOI) Field-Effect Transistors With Record Drain Currents of 600/450 mA/mm
Abstract:
In this letter, we report on high-performance depletion/enhancement-mode -Ga2O3 on insulator (GOOI) field-effect transistors (FETs) with record high drain currents () of 600/450 mA/mm, which are nearly one order of magnitude higher than any other reported values. The threshold voltage () can be modulated by varying the thickness of the -Ga2O3 films and the E-mode GOOI FET can be simply achieved by shrinking the -Ga2O3 film thickness. Benefiting from the good interface between -Ga2O3 and SiO2 and wide bandgap of -Ga2O3, a negligible transfer characteristic hysteresis, high ON/OFF ratio of , and low subthreshold swing of 140 mV/decade for a 300-nm-thick SiO2 are observed. E-mode GOOI FET with source to drain spacing of 0.9- demonstrates a breakdown voltage of 185 V and an average electric field (E) of 2 MV/cm, showing the great promise of GOOI FET for future power devices.
Autors: Hong Zhou;Mengwei Si;Sami Alghamdi;Gang Qiu;Lingming Yang;Peide D. Ye;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 103 - 106
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Low Coherence Interferometry Using SSB Modulation
Abstract:
Low coherence interferometry (LCI) is an optical measurement technique that has attracted the interest for relevant fields like medicine or sensing. With the objective of improving LCI capabilities, microwave photonics (MWP) arises as an innovative technology to enhance LCI possibilities. In this letter, a novel MWP-LCI approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to measure the optical path difference (OPD) of a sample. The operation principle of the technique is based on the analysis of the interference pattern through a dispersive element to retrieve its visibility using a vector network analyzer. Different capabilities of the system in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and SNR have been proved. In this case, the proposal is able to avoid carrier-suppression effect leading to a sensitivity improvement of 20 dB in comparison with previous structures for certain values of the OPD. Moreover, the OPD range has been extended up to 10 mm achieving an invariant resolution over all operation range. Finally, the improvement of the SNR of the system has been experimentally demonstrated by controlling properly the RF resonance profile through the adjustment of the optical source power distribution. We have observed an improvement of the dynamic range close to 40 dB for a Gaussian profile.
Autors: J. Benítez;M. Bolea;J. Mora;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 90 - 93
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Noninvasive Side-Channel Attack Resistant ECC Coprocessor for GF(2m )
Abstract:
Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is one of the most popular public key cryptosystems in recent years due to its higher security strength and lower resource consumption. However, the noninvasive side-channel attacks (SCAs) have been proved to be a big threat to ECC systems in many previous researches. In this paper, we propose a low-area-time-product ECC coprocessor for GF(2m) with the ability to resist most of the existing noninvasive SCAs. The basic countermeasures are relied on the underlying finite field arithmetics in randomized Montgomery domain, which can blind the intermediate value in the iterations of scalar multiplication to prevent the adversaries from cracking the private key by statistical methods. Meanwhile, we optimize the modular division and modular multiplication algorithms to fix the operating time to resist some certain timing attacks, and the Montgomery Ladder algorithm makes the coprocessor immune against simple SCAs. To efficiently implement our coprocessor, we present a hybrid operation sequence which merely needs one multiplication module and one division module to complete the entire operations. The synthesis results indicate that our design is superior to other related works in area-time product (ATP) and the extra overhead paid for the countermeasures is less than 5%.
Autors: Kai Liao;Xiaoxin Cui;Nan Liao;Tian Wang;Dunshan Yu;Xiaole Cui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 727 - 738
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Personalized Heartbeat Classification Model for Long-Term ECG Signal
Abstract:
Long-term electrocardiogram (ECG) has become one of the important diagnostic assist methods in clinical cardiovascular domain. Long-term ECG is primarily used for the detection of various cardiovascular diseases that are caused by various cardiac arrhythmia such as myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis. In the past few years, the development of an automatic heartbeat classification method has been a challenge. With the accumulation of medical data, personalized heartbeat classification of a patient has become possible. For the long-term data accumulation method, such as the holter, it is difficult to obtain the analysis results in a short time using the original method of serial design. The pressure to develop a personalized automatic classification model is high. To solve these challenges, this paper implemented a parallel general regression neural network (GRNN) to classify the heartbeat, and achieved a 95% accuracy according to the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. We designed an online learning program to form a personalized classification model for patients. The achieved accuracy of the model is 88% compared to the specific ECG data of the patients. The efficiency of the parallel GRNN with GTX780Ti can improve by 450 times.
Autors: Pengfei Li;Yu Wang;Jiangchun He;Lihua Wang;Yu Tian;Tian-shu Zhou;Tianchang Li;Jing-song Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 78 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Precision Active Suppression of DC Bias in AC Grids by Grid-Connected Power Converters
Abstract:
Increased dc injection from grid-connected power converters and an increased dc-bias sensitivity of recent distribution transformers require unprecedented precision in detecting and suppressing the dc bias in 0.4-kV ac grids. In this paper, an optimum design of the dc-bias sensing reactor is devised, along with a robust, simple-to-use sensing algorithm that does not require calibration or tuning. The sample sensors are used as feedback devices within an experimental setup comprising a three-phase grid-connected inverter and a novel dc-bias suppression algorithm. The steady-state dc bias is suppressed below , the level acceptable even with the most sensitive distribution transformers.
Autors: Slobodan N. Vukosavić;Ljiljana S. Perić;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 857 - 865
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Rate APSK-Aided Differential Spatial Modulation: Design Method and Performance Analysis
Abstract:
Differential spatial modulation (DSM) is a novel multiple-input multiple-output wireless transmission technique, which relies on a single radio-frequency transmit structure without the need of the channel state information. In this letter, a novel high-rate design scheme relying on the amplitude phase shift keying (APSK) is proposed for DSM schemes. Moreover, a simplified upper bound of the average bit error probability (ABEP) of the proposed APSK-aided DSM scheme is derived and the ring ratio of the designed DSM constellation is optimized based on our theoretical ABEP results. Simulation results show that, at the same throughputs, the proposed scheme is capable of providing considerable bit error rate performance improvement over conventional DSM schemes.
Autors: Jiang Liu;Lilin Dan;Ping Yang;Lixiao Xiao;Feng Yu;Yue Xiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 168 - 171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed In Situ Observation System for Sonoporation of Cells With Size- and Position-Controlled Microbubbles
Abstract:
A high-speed in situ microscopic observation system developed for basic studies on mechanisms of sonoporation is introduced in this paper. The main part of the system is an inverted-type fluorescence microscope, and a high-speed camera of 20 MHz in a maximum framing rate was used to visualize the dynamics of cavitation bubbles that causes a sonoporation effect. Differential interference contrast and fluorescence techniques were used for sensitive visualization of cell changes during sonoporation. The system is also equipped with optical tweezers that can move a microbubble of several microns in size by using a donut-shaped light beam. In situ microscopic observation of sonoporation was carried out using a cell with a size- and position-controlled microbubble. The experimental results showed that the ability of cells to repair sonoporation-induced damage depends on their membrane tension, indicating the usefulness of the observation system as a basic tool for the investigation of sonoporation phenomena.
Autors: Nobuki Kudo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 273 - 280
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed and Low-Latency ECC Processor Implementation Over GF( $2^{m})$ on FPGA
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel high-speed elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) processor implementation for point multiplication (PM) on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed. A new segmented pipelined full-precision multiplier is used to reduce the latency, and the Lopez-Dahab Montgomery PM algorithm is modified for careful scheduling to avoid data dependency resulting in a drastic reduction in the number of clock cycles (CCs) required. The proposed ECC architecture has been implemented on Xilinx FPGAs’ Virtex4, Virtex5, and Virtex7 families. To the best of our knowledge, our single- and three-multiplier-based designs show the fastest performance to date when compared with reported works individually. Our one-multiplier-based ECC processor also achieves the highest reported speed together with the best reported area-time performance on Virtex4 (5.32 at 210 MHz), on Virtex5 (4.91 at 228 MHz), and on the more advanced Virtex7 (3.18 at 352 MHz). Finally, the proposed three-multiplier-based ECC implementation is the first work reporting the lowest number of CCs and the fastest ECC processor design on FPGA (450 CCs to get 2.83 on Virtex7).
Autors: Zia U. A. Khan;Mohammed Benaissa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 165 - 176
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed Integrated Digital to Light Converter for Short Range Visible Light Communication
Abstract:
Design details and characterization results of an integrated digital to light converter (DLC) for short range visible light communication (VLC) is reported. The integrated DLC can generate 16 light intensity levels at fast switching speeds, up to 500 MHz, thus enabling fast intensity modulated VLC. Data rates up to 365 Mb/s are achieved with bit error rate (BER) at a link distance of 5 cm and an average electrical power efficiency of 70%. Optimization in the micro light emitting diode (LED) manufacturing process has resulted in approximately threefold increase in data rate of the system. Spectrally efficient modulation schemes such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) are also demonstrated using this integrated system.
Autors: Aravind V. N. Jalajakumari;Enyuan Xie;Jonathan McKendry;Erdan Gu;Martin D. Dawson;Harald Haas;Robert K. Henderson;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 118 - 121
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Voltage and Low-Leakage AlGaN/GaN Tri-Anode Schottky Diodes With Integrated Tri-Gate Transistors
Abstract:
We present AlGaN/GaN nanostructured Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on silicon substrate with high breakdown voltage () and low reverse leakage current (), based on a hybrid of tri-anode and tri-gate architectures. The fabricated SBDs presented a small turn-on voltage () of 0.76 ± 0.05 V, since the tri-anode architecture formed direct Schottky contact to the 2-D electron gas (2DEG). The reverse characteristic was controlled electrostatically by an embedded tri-gate transistor, instead of relying only on the Schottky barrier. This resulted in low below 10 and 100 nA/mm at large reverse biases up to 500 and 700 V, respectively. In addition, these devices exhibited record up to 1325 V at of /mm, rendering an excellent high-power figure-of-merit (FOM) of 939 MW/cm2 and demonstrating the significant potential of nanostructured GaN SBDs for future efficient power conversion.
Autors: Jun Ma;Elison Matioli;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 83 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Voltage Gain Half-Bridge Z-Source Inverter With Low-Voltage Stress on Capacitors
Abstract:
In this paper, a new topology for half-bridge Z-source inverter is proposed. The proposed topology has only one impedance network. Unlike to the conventional half-bridge inverter, the proposed topology can provide zero voltage level at the output. It also increases output voltage level and stabilizes it in the desired value. Capacitor voltage stress in the proposed topology is low, and, therefore, nominal voltage of capacitor and cost decreases. In this paper, the steady-state analysis of the proposed inverter in two new operations which are named synchronous operation of diodes and asynchronous operation of diodes is conducted based on mathematics calculations. A method to obtain high-voltage gains by cascading the Z-network and combining middle inductors is presented that leads to cost, size, and weight reduction. Comparison among the proposed converter with conventional ones shows its excellent performance. The experimental results have good agreement with analytical analysis for the proposed topology.
Autors: Ebrahim Babaei;Elias Shokati Asl;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 191 - 197
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Accurate Time-of-Flight Measurement Technique Based on Phase-Correlation for Ultrasonic Ranging
Abstract:
Ultrasonic-based distance measurements using time-of-flight (TOF) is a fundamental technique for different applications across a wide variety of fields. In general, cross correlation between a transmitted and received signal is considered to be the optimal TOF estimation technique, which produces a peak at the time delay between them. Cross correlation provides a superior performance in conjunction with a linear chirp. However, as its accuracy depends on the width of the peak, which is inversely proportional to the signal’s bandwidth, it can only be said to be highly accurate if the reflected signal at the receiver is separated in time by more than the width of the correlation peak; otherwise, errors are introduced into the system. To improve its accuracy, the bandwidth of the transmitted signal must be increased, which increases the system cost. In this paper, to solve this problem, a technique is proposed, which is able to provide a much narrower peak than cross correlation without increasing the signal’s physical bandwidth. To evaluate the proposed method, in a controlled environment, two experiments were performed under low and high multipath conditions. For an operational range of 600 mm (indoor), the root-mean-square errors were [0.10, 0.56] mm and [0.19, 1.19] mm for low and high multipath environments, respectively, which indicate that the proposed technique is precise enough to support high accuracy applications.
Autors: Md. Omar Khyam;Shuzhi Sam Ge;Xinde Li;Mark R. Pickering;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 434 - 443
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Efficient Implementation for Parameter Error Identification Method Exploiting Sparsity
Abstract:
Accuracy of the network parameters has a strong influence on the results of power system state estimation. It has been shown earlier that normalized Lagrange multipliers can be used as a systematic way for identifying errors in network parameters. However, this approach carries a rather heavy computational burden limiting its practical utilization to small-size systems. In this paper, a computationally efficient algorithm is proposed to address this limitation. The idea is to derive and compute only the necessary subset of the gain matrix and covariance matrix, thus avoiding the computation and storage of large dense matrices. The proposed efficient procedure can be applied either to the single-scan or multiple-scan schemes with equal ease. Test results confirm that the improvements in computational speed and memory requirements brought by the proposed algorithm are quite remarkable. The proposed implementation of the normalized Lagrange multipliers method is tested using a large utility power system. The effectiveness and limitations of the single-scan scheme, and the improvements brought by incorporating multiple measurement scans, are discussed in detail.
Autors: Yuzhang Lin;Ali Abur;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 734 - 742
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Efficient Solid Gear-Shaped Silicon Nanowire for Solar Energy Harvesting
Abstract:
Silicon nano-wire (SiNW) is a viable solution to harvest large amount of photons from the sun. In this letter, novel solid gear-shaped SiNW is presented and particle swarm optimization technique is used to optimize its geometrical parameters. The defined optimization goal was to increase the absorption capabilities of the proposed SiNW at the maximum wavelength emission of the sun, nm. For the sake of fabrication flexibility, we have also introduced the complementary of the proposed optimized SiNW with the same optimized dimensions. The optimal SiNW and its complementary structure with 1--thick Si substrate offer ultimate efficiencies of about 50.21% and 45.12% employing 3-D-finite-difference time-domain method. It is worth noting that the ultimate efficiencies of the proposed SiNWs are higher than that of the previous work of slanting SiNWs and funnel-shaped SiNW.
Autors: Nihal F. F. Areed;Mohamed Fouad;Salah S. A. Obayya;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 205 - 208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Power-Efficient Nyquist-mPPM-LQAM Modulation With Enhanced Spectrum Efficiency
Abstract:
Nyquist-mPPM-LQAM is proposed, theoretically analyzed, and experimentally demonstrated for power- and spectrum-efficient optical modulation. Based on Nyquist shaping, Nyquist-mPPM-LQAM halves the occupied bandwidth with doubled spectrum efficiency compared with mPPM-LQAM. Taking Nyquist-4PPM-QPSK as an example, a receiver sensitivity of −49.8 dBm at BER of 1e-3, corresponding to a calculated power efficiency of 9.1 dB with a spectrum efficiency of 1 bit/s/Hz/pol, is experimentally demonstrated at 10 Gbit/s. An improvement of 1.6 dB in power efficiency is observed over QPSK at the same spectrum efficiency. Thus, the proposed format can provide high power efficiency with double spectrum efficiency compared with non-Nyquist-shaped formats.
Autors: Miao Yu;Yan Li;Jiangchuan Pang;Deming Kong;Zhisheng Yang;Jian Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 94 - 97
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly-Efficient Self-Compact Monopulse Antenna System With Integrated Comparator Network for RF Industrial Applications
Abstract:
A highly-efficient monopulse antenna system is proposed for radar tracking system application. In this study, a novel integrated front-end and back-end complicated three-dimensional (3-D) system is realized practically to achieve high-level of self-compactness. A wideband and compact monopulse comparator network is developed and integrated as the back-end circuit in the system. Performance of the complete monopulse system is verified together with the front-end antenna array. To ensure the system's electrical efficiency and mechanical strength, a 3-D metal-direct-printing technique is utilized to fabricate the complicated structure, avoiding drawbacks from conventional machining methods and assembly processes. Experimental results show the monopulse system can achieve a bandwidth of 12.9% with VSWR less than 1.5 in the Ku-band, and isolation is better than 30 dB. More than 31.5 dBi gain can be maintained in the sum-patterns of wide bandwidth. The amplitude imbalance is less than 0.2 dB and null-depths are lower than −30 dB in the difference-patterns. In particular, with the help of the metal-printing technique, more than 90% efficiency can be retained in the monopulse system. It is a great improvement compared with that obtained from traditional machining approaches, indicating that this technique is promising for realizing high-performance RF intricate systems electrically and mechanically.
Autors: Guan-Long Huang;Shi-Gang Zhou;Tan-Huat Chio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 674 - 681
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hitting the Sweet Spot: A Single-Ended Power Amplifier Exploiting Class AB Sweet Spots and Optimized Third Harmonic Termination
Abstract:
The single-ended RF power amplifier (PA) is a standard design approach in the RF engineer?s tool kit, but high efficiency and good linearity may only be achieved if the harmonic terminations and biasing conditions are carefully examined. This is demonstrated in a single-ended PA using class-AB "sweet spots" and an optimized third harmonic termination, which won first place at the 2016 IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) International Microwave Symposium?s high-efficiency PA student design competition, sponsored by Technical Committee MTT-5.
Autors: Paolo Enrico de Falco;James Birchall;Laurence Smith;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 63 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How Best to Teach Global Software Engineering? Educators Are Divided
Abstract:
Pioneering educators discuss how they inject realism into global-software-engineering education.
Autors: Sarah Beecham;Tony Clear;Daniela Damian;John Barr;John Noll;Walt Scacchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 16 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How Much Computing Capability Is Enough to Run a Cloud Radio Access Network?
Abstract:
Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has emerged as a promising solution to support exponentially increasing demand in data rate. The attractive capacity enhancement mainly comes from centralized and coordinated processing, which poses great challenges on computing capability in the baseband unit pool. This requires the efficient allocation of computing resources to minimize the hardware and energy costs of C-RANs. Therefore, in this letter, we first model the computing resource consumption of joint downlink transmissions from remote radio heads (RRHs) to users. Then, we investigate the computing resource minimization problem on how much computing capability is needed given certain number of RRHs and user density. Numerical results show that the computing resource consumption increases non-linearly with the user density. In particular, the required computing resource drastically increases when densely populated hotspots are present in the system.
Autors: Yun Liao;Lingyang Song;Yonghui Li;Yingjun Angela Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 104 - 107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Human Facial Age Estimation by Cost-Sensitive Label Ranking and Trace Norm Regularization
Abstract:
Human facial age estimation has attracted much attention due to its potential applications in forensics, security, and biometrics. In contrast to existing approaches that cast facial age estimation as either a multiclass classification or regression problem, in this work, we propose a novel approach that combines the strength of cost-sensitive label ranking methods with the power of low-rank matrix recovery theories. Instead of having to make a binary decision for each age label, our approach ranks age labels in a descending order in terms of their predicted relevance to the given facial image. In addition, the proposed approach aggregates the linear prediction functions for different ages into a matrix, and introduces the matrix trace norm regularization to explicitly capture the correlations among different age labels and control the model complexity as well. Furthermore, motivated by nonlinear generalization performance of kernel methods, we extend the trace norm regularization from a finite dimensional space to an infinite dimensional space. We also provide theoretical analysis on the efficiency of the proposed kernelized trace normalization, which guarantees the feasibility of the proposed method for solving large-scale prediction problems. Comprehensive experiments on multiple well-known facial image datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework for age estimation compared to the state-of-the-arts.
Autors: Songhe Feng;Congyan Lang;Jiashi Feng;Tao Wang;Jiebo Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 136 - 148
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Human Parsing with Contextualized Convolutional Neural Network
Abstract:
In this work, we address the human parsing task with a novel Contextualized Convolutional Neural Network (Co-CNN) architecture, which well integrates the cross-layer context, global image-level context, semantic edge context, within-super-pixel context and cross-super-pixel neighborhood context into a unified network. Given an input human image, Co-CNN produces the pixel-wise categorization in an end-to-end way. First, the cross-layer context is captured by our basic local-to-global-to-local structure, which hierarchically combines the global semantic information and the local fine details across different convolutional layers. Second, the global image-level label prediction is used as an auxiliary objective in the intermediate layer of the Co-CNN, and its outputs are further used for guiding the feature learning in subsequent convolutional layers to leverage the global image-level context. Third, semantic edge context is further incorporated into Co-CNN, where the high-level semantic boundaries are leveraged to guide pixel-wise labeling. Finally, to further utilize the local super-pixel contexts, the within-super-pixel smoothing and cross-super-pixel neighbourhood voting are formulated as natural sub-components of the Co-CNN to achieve the local label consistency in both training and testing process. Comprehensive evaluations on two public datasets well demonstrate the significant superiority of our Co-CNN over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F-1 score on the large dataset [1] reaches by Co-CNN, significantly higher than and 64.38,text{percent} by the state-of-the-art algorithms, M-CNN [2] and ATR [1] , respectively. By utilizing our newly collected large dataset for training, our Co-CNN can achieve in F-1 score.
Autors: Xiaodan Liang;Chunyan Xu;Xiaohui Shen;Jianchao Yang;Jinhui Tang;Liang Lin;Shuicheng Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 115 - 127
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Adaptive/Nonadaptive Delayed Signal Cancellation-Based Phase-Locked Loop
Abstract:
To improve the disturbance rejection capability of phase-locked loops (PLLs), which are undoubtedly the most common synchronization tool in power and energy applications, using different filtering techniques have been suggested in the literature. Among these filtering strategies, the delayed signal cancellation (DSC) operator is highly popular probably because it can be easily tailored for different grid scenarios. The DSC operator(s) can be used either as an in-loop filter in the PLL structure or as a preprocessing filter before the PLL input. The latter case is often preferred mainly because it results in a faster dynamic response in the extraction of grid voltage parameters. In this paper, a combination of an adaptive DSC operator with multiple nonadaptive DSC operators is suggested as the PLL preprocessing stage. To compensate for the phase and amplitude errors caused by the nonadaptive operators, a compensator is designed and cascaded with them. The proposed filter requires a low computational burden for the implementation and ensures a fast dynamic response and high filtering capability for the PLL. The effectiveness of this technique is verified through experimental results.
Autors: Saeed Golestan;Josep M. Guerrero;Juan Carlos Vasquez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 470 - 479
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Communication Topology and Protocol for Distributed-Controlled Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel STATCOM
Abstract:
Distributed control scheme is preferred to the multiple-modules-based system because of the simple structure, low maintenance, and high scalability. This paper proposes a hybrid communication topology and a route-switching communication protocol to implement the distributed control applied in the cascaded H-bridge (CHB) multilevel static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The hybrid topology consists of multiple paralleled synchronous communication branches and each branch has very small transmission delay, which makes it possible to apply the low-speed communication network, such as 5 Mb/s optical fiber, to reduce the cost and improve the reliability. The route-switching communication protocol promises the global fault response of the STATCOM as quick as 10 μs by switching from the long normal data to the short fault signal when the module fault occurs. Experiments based on the CHB 13-level STATCOM prototype verify the effectiveness, flexibility, and reliability of the proposed topology and protocol.
Autors: Hua Geng;Shuzhen Li;Chao Zhang;Geng Yang;Lei Dong;Babak Nahid-Mobarakeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 576 - 584
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Hardware/Software Floating-Point Implementations for Optimized Area and Throughput Tradeoffs
Abstract:
Hybrid floating-point (FP) implementations improve software FP performance without incurring the area overhead of full hardware FP units. The proposed implementations are synthesized in 65-nm CMOS and integrated into small fixed-point processors with a RISC-like architecture. Unsigned, shift carry, and leading zero detection (USL) support is added to a processor to augment an existing instruction set architecture and increase FP throughput with little area overhead. The hybrid implementations with USL support increase software FP throughput per core by for addition/subtraction, for multiplication, 3.07– for division, and 3.11– for square root, and use 90.7–94.6% less area than dedicated fused multiply-add (FMA) hardware. Hybrid implementations with custom FP-specific hardware increase throughput per core over a fixed-point software kernel by 3.69– for addition/subtraction, 1.22– for multiplication, for division, and for square root, and use 77.3–97.0% less area than dedicated FMA hardware. The circuit area and throughput are found for 38 multiply-add, 8 addition/subtraction, 6 multiplication, 45 division, and 45 square root designs. Thir- y-three multiply-add implementations are presented, which improve throughput per core versus a fixed-point software implementation by 1.11– and use 38.2–95.3% less area than dedicated FMA hardware.
Autors: Jon J. Pimentel;Brent Bohnenstiehl;Bevan M. Baas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 100 - 113
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid ORC Waste Heat Recovery System and Solar Thermal Plant in Ait Baha, Morocco
Abstract:
This paper presents the heat recovery system of a cement plant in Morocco. The particularity of the plant is that it utilizes a hybrid solution with an organic rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerator. The heat used in the ORC unit to be transformed into electricity comes from both heat recovery from the cement production and from solar collectors through a thermal oil loop.
Autors: Fabio Rizzi;Clotilde Rossi di Schio;Sabrina Santarossa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 602 - 607
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Single-Phase AC–AC Modular Multilevel DSCC Converters With Modulation and DC-Link Voltage Ripple Improvement
Abstract:
This paper proposes two hybrid topologies based on a single ac–ac modular multilevel cascade cascade converter (MMCC) with double-star chopper cells (DSCC), in each of which a voltage reference technique (VRT) is associated for generating the output modulating references. In doing so, either the grid-connected leg or the shared leg can be switched at the line frequency, thus reducing the switching losses. For proper operation of the VRTs in real-time, the input and output converter voltages must be in sync, hence a synchronization technique is proposed. Furthermore, when no dc-link capacitor is used in a DSCC converter, the dc-link is subjected to voltage ripples derived from the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) technique. In that case, high-frequency PWM techniques can produce high-frequency components across the arm inductors, which are reflected in the dc-link. Therefore, this paper focuses on the operability of the hybrid modular multilevel DSCC converters, but also on the investigation of the proposed VRTs in reducing the dc-link voltage ripple on the conventional DSCC converter using PWM with phase-shifted carriers (PSCs). Simulated and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed techniques and converters.
Autors: Italo Roger Ferreira Moreno Pinheiro da Silva;Cursino Brandão Jacobina;Alexandre Cunha Oliveira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 261 - 272
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Stator Design of Fault-Tolerant Permanent-Magnet Vernier Machines for Direct-Drive Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, a new hybrid stator developed from conventional open-slot and split-tooth stators is proposed for a fault-tolerant permanent-magnet (PM) vernier (FTPMV) machine to improve its performance. The design considerations of the new hybrid stator for FTPMV machines are presented. Afterward, on the basis of the designed hybrid stator, new FTPMV machines with surface-mounted and spoke-array PMs are proposed and analyzed, respectively. Comparative evaluation of the proposed FTPMV, conventional FTPMV, and the conventional PM machines are performed by using finite-element (FE) analysis. It is found that the proposed FTPMV machines with the new hybrid stator definitely offer the improved performances such as higher torque density, higher power factor, and lower iron core loss as compared to that of the conventional FTPMV machines. Finally, the experiments on the prototype machines are conducted, verifying the FE analysis results and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid stator design for FTPMV machines.
Autors: Liang Xu;Guohai Liu;Wenxiang Zhao;Xinyu Yang;Ran Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 179 - 190
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Z-Source Boost DC–DC Converters
Abstract:
This paper presents a new family of hybrid Z-source boost dc–dc converters intended for photovoltaic applications, where the high step-up dc–dc converters are demanded to boost the low-source voltages to a predefined grid voltage. Because the boost capabilities of the traditional Z-source networks are limited, the proposed converters are composed of combine traditional Z-source networks in different ways to enhance the boost abilities of the traditional Z-source networks. The new version of the proposed Z-source converters is termed as hybrid Z-source boost dc–dc converters to satisfy the traditional benefits of Z-source networks with stronger voltage boost abilities which can also be applied to dc–ac, ac–ac, and ac–dc power conversions. The performances of the proposed converters are compared with other Z-source networks behaviors. The simulation and experimental results of the proposed converters are validated at different operating conditions.
Autors: Hanyun Shen;Bo Zhang;Dongyuan Qiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 310 - 319
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Image Unmixing Based on Fast Kernel Archetypal Analysis
Abstract:
Restricted by the associated factors to spatial resolution in remote sensing, mixed pixels and relative pure pixels may both exist in hyperspectral images. In this paper, Kernel Archetypal Analysis (KAA) is investigated for flexible endmember extraction which implicitly takes the intraclass variability into account in relative pure pixel mapping and mixed pixel unmixing. As kernel matrix in KAA brings high computational cost, fast KAA (FKAA) is proposed in this study to relieve KAA's memory issue and reduce KAA's processing time using the Nyström method. Nyström method is used to realize low-rank approximation of the high-dimensional kernel matrix in KAA by using a small portion of informative samples obtained by K-means. Experiments were conducted on both synthetic and real hyperspectral images. The results show that both KAA and FKAA can generate representative endmembers from the mixed data. With proper parameter setting, they can address the intraclass endmember variability in endmember extraction and achieve more realistic unmixing results than conventional geometric methods. In particular, FKAA is able to speed up KAA without significant reduction in unmixing accuracy.
Autors: Chunhui Zhao;Genping Zhao;Xiuping Jia;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 331 - 346
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hysteresis Compensation Method for Magnetoresistive Sensors Based on Single Polar Controlled Magnetic Field Pulses
Abstract:
This paper presents an improved hysteresis compensation method based on magnetic field pulses. The magnetic field pulses are generated by current pulses applied to a one-winding coil structure on the top of the sensor element. This configuration allows the sensor electronic to drive a magnetoresistive (MR) sensor in its magnetic saturation. Anisotropic magnetoresistance, giant magnetoresistance, and tunnel magnetoresistance current sensors are chosen for conducting experiments. The magnetic field generated by current pulses and the magnetic field generated by the current to be measured always have to be in the same direction. As a result, the output characteristic of an MR current sensor can always be kept on the negative rising and the positive falling branch of the magnetic major loop during the measurement. Thus, a defined output of the MR current sensor independent from the magnetic history for all current values can be achieved. An electronic mixed signal circuit consisting of a field-programmable gate array, an optoisolator, analog switches, and attention display converters is used to generate the current pulses and to measure the output of the current sensor. Current measurements with and without controlled magnetic field (current) pulses are compared. A hysteresis reduction to nearly 20% of the original value, by using this hysteresis compensation method, was reached.
Autors: Fei Xie;Roland Weiss;Robert Weigel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 710 - 716
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IAS Volunteers Make a Difference [President's Message]
Abstract:
Presents the President's message for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Tomy Sebastian;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 4 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of the Optimum Relocalization Time in the Mobile Wireless Sensor Network Using Time-Bounded Relocalization Methodology
Abstract:
Contrary to the static sensor network that requires one-time localization, a mobile wireless sensor network (MWSN) requires an estimation of the optimum time to retrigger the localization of the network to accurately identify the sensor location after certain movements. However, triggering relocalization at predefined time intervals without proper consideration of the dynamic movement of sensors is insubstantial and results in poor resource management. In this paper, a new algorithm called time-bounded relocalization is proposed to identify the optimum relocalization time for the entire MWSN using the time-bounded localization method based on the analysis of the sensors' mobility pattern. In the proposed algorithm, the optimum retriggering time across the entire network can be calculated in two phases: local and global relocalizations. In the first phase, an island-based clustering method is used to estimate the local relocalization time. Next, the estimated local times are then used to decide on the optimum global relocalization time based on the statistical property of the estimated local times. For these calculations, a probabilistic model of the random waypoint (RWP) is selected. The soundness of the proposed algorithm is initially validated by deriving the probabilistic model of the optimum retriggering time, and its accuracy is checked by the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB). The proposed algorithm is then extensively tested by computer simulation using practical network parameters, including the number of nodes, the size of the network, and various sizes of islands, depending on the sensor mobility, to yield the respective optimum relocalization time. The simulation results show that by using the identified optimum relocalization time, the location estimation error can be reduced by up to 32% for the RWP model, as compared with the case of using fixed relocalization time.
Autors: Mona Nasseri;Junghwan Kim;Robert Green;Mansoor Alam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 344 - 357
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE 802.15.7r1 Reference Channel Models for Visible Light Communications
Abstract:
The IEEE has established the standardization group 802.15.7r1 “Short Range Optical Wireless Communications”, which is currently in the process of developing a standard for visible light communication (VLC). As with any other communication system, realistic channel models are of critical importance for VLC system design, performance evaluation, and testing. This article presents the reference channel models that were endorsed by the IEEE 802.15.7r1 Task Group for evaluation of VLC system proposals. These were developed for typical indoor environments, including home, office, and manufacturing cells. While highlighting the channel models, we further discuss physical layer techniques potentially considered for IEEE 802.15.7r1.
Autors: Murat Uysal;Farshad Miramirkhani;Omer Narmanlioglu;Tuncer Baykas;Erdal Panayirci;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 212 - 217
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IF-Matching: Towards Accurate Map-Matching with Information Fusion
Abstract:
With the advance of various location-acquisition technologies, a myriad of GPS trajectories can be collected every day. However, the raw coordinate data captured by sensors often cannot reflect real positions due to many physical constraints and some rules of law. How to accurately match GPS trajectories to roads on a digital map is an important issue. The problem of map-matching is fundamental for many applications. Unfortunately, many existing methods still cannot meet stringent performance requirements in engineering. In particular, low/unstable sampling rate and noisy/lost data are usually big challenges. Information fusion of different data sources is becoming increasingly promising nowadays. As in practice, some other measurements such as speed and moving direction are collected together with the spatial locations acquired, we can make use of not only location coordinates but all data collected. In this paper, we propose a novel model using the related meta-information to describe a moving object, and present an algorithm called IF-Matching for map-matching. It can handle many ambiguous cases which cannot be correctly matched by existing methods. We run our algorithm with taxi trajectory data on a city-wide road network. Compared with two state-of-the-art algorithms of ST-Matching and the winner of GIS Cup 2012, our approach achieves more accurate results.
Autors: Gang Hu;Jie Shao;Fenglin Liu;Yuan Wang;Heng Tao Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 114 - 127
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Contact Resistance on the $f_T$ and $f_{max}$ of Graphene Versus $text{MoS}_2$ Transistors
Abstract:
A key challenge in making 2-D materials viable for electronics is reducing the contact resistance of the source and drain, which can otherwise severely curtail performance. We consider the impact of contact resistance on the performance of transistors made with single-layer graphene and , two of the most popular 2-D materials presently under consideration for radio-frequency (RF) applications. While our focus is on the impact of , we include the impact of all the device parasitics. We consider a device structure based on the 7-nm node of the ITRS and use the unity-current-gain and unity-power-gain frequencies ( and ) found from quantum-mechanical simulations, ballistic for graphene and with scattering for , as indicators of RF performance. We quantify our results in terms of the values of needed to reach specific values of and . In terms of peak performance (over all bias conditions), we show that graphene retains a significant edge over , despite graphene's poor output conductance, with only being able to bridge the gap if considerably better contact resistanc- s can be realized. However, with the bias current restricted to a technologically relevant value, we show that graphene loses much of its advantage, primarily due to a reduction in its transconductance , and we show that can then meet or exceed the performance of graphene via the realization of contact resistances already achieved in multilayer structures. Our values of for short-channel devices (around the 7-nm ITRS node) are shown to be consistent with experimental data for present-day long-channel devices, supporting our approach and conclusions.
Autors: Kyle D. Holland;Ahsan U. Alam;Navid Paydavosi;Michael Wong;Christopher M. Rogers;Shahriar Rizwan;Diego Kienle;Mani Vaidyanathan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 94 - 106
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of CSI Feedback Strategies on LTE Downlink and Reinforcement Learning Solutions for Optimal Allocation
Abstract:
The constant increase in wireless handheld devices and the prospect of billions of connected machines has led the cellular community to research many different technologies that can deliver a high data rate and quality of service to mobile users (MUs). One of the problems that is usually overlooked by the community is that more devices mean higher signaling necessary to coordinate transmission and to allocate resources effectively. In particular, channel state information (CSI) of the users' channels is necessary in order for the base station to assign frequency resources. On the other hand, this feedback (FB) information comes at a cost of uplink (UL) bandwidth, which is traditionally not considered. In this paper, we analyze the impact that reduced user FB information has on a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network. A model, which considers the tradeoff between downlink (DL) performance and UL overhead, is presented. We introduce different FB-allocation strategies, which follow the same structure as the ones in the LTE standard, and study their effects on the network for varying number of users and different resource-allocation strategies. We show that dynamically allocating FB resources can be beneficial for the network. In order for the base station to determine which FB-allocation strategy is the most beneficial, in specific network conditions, we propose two reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms. The first solution allows the base station to allocate one homogeneous FB strategy valid for all the users served, whereas the second more complex solution determines a different strategy for each user based on its channel conditions. The RL methods show that, even in dynamic scenarios, each base station is capable of determining an optimal operating point autonomously, hence optimally balancing FB overhead and benefits.
Autors: Alessandro Chiumento;Claude Desset;Sofie Pollin;Liesbet Van der Perre;Rudy Lauwereins;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 550 - 562
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Directionality on Interference Mitigation in Full-Duplex Cellular Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider two fundamental full-duplex (FD) architectures, two-node and three-node, in the context of cellular networks where the terminals employ directional antennas. The simultaneous transmission and reception of data in non-orthogonal channels makes FD radio a potential solution for the currently limited spectrum. However, its implementation generates high levels of interference either in the form of loopback interference (LI) from the output to the input antenna of a transceiver or in the form of co-channel interference in large-scale multicell networks due to the large number of active links. Using a stochastic geometry model, we investigate how directional antennas can control and mitigate the co-channel interference. Furthermore, we provide a model which characterizes the way directional antennas manage the LI in order to passively suppress it. Our results show that both architectures can benefit significantly by the employment of directional antennas. Finally, we consider the case where both architectures are employed in the network and derive the optimal values for the density fraction of each architecture, which maximize the success probability and the network throughput.
Autors: Constantinos Psomas;Mohammadali Mohammadi;Ioannis Krikidis;Himal A. Suraweera;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 487 - 502
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Fin Height and Fin Angle Variation on the Performance Matrix of Hybrid FinFETs
Abstract:
In this paper, we systematically examined the impact of fin height () and fin angle () on the ac performance parameters including total gate capacitance (), delay (), cutoff frequency (), energy (), total power (), and leakage power () of hybrid FinFETs at the supply voltage, with on-current . The delay, energy, and total power consumption are the primary factors limiting the operating frequency of the high-performance devices. Therefore, these electrical parameters are needed to be addressed in the architectural level of the fin based devices. In this paper, a calibrated numerical device simulation tool is used to achieve the best device performances of 14-nm hybrid FinFETs. From the simulated current–voltage (–) and capacitance–voltage (–) characteristics of hybrid FinFETs, the parameters , , , CV2, , and are extracted to analyze the effect of and on the performance matrices of these devices. In addition, this paper proposes an optimum structural configuration for 14-nm hybrid FinFET architecture for digital application perspective.
Autors: Kumar Prasannajit Pradhan;Samar K. Saha;Prasanna Kumar Sahu; Priyanka;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 52 - 57
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Full Duplex Scheduling on End-to-End Throughput in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks
Abstract:
There have been some rapid advances on the design of full duplex (FD) transceivers in recent years. Although the benefits of FD have been studied for single-hop wireless communications, its potential on throughput performance in a multi-hop wireless network remains unclear. As for multi-hop networks, a fundamental problem is to compute the achievable end-to-end throughput for one or multiple communication sessions. The goal of this paper is to offer some fundamental understanding on end-to-end throughput performance limits of FD in a multi-hop wireless network. We show that through a rigorous mathematical formulation, we can cast the multi-hop throughput performance problem into a formal optimization problem. Through numerical results, we show that in many cases, the end-to-end session throughput in a FD network can exceed of that in a half duplex (HD) network. Our finding can be explained by the much larger design space for scheduling that is offered by removing HD constraints in throughput maximization problem. The results in this paper offer some new understandings on the potential benefits of FD for end-to-end session throughput in a multi-hop wireless network.
Autors: Xiaoqi Qin;Huacheng Zeng;Xu Yuan;Brian Jalaian;Y. Thomas Hou;Wenjing Lou;Scott F. Midkiff;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 158 - 171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Next-Generation Mobile Technologies on IoT-Cloud Convergence
Abstract:
Autors: M. Shamim Hossain;Changsheng Xu;Ying Li;Al-Sakib Khan Pathan;Josu Bilbao;Wenjun Zeng;Abdulmotaleb El Saddik;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 18 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Parasitic Capacitance and Ferroelectric Parameters on Negative Capacitance FinFET Characteristics
Abstract:
In this letter, we present a compact model and analyze the impact of key parameters on negative capacitance FinFET (NC-FinFET) device operation. The developed model solves FinFET device electrostatics and Landau–Khalatnikov equations self-consistently. An experimental NC-FinFET device is accurately modeled and the experimentally calibrated parameters are used to analyze the NC-FinFETs device performance and its dependence on several key parameters.
Autors: Sourabh Khandelwal;Juan Pablo Duarte;Asif Islam Khan;Sayeef Salahuddin;Chenming Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 142 - 144
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Using Resistive Elements for Wideband Isolation Improvement
Abstract:
Improving the isolation between antenna elements in compact arrays has been a major focus of recent research. In this paper, we present ideas to improve the wideband isolation between closely spaced antennas. We do this by connecting lumped lossy (resistive) elements between the antenna feeds. A simple analytical expression is provided to compute the impact of resistive elements on efficiency to analyze the power lost in the resistive element. Three configurations of decoupling circuits are designed and fabricated for two closely spaced monopoles operating at 2.4 GHz. The decoupling circuit contains transmission lines of different lengths at the antenna inputs such that the mutual admittance between the antenna elements is: 1) resistive; 2) resistive and inductive; or 3) resistive and capacitive. Lumped elements are then connected between the transmission lines followed by matching circuit. This paper shows that with configurations 2) and 3), we can improve the wideband isolation compared with 1), as well as compared with using only lossless elements. The wideband isolation was improved by 17.6 dB across a 200-MHz band at 2.4 GHz, with a final isolation level of 20 dB over that band. Better than 30 dB isolation was achieved across a narrower band of 55 MHz. The proposed technique provides wideband isolation improvement for multiple-input multiple-output as well as narrowband performance with large isolation suitable for in-band full-duplex applications. The impact on efficiency is investigated to verify that the advantages from the improved wideband isolation outweigh the possible reduction in overall efficiency.
Autors: Sathya N. Venkatasubramanian;Linsheng Li;Anu Lehtovuori;Clemens Icheln;Katsuyuki Haneda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 52 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impacts of Reduced Motor Cooling on Reliability
Abstract:
It has been well documented that bearing failures are the leading cause for grease lubricated motor repairs, and grease service life deterioration is a leading cause of bearing failures. Grease service life deteriorates rapidly with elevated operating temperatures, so it may be ascertained that a design change significantly reducing motor cooling would result in elevated bearing temperature, marginal lubrication, premature bearing failures, and reduced motor reliability. In recent years, the ever increasing drive for higher motor efficiencies has resulted in motor designs with less cooling capacity. A recent refinery motor reliability study confirms this correlation and highlights the issue with inadequately cooled motors. Results of the study reveal why new IEEE Standard 841 high-efficiency motors are at greater risk of a drive end bearing failure than the older motors they are replacing. The current IEEE Standard 841 allowable bearing temperature rise is exceedingly high (50 °C/90 °F rise on two-pole motors). To optimize bearing service life and motor reliability, this allowable temperature rise should be reduced significantly.
Autors: Ralph Gerstenkorn;Tyler Somes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 739 - 744
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impedance Spectroscopic Analysis of the InSe/ZnSe/InSe Interface
Abstract:
In this paper, n-InSe/p-ZnSe/n-InSe (npn) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are deposited onto cubic (111)-oriented Ag, Au, and Al thin-film substrates. The properties of the structures are explored by means of X-ray diffraction and impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10–1800 MHz. Although the Ag, Au, and Al substrates are observed to be well aligned with the cubic ZnSe, the electrical properties of these TFT for the np (InSe/ZnSe) and npn interfaces are different. Namely, while the capacitance of the TFT deposited onto the Ag substrate exhibited positive values, the capacitance of the TFT deposited onto Au and Al films is negative in the range of 10–1100 and 800–1800 MHz, respectively. In addition, even though the impedance of the Ag/np/Ag and Ag/npn/Ag heterojunction monotonically decreased with the increasing frequency, the impedance of Au/np/Au and Au/npn/Au interfaces exhibited resonance peaks at 1211 and 1148 MHz, respectively. When the wave trap features are read from reflection spectra, it is observed that the Ag/npn/Ag and the Al/np/Ag exhibit low-pass filter properties and the Au/npn/Au behaves as a bandstop filter at a notch frequency of 1176 MHz. These properties nominate the npn transistors for use as microwave traps and as high-speed CMOS amplifiers.
Autors: Sabah E. Al Garni;Atef F. Qasrawi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 244 - 249
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Implantable Microimaging Device for Observing Brain Activities of Rodents
Abstract:
In this review, we present an implantable microimaging device to observe brain activities of small experimental animals such as mice and rats. Three categories of such devices are described: an optical fiber system, a head-mountable fluorescent microscope, and an ultrasmall image sensor that can be directly implanted into the brain. Among them, we focus on the third one, because this is a powerful tool to explore brain activities in deep brain region in a freely moving mouse. The device structure and performance are shown with some examples of deep brain images of mice.
Autors: Jun Ohta;Yasumi Ohta;Hiroaki Takehara;Toshihiko Noda;Kiyotaka Sasagawa;Takashi Tokuda;Makito Haruta;Takuma Kobayashi;Yasemin M. Akay;Metin Akay;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 105, issue:1, pages: 158 - 166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Implementation and Switching Behavior of a PCB-DBC IGBT Module Based on the Power Chip-on-Chip 3-D Concept
Abstract:
With the emergence of new power semiconductor devices, the switching speeds in power converters are increasing. The stray inductances of switching cells must, therefore, be minimized to limit overvoltages on transistors. One relatively new approach, called power chip-on-chip (PCoC), considers the integration of power dies, one on top of the other, directly in the busbar. This allows for the reduction of the stray inductance. This paper first presents the implementation of a PCoC module using classical packaging techniques. Then, a description of the different technological steps for the realization is outlined. Finally, experimental characterization results confirm the lower stray inductances offered by the PCoC package compared with the planar one.
Autors: Jean-Louis Marchesini;Pierre-Olivier Jeannin;Yvan Avenas;Johan Delaine;Cyril Buttay;Raphaël Riva;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 362 - 370
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Implementation of NG9-1-1 in Rural America–The Counties of Southern Illinois: Experience and Opportunities
Abstract:
This article describes the deployment of a next generation 9-1-1 network in Southern Illinois. Thirteen counties and one municipality banded together to design, build, test and deploy this network, which provides voice, text, video and data services to emergency callers, call takers, and first responders. The author describes key challenges where contributions have been and will continue to be made through the collaboration of industry, academia, government, and standards bodies. Lessons learned and potential next steps are examined.
Autors: Barbara Kemp;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 152 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Power Quality Bridgeless Converter-Based SMPS for Arc Welding
Abstract:
This paper proposes a power-factor-corrected bridgeless (BL) switched-mode power supply (SMPS) for welding applications that possesses output voltage control and current limiting feature even during extreme overloading conditions at the output terminals. Eliminating an input diode bridge rectifier minimizes conduction losses and improves thermal utilization of semiconductor devices. The front-end of the proposed SMPS consists of a BL boost converter operating in a continuous conduction mode to attain unity power factor, while at the rear end a pulse width modulation isolated full bridge dc–dc converter is used to regulate the output voltage. The design and implementation of this BL arc welding power supply (AWPS) is presented showing its fast dynamic response to supply voltage and load variations. The performance of the proposed AWPS is examined in terms of power factor, total harmonic distortion of the supply current, efficiency, and output current limit over a wide range of line/load variations. Test results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed AWPS in maintaining an impeccable power quality at utility interface apart from achieving an excellent output voltage regulation and current limiting capability.
Autors: Swati Narula;Bhim Singh;G. Bhuvaneswari;Rahul Pandey;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 275 - 284
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Realtime State-of-Charge Estimation of LiFePO $_{boldsymbol 4}$ Battery Based on a Novel Thermoelectric Model
Abstract:
Li-ion batteries have been widely used in electric vehicles, and battery internal state estimation plays an important role in the battery management system. However, it is technically challenging, in particular, for the estimation of the battery internal temperature and state-of-charge (SOC), which are two key state variables affecting the battery performance. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for realtime simultaneous estimation of these two internal states, thus leading to a significantly improved battery model for realtime SOC estimation. To achieve this, a simplified battery thermoelectric model is first built, which couples a thermal submodel and an electrical submodel. The interactions between the battery thermal and electrical behaviors are captured, thus offering a comprehensive description of the battery thermal and electrical behavior. To achieve more accurate internal state estimations, the model is trained by the simulation error minimization method, and model parameters are optimized by a hybrid optimization method combining a metaheuristic algorithm and the least-square approach. Further, time-varying model parameters under different heat dissipation conditions are considered, and a joint extended Kalman filter is used to simultaneously estimate both the battery internal states and time-varying model parameters in realtime. Experimental results based on the testing data of LiFePO batteries confirm the efficacy of the proposed method.
Autors: Cheng Zhang;Kang Li;Jing Deng;Shiji Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 654 - 663
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Surface Modification of Polymer Films by Energy-Compressed Dielectric Barrier Discharge With Discharge-Time-Regulated Power Source
Abstract:
An energy-compressed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in the atmospheric-pressure air is established to improve the surface modification of the polymer films. The effective discharge time of per repetitive cycle in the DBD system is adjusted by employing an active regulated power source, which can compress the energy transferred to the DBD load in the time domain. The effect of the energy compression on the surface modification of the polyethylene films is studied at different energy densities and frequencies by using the contact angle measurement, the atomic force microscope, and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The results show that, at the given energy density and frequency, the surface wettability is improved by increasing the energy compression degree due to the higher surface roughness and more oxygen-containing polar functional groups. Furthermore, less energy density is needed to achieve the same level of surface wettability by increasing the energy compression degree. The reasons for the high performance of the energy-compressed DBD are the increase of the reactive species density and the enhancement of the physical and chemical interactions. As a result, the energy-compressed DBD is a superior solution for the polymer surface modification.
Autors: Shiqiang Hao;Wuhua Li;Xiaowei Gu;Xiangning He;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 60 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving 3D Character Posing with a Gestural Interface
Abstract:
The most time-consuming part of character animation is 3D character posing. Posing using a mouse is a slow and tedious task that involves sequences of selecting on-screen control handles and manipulating the handles to adjust character parameters, such as joint rotations and end effector positions. Thus, various 3D user interfaces have been proposed to make animating easier, but they typically provide less accuracy. The proposed interface combines a mouse with the Leap Motion device to provide 3D input. A usability study showed that users preferred the Leap Motion over a mouse as a 3D gestural input device. The Leap Motion drastically decreased the number of required operations and the task completion time, especially for novice users.
Autors: Mikko Kytö;Krupakar Dhinakaran;Aki Martikainen;Perttu Hämäläinen;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 70 - 78
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving Convergence and Simulation Time of Quantum Hydrodynamic Simulation: Application to Extraction of Best 10-nm FinFET Parameter Values
Abstract:
As electronic devices enter the deep nanometer regime, accurate and efficient device simulations become necessary to account for the emerging quantum effects. The traditional drift-diffusion and hydrodynamic (HD) device simulation models are not accurate in this regime. It is important to use the quantum HD (QHD) simulation model. However, this model suffers from poor convergence and high CPU times. To overcome these obstacles, in this paper, we propose a novel method to replace part of the QHD simulation that exhibits poor convergence behavior and high CPU time with HD simulation. In order to implement this, we capture the device states from the classical HD model and then apply the results as the initial guess to the QHD simulation, which is then solved by the Newton-Raphson method. This leads to significant improvements. The nonconvergence rate and the simulation time are reduced by 86.0% and 30.2%, respectively. As an application of the proposed methodology, we extract the best parameter values of both bulk and silicon-on-insulator FinFETs at the 10-nm technology node from their vast device design space.
Autors: Xiaoliang Dai;Niraj K. Jha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 319 - 329
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving Orthorectification of UAV-Based Push-Broom Scanner Imagery Using Derived Orthophotos From Frame Cameras
Abstract:
Low-cost unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as a promising platform for remote-sensing data acquisition to satisfy the needs of wide range of applications. Utilizing UAVs, which are equipped with directly georeferenced RGB-frame cameras and hyperspectral push-broom scanners, for precision agriculture and high-throughput phenotyping is an important application that is gaining significant attention from researchers in the mapping and plant science fields. The advantages of UAVs as mobile-mapping platforms include low cost, ease of storage and deployment, ability to fly lower and collect high-resolution data, and filling an important gap between wheel-based and manned-airborne platforms. However, limited endurance and payload are the main disadvantages of consumer-grade UAVs. These limitations lead to the adoption of low-quality direct georeferencing and imaging systems, which in turn will impact the quality of the delivered products. Thanks to recent advances in sensor calibration and automated triangulation, accurate mapping using low-cost frame imaging systems equipped with consumer-grade georeferencing units is feasible. Unfortunately, the quality of derived geospatial information from push-broom scanners is quite sensitive to the performance of the implemented direct georeferencing unit. This paper presents an approach for improving the orthorectification of hyperspectral push-broom scanner imagery with the help of generated orthophotos from frame cameras using tie point and linear features, while modeling the impact of residual artifacts in the direct georeferencing information. The performance of the proposed approach has been verified through real datasets that have been collected by quadcopter and fixed-wing UAVs over an agricultural field.
Autors: Ayman Habib;Weifeng Xiong;Fangning He;Hsiuhan Lexie Yang;Melba Crawford;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 262 - 276
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving Our Bodies, Our Meals, and Our Gadgets
Abstract:
This installment of Notes from the Community covers new pervasive technologies using metamaterials, flexible and stretchable electronics, sensors, robotics, 3D printing, tofu, and more.
Autors: Mary Baker;Justin Manweiler;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 85 - 88
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving Pulp and Paper Plant MV Transformer Protection
Abstract:
In pulp and paper plants, power transformers play a critical role in process continuity. These transformers are subject to internal short circuits, external short circuits, and abnormal operating conditions. The following protection challenges to power transformers will be explored, and methods to improve the protection are provided. First, remanence in a current transformer (CT) may cause misoperation of phase differential protection due to compromised CT performance. Heavy through-faults, sympathetic inrush, and recovery inrush all cause high current. This, combined with high remanent flux, can create a security issue. IEEE CT performance calculations will be used to support the use of dual slope differential characteristics to promote secure differential protection operation when challenged with unequal CT performance. Second, on transformer energizing, the second harmonic current has been traditionally used as a means to prevent phase differential misoperation. Certain transformers may not exhibit high enough the second harmonic, causing a dependability issue if the restraint is set too low. The use of the second and fourth harmonics for inrush detection will be shown to enhance the reliability during energizing inrush situations. Third, overexcitation can occur from abnormal operation of the utility system or the plant's excitation control. Causes of overexcitation will be outlined and the use of volts per hertz protection is explored. With overexcitation occurring from system voltage rise, the phase differential protection has been traditionally blocked using the fifth harmonic restraint. This may cause an undesired nonoperation of the phase differential protection if an internal fault occurs while the transformer is overexcited, causing a delay in tripping and severe damage to the transformer. A technique using adaptive phase differential pickup value will be illustrated to overcome this challenge.�- A0;Finally, on resistance-grounded power transformers, phase differential protection sensitivity for ground faults near the neutral is decreased. The use of ground differential protection will be explored and the increased sensitivity gained will be demonstrated.
Autors: Wayne Hartmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 758 - 765
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IMS2016 Student Design Competitions
Abstract:
Presents information on the IMS 2016 Student Design competitions.
Autors: Rober Caverly;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 56 - 57
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Memoriam
Abstract:
Autors: Hideki Miyajima;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 1 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Memoriam Soshin Chikazumi
Abstract:
Recounts the life and career of Soshin Chikazumi, the second president of the Magnetics Society of Japan.
Autors: Hideki Miyajima;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 1 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In-Band Wireless Information and Power Transfer With Lens Antenna Array
Abstract:
This letter studies a new wireless information and power transfer coexisting system, where two uncoordinated energy and information sources simultaneously transmit to the same receiver for energy harvesting and information reception, respectively. In such a setup, the information decoder could suffer from severe signal distortion due to the simultaneously received energy signal that is usually orders-of-magnitude stronger than the desired information signal. To tackle this practical issue, we propose a novel lens antenna array-enabled receiver, which exploits the angle-of-arrival-dependent energy focusing capability of lens array for the spatial separation of energy and information signals. In addition, an optimal power splitting-based scheme is proposed by taking into account the signal distortion effect at the receiver, which is applicable for both lens and conventional antenna arrays. Numerical results show that the proposed lens array receiver significantly outperforms that with the conventional uniform planar array in terms of an achievable rate-energy tradeoff.
Autors: Lu Yang;Yong Zeng;Rui Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 100 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In-Memory Parallel Processing of Massive Remotely Sensed Data Using an Apache Spark on Hadoop YARN Model
Abstract:
MapReduce has been widely used in Hadoop for parallel processing larger-scale data for the last decade. However, remote-sensing (RS) algorithms based on the programming model are trapped in dense disk I/O operations and unconstrained network communication, and thus inappropriate for timely processing and analyzing massive, heterogeneous RS data. In this paper, a novel in-memory computing framework called Apache Spark (Spark) is introduced. Through its merits of transferring transformation to in-memory datasets of Spark, the shortages are eliminated. To facilitate implementation and assure high performance of Spark-based algorithms in a complex cloud computing environment, a strip-oriented parallel programming model is proposed. By incorporating strips of RS data with resilient distributed datasets (RDDs) of Spark, all-level parallel RS algorithms can be easily expressed with coarse-grained transformation primitives and BitTorrent-enabled broadcast variables. Additionally, a generic image partition method for Spark-based RS algorithms to efficiently generate differentiable key/value strips from a Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) is implemented for concealing the heterogeneousness of RS data. Data-intensive multitasking algorithms and iteration-intensive algorithms were evaluated on a Hadoop yet another resource negotiator (YARN) platform. Experiments indicated that our Spark-based parallel algorithms are of great efficiency, a multitasking algorithm took less than 4 h to process more than half a terabyte of RS data on a small YARN cluster, and 9*9 convolution operations against a 909-MB image took less than 260 s. Further, the efficiency of iteration-intensive algorithms is insensitive to image size.
Autors: Wei Huang;Lingkui Meng;Dongying Zhang;Wen Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 3 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In-Vehicle Emergency Call Services: eCall and Beyond
Abstract:
What is the status of in-vehicle emergency call services? Which standards are being adopted? Does the NG-911/112 architecture support such services? The objective of this article is to address these questions. To do so we review the evolution of eCall, compare approaches developed in different parts of the world, and discuss interoperability between selected systems. This study shows that it is challenging to compare and classify in-vehicle emergency call systems because of different standards, terminologies, and proprietary specifications. We conclude that the NG-911/112 framework provides the building blocks to support next generation eCall, and can contribute to a common standard for the interface between private service centers and public safety answering points.
Autors: Risto Oorni;Ana Goulart;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 159 - 165
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Incident-Supporting Visual Cloud Computing Utilizing Software-Defined Networking
Abstract:
In the event of natural or man-made disasters, providing rapid situational awareness through video/image data collected at salient incident scenes is often critical to the first responders. However, computer vision techniques that can process the media-rich and data-intensive content obtained from civilian smartphones or surveillance cameras require large amounts of computational resources or ancillary data sources that may not be available at the geographical location of the incident. In this paper, we propose an incident-supporting visual cloud computing solution by defining a collection, computation, and consumption (3C) architecture supporting fog computing at the network edge close to the collection/consumption sites, which is coupled with cloud offloading to a core computation, utilizing software-defined networking (SDN). We evaluate our 3C architecture and algorithms using realistic virtual environment test beds. We also describe our insights in preparing the cloud provisioning and thin-client desktop fogs to handle the elasticity and user mobility demands in a theater-scale application. In addition, we demonstrate the use of SDN for on-demand compute offload with congestion-avoiding traffic steering to enhance remote user quality of experience in a regional-scale application. The optimization between fogs computing at the network edge with core cloud computing for managing visual analytics reduces latency, congestion, and increases throughput.
Autors: Rasha Gargees;Brittany Morago;Rengarajan Pelapur;Dmitrii Chemodanov;Prasad Calyam;Zakariya Oraibi;Ye Duan;Guna Seetharaman;Kannappan Palaniappan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 182 - 197
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Incoherent Photonic Processing for Chirped Microwave Pulse Generation
Abstract:
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a fully reconfigurable generator of chirped microwave pulses based on the processing of an incoherent optical signal by means of a dispersive element with a non-uniform optical spectral shaping. The system performance has been proven by the generation of different chirped microwave pulses. Different capabilities of the system have been experimentally demonstrated as frequency tunability and time-bandwidth product control by means of the dispersive element and optical source power distribution. Furthermore, the possibility for generating chirped microwave pulses with positive and negative chirp characteristic has been shown achieving similar chirps in terms of magnitude but opposite sign. For it, the chirp characteristic is introduced by proper shaping of the optical source signal power distribution.
Autors: M. Rius;M. Bolea;J. Mora;J. Capmany;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 7 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Incoherent Unit-Norm Frame Design via an Alternating Minimization Penalty Method
Abstract:
This letter is concerned with designing incoherent unit-norm frames, i.e., a set of vectors in a finite dimensional Hilbert space with unit norms and very low absolute pairwise correlations. Due to their widespread use in a variety of applications, including compressed sensing and coding theory, incoherent frame design has received considerable attention, and many algorithms have been proposed to this aim. In this letter, a new algorithm is presented which constructs incoherent frames by minimizing the maximum absolute pairwise correlations (mutual coherence) of the frame vectors. Our strategy is based on an alternating minimization penalty method, which admits efficient solvers using proximal algorithms. Experimental results on designing incoherent frames of various dimensions show that our algorithm outperforms some recent methods in the literature.
Autors: Mostafa Sadeghi;Massoud Babaie-Zadeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 32 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Incoming EIC Editorial
Abstract:
Presents the incoming editorial by the new Editor-In-Chief.
Autors: Sven Dickinson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 3 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Increasing DNS Security and Stability through a Control Plane for Top-Level Domain Operators
Abstract:
We present a control plane for operators of top-level domains (TLDs) in the DNS, such as “.org” and “.nl,” that enables them to increase the security and stability of their TLD by taking on the role of a threat intelligence provider. Our control plane is a novel system that extends a TLD operator’s traditional services and detects potential threats in the TLD by continuously analyzing the TLD operator’s two key datasets: the typically large amounts of DNS traffic that it handles and its database of registered domain names. The control plane shares information on discovered threats with other players in the TLD’s ecosystem and can also use it to dynamically scale the TLD operator’s DNS infrastructure. The control plane builds on a set of open source modules that we have developed on top of a Hadoop-based data storage cluster. These enable, for example, TLD operators to run and develop threat detectors and to easily import their DNS traffic into the control plane. Our control plane uses policies to protect the privacy of TLD users and is based on our operational experience of running .nl TLD (Netherlands), which we are also using as the use case for our implementation.
Autors: Cristian Hesselman;Giovane C. M. Moura;Ricardo de Oliveira Schmidt;Cees Toet;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 197 - 203
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Incremental Subgraph Feature Selection for Graph Classification
Abstract:
Graph classification is an important tool for analyzing data with structure dependency, where subgraphs are often used as features for learning. In reality, the dimension of the subgraphs crucially depends on the threshold setting of the frequency support parameter, and the number may become extremely large. As a result, subgraphs may be incrementally discovered to form a feature stream and require the underlying graph classifier to effectively discover representative subgraph features from the subgraph feature stream. In this paper, we propose a primal-dual incremental subgraph feature selection algorithm (ISF) based on a max-margin graph classifier. The ISF algorithm constructs a sequence of solutions that are both primal and dual feasible. Each primal-dual pair shrinks the dual gap and renders a better solution for the optimal subgraph feature set. To avoid bias of ISF algorithm on short-pattern subgraph features, we present a new incremental subgraph join feature selection algorithm (ISJF) by forcing graph classifiers to join short-pattern subgraphs and generate long-pattern subgraph features. We evaluate the performance of the proposed models on both synthetic networks and real-world social network data sets. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Autors: Haishuai Wang;Peng Zhang;Xingquan Zhu;Ivor Wai-Hung Tsang;Ling Chen;Chengqi Zhang;Xindong Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 128 - 142
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Inertia Provision and Estimation of PLL-Based DFIG Wind Turbines
Abstract:
This paper presents an alternative inertial control method for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines by directly adjusting the phase locked loop (PLL) response. The synthetic internal voltage vector of the wind turbine-driven DFIG is defined in the electromechanical timescale to present the dynamic properties. The phase angle motion equation is further deduced to depict the relationship between the contributed inertial response and the defined internal voltage. Based on the developed motion equation, the equivalent inertia is estimated and quantified, and further found to be significantly determined by the PLL parameters. Moreover, the effect of both PLL and active power control on the defined internal voltage dynamics is also described during the inertial response. Simulated results on a modified 3-machine, 9-node test system were conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed inertial control method and the correctness of the developed inertial characteristics.
Autors: Wei He;Xiaoming Yuan;Jiabing Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 510 - 521
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Inference for Generalized Linear Models via Alternating Directions and Bethe Free Energy Minimization
Abstract:
Generalized linear models, where a random vector x is observed through a noisy, possibly nonlinear, function of a linear transform , arise in a range of applications in nonlinear filtering and regression. Approximate message passing (AMP) methods, based on loopy belief propagation, are a promising class of approaches for approximate inference in these models. AMP methods are computationally simple, general, and admit precise analyses with testable conditions for optimality for large i.i.d. transforms A. However, the algorithms can diverge for general A. This paper presents a convergent approach to the generalized AMP (GAMP) algorithm based on direct minimization of a large-system limit approximation of the Bethe free energy (LSL-BFE). The proposed method uses a double-loop procedure, where the outer loop successively linearizes the LSL-BFE and the inner loop minimizes the linearized LSL-BFE using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). The proposed method, called ADMM-GAMP, is similar in structure to the original GAMP method, but with an additional least-squares minimization. It is shown that for strictly convex, smooth penalties, ADMM-GAMP is guaranteed to converge to a local minimum of the LSL-BFE, thus providing a convergent alternative to GAMP that is stable under arbitrary transforms. Simulations are also presented that demonstrate the robustness of the method for non-convex penalties as well.
Autors: Sundeep Rangan;Alyson K. Fletcher;Philip Schniter;Ulugbek S. Kamilov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 676 - 697
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Influence of Lattice Mismatch in Preparation of the SmBiO3 Buffer Layer by a CSD Method
Abstract:
SmBiO3 (SBO) buffer layers have been prepared via a rapid chemical solution deposition (CSD) method on different substrates, such as LaAlO3 (LAO), yttrium-stabilized zirconium (YSZ), and NiO-buffered NiW (NiO/NiW). The SBO buffer layers deposited on LAO, YSZ, and NiO/NiW substrates have strong SBO (200) peaks and smooth surface. The SBO buffer layer is difficult to grow on the MgO substrate. The lattice mismatches between SBO buffer layers and different substrates have great influence on the epitaxial films quality. With the increase in lattice mismatch, the optimum texture temperature ranges become narrower, also the texture degrees of SBO epitaxial films decrease, and the SBO buffer layers become rougher.
Autors: Xiaolei Zhu;Ke Zhao;Liang Zheng;Ming Lei;Minghua Pu;Yong Zhang;Yong Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Influence of LV Neutral Grounding on Global Earthing Systems
Abstract:
International Standards define a Global Earthing System as an earthing net created interconnecting local Earthing Systems (generally through the shield of MV cables and/or bare buried conductors). In Italy, the regulatory authority for electricity and gas requires distributors to guarantee the electrical continuity of LV neutral conductor. This requirement has led to the standard practice of realizing “reinforcement groundings” along the LV neutral conductor path and at users’ delivery cabinet. Moreover, in urban high-load scenarios (prime candidates to be part of a Global Earthing System), it is common that LV distribution scheme creates, through neutral conductors, an effective connection between grounding systems of MV/LV substations, modifying Global Earthing System consistency. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect, in terms of electrical safety, of the aforementioned LV neutral distribution scheme when an MV-side fault to ground occurs. For this purpose, simulations are carried out on a realistic urban test case and suitable evaluation indexes are proposed.
Autors: Giuseppe Cafaro;Pasquale Montegiglio;Francesco Torelli;Antonino Barresi;Pietro Colella;Angelo De Simone;Maria Luisa Di Silvestre;Luigi Martirano;Elena Reizl Morozova;Roberto Napoli;Giuseppe Parise;Luigi Parise;Enrico Pons;Eleonora Riva Sanseverino;Ri
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 22 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Influence of PM- and Armature Winding-Stator Positions on Electromagnetic Performance of Novel Partitioned Stator Permanent Magnet Machines
Abstract:
Since the permanent magnets (PMs) and armature windings of partitioned stator (PS) PM machines are located in two separate inner and outer stators, their positions can be exchanged to optimize the space utilization, especially in radial field rotating machines. Therefore, in this paper, the influence of PM and armature winding stator positions on the electromagnetic performance of PS-PM machines is investigated based on the novel PS-PM machines (PS-PMMs) with surface-mounted PM (SPM) stator. Similar to the single-stator surface-mounted PMMs (SS-PMMs), flexible rotor pole number, bipolar phase flux linkage, and symmetrical phase back electromotive force (EMF) are also obtained in PS-PMMs. Based on the same 12/10 stator/rotor pole number combination, PS-PMM-I (PMs located in the inner stator) and PS-PMM-II (PMs located in the outer stator) exhibit 120% and 160% higher phase back EMFs as well as 120% and 139% larger average torques, respectively, than the SS-PMM together almost without scarifying the PM utilization efficiency under the same machine size and the same rated copper loss. Further, the proposed PS-PMM-IIs have both higher phase back EMFs and larger average torques than PS-PMM-Is among all the main stator/rotor pole number combinations. Meanwhile, for both PS-PMM-Is and PS-PMM-IIs with 12-pole stator, the machines with the 11-pole rotor exhibit the optimal torque capabilities. Moreover, the reluctance torque is also negligible in the proposed PS-PMMs due to very low saliency ratio. The analyses are validated by experiment results of the prototype machine.
Autors: J. T. Shi;A. M. Wang;Z. Q. Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 1 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Influence of Rotor Topologies and Cogging Torque Minimization Techniques in the Detection of Static Eccentricities in Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Machine
Abstract:
In this paper, the effect of static eccentricity on current harmonics and torque ripple in an axial-flux permanent-magnet machine with fractional-slot concentrated winding is investigated. Cogging torque minimization techniques are also explored in the presence of the anomaly to better understand their sensitivity to the condition. Also, the impact of single-sided and double-sided rotor topologies on both current harmonics and torque ripple is examined. It is found that static eccentricities incite significant increases in the amplitudes of space and subharmonics in the single-sided topology, which may be mitigated by the cogging torque minimization techniques. The double-sided topology is tolerant to the presence of static eccentricities unlike the single-sided topology; this is due to the opposing effect of the resulting asymmetrical properties of the air gap. Finally, this paper establishes a detection technique for static eccentricities in single-sided axial-flux permanent-magnet machine whereby the cogging torque minimization techniques do not impair on them.
Autors: Oladapo Omotade Ogidi;Paul S. Barendse;Mohamed Azeem Khan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 161 - 170
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Influence of the Heterojunction Spacer on the Performance of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN Resonant Tunneling Diodes
Abstract:
We report on a simulation for an aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN)/gallium nitride (GaN) resonant tunneling diode (RTD) with a step heterojunction emitter spacer (SHES) at room temperature. An SHES and low Al component barriers were introduced in to AlGaN/GaN RTDs to improve the electronic injection efficiency in to the emitter, reduce the transit time in the collector depletion region, and achieve lattice matching. The substitution of the emitter spacer for the SHES alters the dominant transport mechanism, increases the tunneling current, and restrains the thermionic current. As a result, the peak current was 1.683 A at 0.39 V and the peak-to-valley current difference was 0.93 A.
Autors: Bo Gao;Yao Ma;Yang Liu;Min Gong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 84 - 88
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Informed Fixed Scheduling for Faster Convergence of Shuffled Belief-Propagation Decoding
Abstract:
A novel informed fixed scheduling (IFS) scheme for shuffled belief-propagation (BP) decoding of binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) code is introduced to improve the BP decoding convergence. The IFS finds an appropriate order of variable nodes in accordance with the number of updated neighbors in the code graph, ensuring that the maximum number of latest message updates is utilized within a single iteration. This allows the utilization of most reliable message updates in a timely manner, leading to faster error-rate convergence. Simulation results show that the proposed IFS scheme improves the convergence speed of BP decoder by up to 20% for regular LDPC codes and 45% for irregular LDPC codes, without affecting the error-rate performance, at medium-to-high signal-to-noise ratio over binary-input additive white Gaussian noise channel.
Autors: Chaudhry Adnan Aslam;Yong Liang Guan;Kui Cai;Guojun Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 32 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Infrared and Terahertz Modulation Characteristics of n-GeBi/p-Si Photodiodes
Abstract:
In this paper, germanium–bismuth (Ge1–xBix, –0.32) is grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Because Bi is an element belonging to group V, GeBi films show inherent n-type doping properties compared with GeSn ones. Inherent n-type Ge1–xBix films with a doping concentration of –/cm3 are epitaxially deposited on p-type Si substrates to form p-n junctions. Current–voltage measurements show that the dark current density of the diodes can approach 0.32 A/cm2. The influence of Bi concentration on the infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) transmittance of the films is investigated. Near-IR (1–2 ) and mid/far-IR (2.6–10 ) responsivities of the films are 0.65 and 0.032 A/W, respectively. The THz wave transmittance is tuned by ~6%–8% by tailoring the bias voltage. A modulation depth of ~12% is obtained for a Ge0.78Bi0.22/p-Si diode. The dynamic modulation characteristics of n-Ge1–xBix/p-Si diodes are further investigated using a 340-GHz carrier. The experimental maximum THz wave modulation speed is up to 2 MHz. The present results demonstrate that n-GeBi- p-Si diodes are promising for both mid/far-IR photodetectors and broadband high-speed THz wave modulators.
Autors: Dainan Zhang;Lichuan Jin;Yulong Liao;Yang Liu;Tianlong Wen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 176 - 181
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Initial Rotor Position Estimation Using Zero-Sequence Carrier Voltage for Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines
Abstract:
Both rotating and anticlockwise pulsating signal injection methods based on zero-sequence voltage sensing have been reported to have large signal-to-noise ratio and bandwidths, and great stability for the sensorless control of permanent-magnet synchronous machines. However, the initial rotor position estimation and magnetic polarity identification using zero-sequence voltage have not been investigated. Therefore, this paper presents two types of magnetic polarity identification methods, based on the amplitude variation of zero-sequence voltage due to saturation changing, and based on the secondary harmonics of zero-sequence voltage, for the two carrier injection methods, respectively. It is found that the amplitude variation based method using zero-sequence voltage has higher detection sensitivity for the real magnetic polarity compared to the conventional method using the carrier current. In contrast, the secondary harmonic based identification method using zero-sequence voltage for rotating signal injection has the advantage of fast response, and moreover has large signal amplitude and less distortion compared to the conventional secondary carrier current harmonics. However, the secondary harmonic method loses the capability for polarity detection for the anticlockwise pulsating injection method. Experiments are carried out on a laboratory permanent-magnet machine to verify the theoretical analyses.
Autors: Peilin Xu;Z. Q. Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 149 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Innovation in Transfer Assist Technologies for Persons with Severe Disabilities and Their Caregivers
Abstract:
When the human body is immobile, it deteriorates after a short period of time. Early and frequent mobilization of a patient or resident is thus critical to maintaining or regaining health. The effects of immobility are often a deterioration of numerous body systems and increased dependence on caregivers to assist with activities of daily living [1]. Complications associated with chronic immobility include patient injury, development of pressure ulcers, muscle atrophy, metabolic decline, joint contractures, microvascular dysfunction, atelectasis, thromboembolic disease, and psychological decline. These complications are exacerbated in the case of an obese patient.
Autors: Andrew Sivaprakasam;Hongwu Wang;Rory A. Cooper;Alicia M. Koontz;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 34 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Innovative Robust Modulation Classification Using Graph-Based Cyclic-Spectrum Analysis
Abstract:
A novel automatic modulation classification method based on the graph presentation of the cyclic spectrum is proposed. In our proposed scheme, the periodicity and the symmetry of the cyclic spectrum will be exploited to establish a concise feature representation of multiple graphs. The modulated signal is first transformed from the cycle-frequency domain into the graph domain. Consequently, the concise graph-presentation, namely, a set of weighted directed rings, will be formulated as the robust features of the original signal. Those features can be easily expressed by the corresponding adjacency matrices. It can be verified that the adjacency matrices are sparse and the non-zero entries therein can be registered as the efficient feature parameters. Through the Hamming distance measure to enumerate the difference between the feature parameters resulting from the training data and the test data, one can perform the modulation classification. Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrate that our proposed method can achieve much better classification accuracy than the existing technique when the cyclic spectrum is used.
Autors: Xiao Yan;Guoyu Feng;Hsiao-Chun Wu;Weidong Xiang;Qian Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 16 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Instantaneous Baseline Damage Localization Using Sensor Mapping
Abstract:
In this paper, an instantaneously recorded baseline method is proposed using piezoelectric transducers for damage localization under varying temperature. This method eliminates need for baselines required when operating at different temperatures by mapping a baseline area onto the interrogation area. Instantaneously recorded baselines and current interrogation signals are calibrated based on the sensor mapping. This allows the extraction of damage scatter signal which is used to localize damage. The proposed method is used to localize actual impact damage on a composite plate under varying temperatures. The method is also applied to a stiffened fuselage panel to accurately localize impact damage.
Autors: Mohammad Saleh Salmanpour;Zahra Sharif Khodaei;Mohammad Hossein Aliabadi;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 295 - 301
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Integrated Inductor and Capacitor With Co-Located Electric and Magnetic Fields
Abstract:
Passive components such as inductors and capacitors are fundamental components of nearly all power electronic conversion systems. This paper presents an innovative approach to highly integrated inductor (L) and capacitor (C) design by storing magnetic and electric field energy in a common volume, constituting a dual energy core (DEC). This is dissimilar from other integrated designs that primarily exploit a distributed parasitic capacitance between planar inductor windings, ultimately parsing electric, and magnetic fields into separate locations unnecessarily. The DEC enables a four terminal integrated LC device that may be applied in series, parallel, or in separate parts of the circuit, since its terminal characteristics appear as decoupled lumped elements. The fields in the core geometry are analytically modeled and the effects and tradeoffs of selecting different core parameters/dimensions are explored. Proof of concept prototypes of toroidal form factor demonstrate techniques for fabricating DEC integrated devices, and experimental measurements correlate with the analytical models used in the design process. A boost converter is constructed and tested with a prototype integrated device to demonstrate decoupled operation of the fields in the core on a large signal basis.
Autors: Andy Schroedermeier;Daniel C. Ludois;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 380 - 390
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Integrating Object Boundary in Super-Resolution Land-Cover Mapping
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel class allocation strategy in units of object (UOO) for soft-then-hard super-resolution mapping (STHSRM). STHSRM involves two processes: 1) subpixel sharpening and 2) class allocation. The UOO is implemented in the second process by integrating the object boundaries as an additional structural constraint. First, UOO obtains the object boundaries from remote-sensing images by image segmentation. The number of subpixels within an object is then calculated for each class to meet the coherence constraint of fractional images imposed by soft classification. Finally, a linear optimization model is built for each object to obtain the optimal hard class labels of subpixels. A synthetic image and two real remote-sensing images are used to evaluate the effectiveness of UOO. The results are compared visually and quantitatively with two existing class allocation methods: 1) the highest attribute values first (HAVF) and 2) units of class (UOC). The experimental results show that UOO performs better than these two methods. UOO can better reduce the salt and pepper effect in resultant maps than both HAVF and UOC when dealing with real remote-sensing images. Moreover, UOO can better maintain the structure of land-cover patches, with smoother boundaries as compared with the two methods.
Autors: Yuehong Chen;Yong Ge;Yuanxin Jia;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 219 - 230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Integration of Gate Recessing and In Situ Cl Doped Al2O3 for Enhancement-Mode AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMTs Fabrication
Abstract:
This letter demonstrates an integration process of in situ Cl doped Al2O3 and gate recess technique to fabricate the enhancement mode AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMTs. The Cl doped Al2O3 thin film is deposited by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The relative permittivity of Cl doped Al2O3 is higher than the pure Al2O3 and the output current is enhanced. The threshold voltage of the enhancement mode AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMT with the Cl doped Al2O3 gate dielectric layer rose from 0.2 to 1.3 V. Furthermore, the breakdown voltage of present enhancement mode AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMT reached 650 V. It was also found that the MOSHEMT with Cl doped Al2O3 has higher gate leakage than that with pure Al2O3. The thermal stability of threshold voltage and current collapse phenomenon is described in this letter.
Autors: Han-Yin Liu;Chih-Wei Lin;Wei-Chou Hsu;Ching-Sung Lee;Meng-Hsueh Chiang;Wen-Ching Sun;Sung-Yen Wei;Sheng-Min Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 91 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 

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