Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2017 sorted by title, page: 8

» Generalized Analytical Approach to Assess Reliability of Renewable-Based Energy Hubs
Abstract:
This paper proposes a generalized analytical approach to evaluate the reliability of active distribution networks. The studies are implemented in the context of renewable-based energy hubs. The reliability of energy demands is determined as a function of reliability characteristics of energy hub input resources and converters as well as hub operating strategies. The framework proposed in this paper involves the main attributes of different distributed generation technologies as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G)-capable vehicles in the reliability studies. Dealing with the uncertainty in energy services provided by the wind turbine output generation and V2G programs, efficient probabilistic methods are presented to attain the reliability models of these energy resources for the studies. The fluctuations in energy demands are also represented through multistate analytical models. Convolving the probabilistic models of energy hub resources by the load profiles’ models, different reliability indices are calculated taking into consideration possible operating strategies of the energy hubs. Effectiveness of the proposed methodology is validated using extensive numerical studies on an energy hub and the obtained results demonstrate its applicability in adequacy studies of active energy networks.
Autors: Moein Moeini-Aghtaie;Hossein Farzin;Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad;Reza Amrollahi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 368 - 377
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized MUSIC-Like Array Processing for Underwater Environments
Abstract:
This paper proposes the generalized MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC)-like algorithm for robust MUSIC-like processing for underwater applications. The solution proposed in this paper is to generalize the noise correlation assumption and include a noise correlation model in its problem formulation. By doing so, the proposed generalized MUSIC-like algorithm is able to provide robust MUSIC-like performances in any noise condition, so long as the noise correlation property of the environment is known partially. Results from simulations and real data processing show that our proposed algorithm is able to suppress spurious peaks caused by mismatched noise assumptions in standard MUSIC-like algorithms. The bound of the controlling parameter denoted by for the proposed generalized MUSIC-like algorithm is also discussed in this paper. Performance study using Monte Carlo simulations shows that the proposed generalized MUSIC-like algorithm has the same resolving power as the MUSIC method but slightly poorer accuracy in direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. This paper also presents the results from real data processing by the generalized MUSIC-like algorithm and demonstrates better resolving power than the Capon and MUSIC algorithms used consistently in the experiment.
Autors: Hock Siong Lim;Boon Poh Ng;Vinod V. Reddy;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 42, issue:1, pages: 124 - 134
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Soft-and-Hard/DB Boundary
Abstract:
A novel class of boundary conditions is introduced as a generalization of the previously defined class of soft-and-hard/DB (SHDB) boundary conditions. It is shown that the conditions for the generalized SHDB (GSHDB) boundary arise most naturally in a simple and straightforward manner by applying 4-D differential-form and dyadic formalism. At a given boundary surface, the GSHDB conditions are governed by two one-forms. In terms of Gibbsian 3-D vector and dyadic algebra, the GSHDB conditions are defined in terms of two vectors tangential to the boundary surface and two scalars. Considering plane-wave reflection from the GSHDB boundary, for two eigenpolarizations, the GSHDB boundary can be replaced by the perfect electric conductor or perfect magnetic conductor boundary. Special attention is paid to the problem of plane waves matched to the GSHDB boundary, defined by a 2-D dispersion equation for the wave vector, making the reflection dyadic indeterminate. Examples of dispersion curves for various chosen parameters of the GSHDB boundary are given. Conditions for a possible medium, whose interface acts as a GSHDB boundary, are discussed.
Autors: Ismo V. Lindell;Ari Sihvola;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 226 - 233
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Wavelet Shrinkage of Inline Raman Spectroscopy for Quality Monitoring of Continuous Manufacturing of Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper
Abstract:
Process monitoring and quality control is essential for continuous manufacturing processes of carbon nano- tube (CNT) thin sheets or buckypaper. Raman spectroscopy is an attractive inline quality characterization and quantification tool for nanomanufacturing because of its nondestructive nature, fast data acquisition speed, and ability to provide detailed material information. However, there is signal-dependent noise buried in the Raman spectra, which reduces the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and affects the accuracy, efficiency, and sensitivity for Raman spectrum-based quality control approaches. In this paper, a signal analysis model with signal-dependent noise for Raman spectroscopy is developed and validated based on experimental data. The wavelet shrinkage method is used for denoising and improving the S/N ratio of raw Raman spectra. Based on the validated signal-noise relationship, a novel generalized wavelet shrinkage approach is introduced to remove noise in all wavelet coefficients by applying individual adaptive wavelet thresholds. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated using both simulation and experimental case studies of inline Raman monitoring of continuous buckypaper manufacturing. The proposed method allows for a significant reduction of Raman data acquisition time without much loss of S/N ratio, which inherently enables Raman spectroscopy for inline monitoring and control for continuous nanomanufacturing processes.
Autors: Xiaowei Yue;Kan Wang;Hao Yan;Jin Gyu Park;Zhiyong Liang;Chuck Zhang;Ben Wang;Jianjun Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 196 - 207
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized-Spatial-Modulation-Based Reduced-RF-Chain Millimeter-Wave Communications
Abstract:
A generalized spatial modulation (GSM)-based millimeter-wave communications system is proposed. The GSM transmitter is characterized by a lower number of radio frequency (RF) chains than the number of transmit antennas; hence, it is capable of reducing both the transmitter cost and the energy consumption. The antenna array alignment is optimized so as to maximize the rank of the channel matrix encountered. Furthermore, we employ an array of analog beamformers, which allows us to benefit both from the beamforming gain and from the GSM scheme's high rate. It is demonstrated that the constrained capacity of the GSM transmitter equipped with as few as two RF chains is capable of approaching the performance of the full-RF spatial multiplexing having eight RF chains.
Autors: Naoki Ishikawa;Rakshith Rajashekar;Shinya Sugiura;Lajos Hanzo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 879 - 883
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation and Heterodyne Detection of >100-Gb/s $Q$ -Band PDM-64QAM mm-Wave Signal
Abstract:
We experimentally demonstrate a hardware- and spectral-efficient large-capacity single-carrier radio-over-fiber system at -band (33–50 GHz), employing high-level polarization-division-multiplexing 64-ary quadrature-amplitude-modulation (PDM-64QAM) modulation and heterodyne coherent detection. In our demonstrated system, up to 10-GBd (120-Gb/s) PDM-64QAM vector millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal at 37.5 GHz can be generated and delivered over 1-m wireless distance, with a bit-error ratio (BER) less than the hard-decision forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of . Our demonstrated system can also generate up to 16-GBd (192-Gb/s) PDM-64QAM vector mm-wave signal at 37.5 GHz, with a BER less than the soft-decision FEC threshold of . During the receiver digital signal processing, the employment of large-tap decision-directed least-mean-square equalization after carrier recovery significantly improves the system performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to demonstrate single-carrier PDM-64QAM modulated wireless mm-wave signal delivery.
Autors: Xinying Li;Jianjun Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 27 - 30
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation of Customized Accelerators for Loop Pipelining of Binary Instruction Traces
Abstract:
Many embedded applications process large amounts of data using regular computational kernels, amenable to acceleration by specialized hardware coprocessors. To reduce the significant design effort, the dedicated hardware may be automatically generated, usually starting from the application’s source or binary code. This paper presents a moduloscheduled loop accelerator capable of executing multiple loops and a supporting toolchain. A generation/scheduling procedure, which fully relies on MicroBlaze instruction traces, produces accelerator instances, customized in terms of functional units and interconnections. The accelerators support integer and single-precision floating-point arithmetic, and exploit instruction-level parallelism, loop pipelining, and memory access parallelism via two read/write ports. A complete implementation of the proposed architecture is evaluated in a Virtex-7 device. Augmenting a MicroBlaze processor with a tailored accelerator achieves a geometric mean speedup, over software-only execution, of 6.61 for 13 floating-point kernels from the Livermore Loops set, and of 4.08 for 11 integer kernels from Texas Instruments’ IMGLIB. The proposed customized accelerators are compared with ALU-based ones. The average specialized accelerator requires only 0.47 the number of field-programmable gate array slices of an accelerator with four ALUs. A geometric mean speedup of 1.78 over a four-issue very long instruction word (without floating-point support) was obtained for the integer kernels.
Autors: Nuno M. C. Paulino;João Canas Ferreira;João M. P. Cardoso;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 21 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation of Flat Optical Frequency Comb Based on a DP-QPSK Modulator
Abstract:
An approach to generate flat optical frequency comb (OFC) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated using a single integrated dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator. By adjusting six dc bias points and two modulation indices of the modulator, the OFC with adjustable comb number and exactly the same intensity can be theoretically generated according to the equations derived from the DP-QPSK modulation model. Experimental results show that the proposed OFC generator can produce 7, 9, 11, and 13 lines with a spectral flatness of 0.96, 1.13, 2.01, and 1.17 dB, respectively. The unwanted-mode suppression ratio of the generated 7, 9, 11, and 13 lines OFCs are 10.33, 9.54, 6.79, and 10.45 dB, respectively. In addition, the generated OFC exhibits good frequency tunability. The nine-lines OFCs with frequency spacing of 6.02, 7.02, 8.02, and 9.02 GHz are experimentally generated.
Autors: Tao Lin;Shanghong Zhao;Zihang Zhu;Xuan Li;Kun Qu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 146 - 149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generic Soft-Error Detection and Correction for Concurrent Data Structures
Abstract:
Recent studies indicate that transient memory errors (soft errors) have become a relevant source of system failures. This paper presents a generic software-based fault-tolerance mechanism that transparently recovers from memory errors in object-oriented program data structures. The main benefits are the flexibility to choose from an extensible toolbox of easily pluggable error detection and correction schemes, such as Hamming and CRC codes. This is achieved by a combination of aspect-oriented and generative programming techniques. Furthermore, we present a wait-free synchronization algorithm for error detection in data structures that are used concurrently by multiple threads of control. We give a formal correctness proof and show the excellent scalability of our approach in a multiprocessor environment. In a case study, we present our experiences with selectively hardening the eCos operating system and its benchmark suite. We explore the trade-off between resiliency and performance by choosing only the most vulnerable data structures for error recovery. Thereby, the total number of system failures, manifesting as silent data corruptions and crashes, is reduced by 69.14 percent at a negligible runtime overhead of 0.36 percent.
Autors: Christoph Borchert;Horst Schirmeier;Olaf Spinczyk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 22 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Geo-Conquesting Based on Graph Analysis for Crowdsourced Metatrails from Mobile Sensing
Abstract:
This article investigates graph analysis for intelligent marketing in smart cities, where metatrails are crowdsourced by mobile sensing for marketing strategies. Unlike most works that focus on client sides, this study is intended for market planning, from the perspective of enterprises. Several novel crowdsourced features based on metatrails, including hotspot networks, crowd transitions, affinity subnetworks, and sequential visiting patterns, are discussed in the article. These smart footprints can reflect crowd preferences and the topology of a site of interest. Marketers can utilize such information for commercial resource planning and deployment. Simulations were conducted to demonstrate the performance. At the end, this study also discusses different scenarios for practical geo-conquesting applications.
Autors: Bo-Wei Chen;Wen Ji;Seungmin Rho;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 92 - 97
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Geometrical Characterization of Offloading through Wireless LANs
Abstract:
The offloading of cellular traffic through WLAN APs (wireless local area network access points) distributed in a homogeneous Poisson process (HPP) is theoretically evaluated. The probability that a user can use WLAN and the expected number of vertical handovers are evaluated as the basic performance metrics of WLAN AP coverage. Explicit formulas are derived for the metrics, and the fundamental relationships between the metrics and many parameters such as the shape of each WLAN coverage region are described. These metrics depend on the size and perimeter length of but do not depend on their other shape parameters for a convex . In addition, it is proven that a disk-shaped minimizes for a fixed WLAN coverage size and that is often insensitive to the perimeter length of . It is also proven that the of a user at a random location is equal to that moving along a random straight line or a random bounded curve. One hundred empirical location data sets of WLAN APs in Japan, Korea, and the US were used to confirm the theoretical results. Although these locations do not follow an HPP, many theoretical results are shown to be valid. For example, is minimized by a disk-shaped . Simultaneously, we find that slightly increases when a slender is used for highly clustered AP locations.
Autors: Hiroshi Saito;Ryoichi Kawahara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 130 - 142
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Communications Newsletter
Abstract:
Autors: Stefano Bregni;Andrzej Jajszczyk;F. Hashim;A. Sali;A. A. El-Saleh;W. Nurdiana;K. Anuar;K. Abdullah;M. Y. Alias;M. Roslee;N. Ramli;H. Mohamad;B. M. Ali;M. Ismail;G. Seco-Granados;J. Nurmi;J. A. Lopez-Salcedo;E. S. Lohan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 13 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Standards for Rotating Machinery: Navigating Worldwide Industry Requirements for Electric Motors
Abstract:
The end users, engineering firms, and manufacturers for the motor industry utilize several standards to specify, design, and procure rotating machinery. The world of legal responsibility, liability, and safety is driving the industry to have rotating machinery built to various standards. It is often difficult to navigate through the multitudes of standards developed by the different industries and global associations. This article will focus on the global industry standards for low- and mediumvoltage rotating machinery and show how to navigate through their provisions to determine the applicable requirements for areas of performance such as efficiency, vibration, sound, temperature rise, winding insulation, electrical installation, and test requirements. Furthermore, the article will specify hazardous location needs as well as construction requirements that incorporate terminal box volumes, mounting arrangements, physical dimensions, nameplate markings, and shaft and frame design requirements. With the number of requirements increasing for rotating machinery, many standards have been revised and developed to improve design, testing, certification, and installations. As these standards continue to grow, it can be challenging at times to keep up with which standards are applicable when procuring rotating machinery. Electric motors have many standards depending on what part of the world the machine is going to.
Autors: Gabriel Arce;Matthew D. Campbell;Matthew Fisher;Ron Turner;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 58 - 69
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GPU Projection of ECAS-II Segmenter for Hyperspectral Images Based on Cellular Automata
Abstract:
Segmentation is a key issue in the processing of multidimensional images such as those in the field of remote sensing. Most of the segmentation algorithms developed for multidimensional images begin by reducing the dimensionality of the images, thus loosing information that could be relevant in the segmentation process. Evolutionary cellular automata segmentation (ECAS-II) is an evolutionary approach that provides cellular automata-based segmenters considering all the spectral information contained in a hyperspectral image without applying any technique for dimensionality reduction. This paper presents an efficient graphics processor unit implementation of the type of segmenters produced by ECAS-II for land cover hyperspectral images. The method is evaluated over remote sensing hyperspectral images, introducing it on a spectral–spatial classification scheme based on extreme learning machines. Experiments have shown that the proposed approach achieves better accuracy results for land cover purposes than other spectral–spatial classification techniques based on segmentation.
Autors: Javier López-Fandiño;Blanca Priego;Dora B. Heras;Francisco Argüello;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 20 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gradient-Based Optimization for Poroelastic and Viscoelastic MR Elastography
Abstract:
We describe an efficient gradient computation for solving inverse problems arising in magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). The algorithm can be considered as a generalized ‘adjoint method’ based on a Lagrangian formulation. One requirement for the classic adjoint method is assurance of the self-adjoint property of the stiffness matrix in the elasticity problem. In this paper, we show this property is no longer a necessary condition in our algorithm, but the computational performance can be as efficient as the classic method, which involves only two forward solutions and is independent of the number of parameters to be estimated. The algorithm is developed and implemented in material property reconstructions using poroelastic and viscoelastic modeling. Various gradient- and Hessian-based optimization techniques have been tested on simulation, phantom and in vivo brain data. The numerical results show the feasibility and the efficiency of the proposed scheme for gradient calculation.
Autors: Likun Tan;Matthew D. J. McGarry;Elijah E. W. Van Houten;Ming Ji;Ligin Solamen;John B. Weaver;Keith D. Paulsen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 236 - 250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graph Regularized Nonlinear Ridge Regression for Remote Sensing Data Analysis
Abstract:
In this paper, a graph regularized nonlinear ridge regression (RR) model is proposed for remote sensing data analysis, including hyper-spectral image classification and atmospheric aerosol retrieval. The RR is an efficient linear regression method, especially in handling cases with a small number of training samples or with correlated features. However, large amounts of unlabeled samples exist in remote sensing data analysis. To sufficiently explore the information in unlabeled samples, we propose a graph regularized RR (GRR) method, where the vertices denote labeled or unlabeled samples and the edges represent the similarities among different samples. A natural assumption is that the predict values of neighboring samples are close to each other. To further address the nonlinearly separable problem in remote sensing data caused by the complex acquisition process as well as the impacts of atmospheric and geometric distortions, we extend the proposed GRR into a kernelized nonlinear regression method, namely KGRR. To evaluate the proposed method, we apply it to both classification and regression tasks and compare with representative methods. The experimental results show that KGRR can achieve favorable performance in terms of predictability and computation time.
Autors: Renlong Hang;Qingshan Liu;Huihui Song;Yubao Sun;Fuping Zhu;Hucheng Pei;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 277 - 285
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for In Vitro and Ex Vivo Recordings
Abstract:
Recording extracellular potentials from electrogenic cells (especially neurons) is the hallmark destination of modern bioelectronics. While fabrication of flexible and biocompatible in vivo devices via silicon technology is complicated and time-consuming, graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs), instead, can easily be fabricated on flexible and biocompatible substrates. In this work, we compare GFETs fabricated on rigid (SiO2 /Si and sapphire) and flexible (polyimide) substrates. The GFETs, fabricated on the polyimide, exhibit extremely large transconductance values, up to 11 mS·V–1, and mobility over 1750 cm2 ·V–1·s–1. In vitro recordings from cardiomyocyte-like cell culture are performed by GFETs on a rigid transparent substrate (sapphire). Via multichannel measurement, we are able to record and analyze both: difference in action potentials as well as their spatial propagation over the chip. Furthermore, the controllably flexible polyimide-on-steel (PIonS) substrates are able to ex vivo record electrical signals from primary embryonic rat heart tissue. Considering the flexibility of PIonS chips, together with the excellent sensitivity, we open up a new road into graphene-based in vivo biosensing.
Autors: Dmitry Kireev;Ihor Zadorozhnyi;Tianyu Qiu;Dario Sarik;Fabian Brings;Tianru Wu;Silke Seyock;Vanessa Maybeck;Martin Lottner;Benno M. Blaschke;Jose Garrido;Xiaoming Xie;Svetlana Vitusevich;Bernhard Wolfrum;Andreas Offenhäusser;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 140 - 147
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grating-Position-Shifted Cavity-Resonator- Integrated Guided-Mode Resonance Filter
Abstract:
A cavity-resonator-integrated guided-mode resonance filter (CRIGF) is a type of narrowband wavelength filter for an incident free-space beam of small diameter. A CRIGF consists of a grating coupler (GC) and a pair of distributed Bragg reflectors used to construct a waveguide cavity resonator. This time, the dependence of the reflection spectrum on the relative position of the centers of the GC and the waveguide cavity resonator is investigated in detail. The position shift of 3/16 of the GC period reduces the bandwidth from 6 to 1 nm, and the position shift of a quarter of the GC period eliminates the guided-mode resonance effect.
Autors: Kenji Kintaka;Kosuke Asai;Katsuaki Yamada;Junichi Inoue;Shogo Ura;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 201 - 204
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Green Cloudlet Network: A Distributed Green Mobile Cloud Network
Abstract:
This article introduces a green cloudlet network (GCN) architecture in the context of mobile cloud computing. The proposed architecture is aimed at providing seamless and low end-to-end delay between a UE and its Avatar (its software clone) in the cloudlets to facilitate the application workloads offloading process. Furthermore, an SDN-based core network is introduced in the GCN architecture by replacing the traditional Evolved Packet Core in the LTE network in order to provide efficient communications connections between different end points. The Cloudlet Network File System (CNFS) is designed based on the proposed architecture in order to protect the Avatars’ dataset against hardware failures and improve Avatars’ performance in terms of data access latency. Moreover, a green energy supplement is proposed in the architecture in order to reduce the extra OPEX and CO2 footprint incurred by running the distributed cloudlets. Due to the temporal and spatial dynamics of both the green energy generation and energy demands of green cloudlet systems (GCSs), designing an optimal green energy management strategy based on the characteristics of green energy generation and the energy demands of eNBs and cloudlets to minimize the on-grid energy consumption is critical to the cloudlet provider.
Autors: Xiang Sun;Nirwan Ansari;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 64 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Green Controller for Efficient Diesel Engine Driven Single-Phase SEIG Using Maximum Efficiency Point Operation
Abstract:
This paper presents a green controller for a governor-less diesel engine driven two-winding single phase standalone self-excited induction generator (SEIG) based on search-then-converge network algorithm. Diesel engines used for driving standalone electric generators are designed with a rated power output. Normally such engines exhibit maximum efficiency at about 80% of their maximum power rating. This point of operation is called as maximum efficiency point of operation. The proposed control operates the single-phase SEIG to generate a fixed electric power to achieve a maximum efficiency point of operation of the diesel engine irrespective of quantum and nature of load. The proposed controller diverts the surplus generated electric power to the battery energy storage system after satisfying the power demand of the load in order to conserve electrical energy and to improve the overall system efficiency. The operation of a diesel engine at maximum efficiency point of operation with constant mechanical loading irrespective of amount of electrical loading on the generator reduces the brake specific CO, smoke, and unwanted hydro carbon emission from the engine. Thus this scheme is named as a green controller.
Autors: Ujjwal Kumar Kalla;Bhim Singh;S. Sreenivasa Murthy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 264 - 274
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Green Video Transmission in the Mobile Cloud Networks
Abstract:
Video transmission is an indispensable component of most applications related to the mobile cloud networks (MCNs). However, because of the complexity of the communication environment and the limitation of resources, attempts to develop an effective solution for video transmission in the MCN face certain difficulties. In this paper, we propose a novel green video transmission (GVT) algorithm that uses video clustering and channel assignment to assist in video transmission. A video clustering model is designed based on game theory to classify the different video parts stored in mobile devices. Using the results of video clustering, the GVT algorithm provides the function of channel assignment, and its assignment process depends on the content of the video to improve channel utilization in the MCN. Extensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the GVT with several performance criteria. Our analysis and simulations show that the proposed GTV demonstrates a superior video transmission performance compared with the existing methods.
Autors: Kai Lin;Jeungeun Song;Jiming Luo;Wen Ji;M. Shamim Hossain;Ahmed Ghoneim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 159 - 169
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GreenCoMP: Energy-Aware Cooperation for Green Cellular Networks
Abstract:
Switching off base stations (BSs) is an effective and efficient energy-saving solution for green cellular networks. The previous works focus mainly on when to switch off BSs without sacrificing the traffic demands of current active users, and then enlarge the coverage of the stay-on cells to cover as many users as possible. Based on this objective, both constant power and transmission power of each BS become the major energy consumption sources. However, the transmission powers of enlarged cells, which have not been taken into account in previous research, are not negligible as compared to other energy consumption sources. To tackle this problem, we observe that the transmission power of one specific BS could be reduced via cooperation among two or more BSs, which is typically used to improve the throughput or enhance the spectrum efficiency in wireless systems. The challenges come mainly from how to jointly consider which BSs to switch off and how to cooperate among active-mode BSs. In this paper, we design energy-aware cooperation strategies that ensure that our system is energy-saving while satisfying user demands. To cope with sleep-mode BSs and perform cooperation among active BSs, we formulate this problem as a binary integer programming problem, and prove it is NP-hard. Based on our formulation, we derive a performance lower bound for this problem via Lagrangian Relaxation with search enumeration. Furthermore, we propose two heuristic algorithms accounting for the properties of energy savings and the constraints of bandwidth resources. The simulation results show that our algorithms outperform pure power control mechanisms that do not consider the transmission power and pure cooperation without power control in terms of the total consumed energy. We also observe that larger cooperative size does not imply a better strategy under different scenarios. Compared to the total consumed energy given that all BSs are turned on, our algorithms can save up to 60 perce- t of energy. This demonstrates that our methods are indeed efficient energy-saving cooperation strategies for green cellular networks.
Autors: Po-Han Huang;Shi-Sheng Sun;Wanjiun Liao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 143 - 157
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm-Based Tuning of Fuzzy Control Systems With Reduced Parametric Sensitivity
Abstract:
This paper proposes an innovative tuning approach for fuzzy control systems (CSs) with a reduced parametric sensitivity using the Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) algorithm. The CSs consist of servo system processes controlled by Takagi–Sugeno–Kang proportional-integral fuzzy controllers (TSK PI-FCs). The process models have second-order dynamics with an integral component, variable parameters, a saturation, and dead-zone static nonlinearity. The sensitivity analysis employs output sensitivity functions of the sensitivity models defined with respect to the parametric variations of the processes. The GWO algorithm is used in solving the optimization problems, where the objective functions include the output sensitivity functions. GWO's motivation is based on its low-computational cost. The tuning approach is validated in an experimental case study of a position control for a laboratory nonlinear servo system, and TSK PI-FCs with a reduced process small time constant sensitivity are offered.
Autors: Radu-Emil Precup;Radu-Codrut David;Emil M. Petriu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 527 - 534
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grounded Wye-Delta Transformer Bank Backfeed Short-Circuit Currents
Abstract:
A common load on a distribution feeder consists of a combination single-phase lighting load and a three-phase load such as an induction motor. This combination load can be served by a wye-delta transformer bank. The question is whether the wye connection should be directly connected to ground, connected to ground through a grounding resistor or left ungrounded. During normal loading conditions, each connection has advantages and disadvantages. However, during a short-circuit condition, a grounded wye-delta bank will provide a “backfeed” short-circuit current for an upstream ground fault. This paper will develop methods for the analysis of the backfeed currents for an upstream line-to-ground fault.
Autors: W. H. Kersting;Wayne Carr;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 65 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Group Buying Spectrum Auctions in Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
Spectrum has been sold at millions of dollars per megahertz through spectrum auctions. The staggering price hinders small network providers from becoming auction winners. Inspired by the group buying service on the Internet, group buying strategy has been introduced into the design of spectrum auctions to increase the buying power of small network providers. In this paper, we propose two truthful group buying auctions, namely, and , to take advantage of the collective buying power of secondary users (SUs) within each secondary network (SN). We carefully design the budget extraction for each secondary access point (SAP) within the SN to maximize the budget collected from the SUs. In addition, we allow the primary user (PU) to assign its channels strategically to boost the chance of successful transactions. These two features together empower and to significantly improve system performance, as compared with the existing group buying auction, in terms of the number of successful transactions (up to 16 times in the evaluation results), the number of winning SUs (up to 21 times), the average utility of the SUs (up to 19 times), and the utility of SAPs (up to 85 times). In , the utility of the PU is improved by up to 44 times.
Autors: Dejun Yang;Guoliang Xue;Xiang Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 810 - 817
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Growth Mechanism of Vanadium (II) Oxide Nanowires
Abstract:
Understanding the growth mechanism to synthesize metal oxide nanostructures is crucial for applications that require mass manufacturing. In this paper, a root growth mechanism for the facile synthesis of vanadium (II) oxide nanowires is reported. The growth mechanism is derived with the help of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The investigation on the impact of flow rate and catalyst on nanowire growth indicates bimodal growth. Early in the growth process, vanadium (II) oxide nanowires tend to grow horizontally along the substrate surface and reach a critical size density. After reaching a critical density, vertically aligned nanowires extrude from catalyst alloy islands. The vertical growth continues to grow unhindered after the catalyst alloy is formed. The evidence presented here indicates that 1) a metal catalyst is required for the vertical growth of vanadium (II) oxide nanowires in this setup, and 2) the horizontal growth observed is independent of the metal catalyst.
Autors: Jesse Steven Kysar;Francesca L. Wignes;Praveen Kumar Sekhar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 3 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Issue on Visual Computing in the Cloud: Mobile Computing
Abstract:
Recent advances in mobile devices (e.g., smartphones and wearables) and wireless technologies are fueling a new wave of user demands for an improved user experience. Indeed, users are not only expecting ubiquitous network connections for traditional services (e.g., messaging and calling), but also demanding extensive access to a wealth of video contents and services. However, this growing demand is seriously hindered by the fact that the onboard resources with mobile devices are inherently limited and their growth rate falls behind that of their desktop counterparts. It follows that new solutions should be in order to resolve this fundamental tussle. Fortunately, the emerging cloud computing offers a natural solution to extend the desktop visual experience to mobile devices. It actually provides both computational and storage support for media-rich applications with both front-end and back-end functionalities.
Autors: Yonggang Wen;Jacov Chakareski;Pascal Frossard;Di Wu;Wenjun Zeng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Section on the Thirteenth IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics
Abstract:
This Special Issue draws six papers from the Thirteenth IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR). SSRR is an international forum for furthering the study of key issues underpinning the research of safety, security, and rescue robotics as well as solutions necessary for the fielding of robots and sensor systems across a variety of challenging application areas. We are very pleased to have selected these subset of papers from an extremely strong technical program focused on automation themes for SSRR applications.
Autors: M. Ani Hsieh;Yu Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 3 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Spectrum Sharing and Aggregation for Future Wireless Networks, Part III
Abstract:
Welcome to the third one in the sequel of three IEEE JSAC special issues on Spectrum Sharing and Aggregation for Future Wireless Networks. In recognition of the fact that a substantial number of submissions have been received in response to the call for papers, the decision has been made to publish three issues on the cutting-edge advances in spectrum sharing and aggregation. The first two issues were published in October 2016 with 20 papers and November 2016 with 19 papers, respectively. This is the third issue with 17 papers, covering a feast of hot research topics as follows.
Autors: Theodoros A. Tsiftsis;Guoru Ding;Yulong Zou;George K. Karagiannidis;Zhu Han;Lajos Hanzo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guidelines for Finite-Element Modeling of Acoustic Radiation Force-Induced Shear Wave Propagation in Tissue-Mimicking Media
Abstract:
Ultrasound shear wave elastography is emerging as an important imaging modality for evaluating tissue material properties. In its practice, some systematic biases have been associated with ultrasound frequencies, focal depths and configuration, and transducer types (linear versus curvilinear), along with displacement estimation and shear wave speed estimation algorithms. Added to that, soft tissues are not purely elastic, so shear waves will travel at different speeds depending on their spectral content, which can be modulated by the acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation focusing, duration, and the frequency-dependent stiffness of the tissue. To understand how these different acquisition and material property parameters may affect the measurements of shear wave velocity, the simulations of the propagation of shear waves generated by ARF excitations in viscoelastic media are a very important tool. This paper serves to provide an in-depth description of how these simulations are performed. The general scheme is broken into three components: 1) simulation of the 3-D ARF push beam; 2) applying that force distribution to a finite-element model; and 3) extraction of the motion data for post-processing. All three components will be described in detail and combined to create a simulation platform that is powerful for developing and testing algorithms for academic and industrial researchers involved in making quantitative shear-wave-based measurements of tissue material properties.
Autors: Mark L. Palmeri;Bo Qiang;Shigao Chen;Matthew W. Urban;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 78 - 92
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guidelines for Managing Requirements Rationales
Abstract:
Requirements are identified and elaborated on the basis of stakeholders' decisions. The reasoning behind those decisions can be expressed as rationales. Systematic rationale management offers both short-term benefits, such as clearer requirements leading to fewer defects, and long-term benefits, such as simplified requirements evolution. However, little guidance exists for managing requirements rationales. This article presents guidelines to pragmatically capture, trace, maintain, and reuse such rationales. A list of questions augments the guidelines, improving their usability.
Autors: Anil Kumar Thurimella;Mathias Schubanz;Andreas Pleuss;Goetz Botterweck;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 82 - 90
Publisher: IEEE
 
» H2ONoC: A Hybrid Optical–Electronic NoC Based on Hybrid Topology
Abstract:
Next-generation chip multiprocessors will require communication performance levels that cannot be achieved by traditional electronic ON-chip interconnects. Silicon photonics has recently emerged as a promising alternative to handle future communication needs thanks to the ultrahigh bandwidth and low power consumption. Optical networks-on-chip (ONoCs) are affected by insertion loss and crosstalk noise effects, which constrain the network scalability and impact the power consumption. This paper proposes a hybrid electronic/photonic, hybrid-topology ONoC (H2ONoC), based on a novel architecture aimed at mitigating the above effects. This paper provides a thorough description of the H2ONoC architectures as well as an experimental evaluation based on both synthetic benchmarks and real-world applications. Compared with hybrid mesh- and torus-based network-on-chip architectures, H2ONoC achieves, respectively, 13% and 18% less insertion loss, 32% and 8% less energy consumption under synthetic traffic, 74% and 14% less energy consumption with real applications, as well as better SNR when the system size scales up.
Autors: Edoardo Fusella;Alessandro Cilardo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 330 - 343
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hail, robo-taxi! [Top Tech 2017]
Abstract:
Take a short walk through Singapore’s city center and you’ll cross a helical bridge modeled on the structure of DNA, pass a science museum shaped like a lotus flower, and end up in a towering grove of artificial Supertrees that pulse with light and sound. It’s no surprise, then, that this is the first city to host a fleet of autonomous taxis.
Autors: Evan Ackerman;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 26 - 29
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Half-Loop Frame Antenna for the LTE Metal-Casing Tablet Device
Abstract:
The use of metal casing is attractive to achieve robustness of modern slim tablet devices. The metal casing includes the metal back cover and the metal frame around the edges thereof. For such metal-casing tablet devices, the frame antenna that uses a part of the metal frame as an antenna’s radiator is promising to achieve wide bandwidths for mobile communications. In this paper, the frame antenna based on the simple half-loop antenna structure to cover the long-term evolution 746–960 and 1710–2690 MHz bands is presented. The half-loop structure for the frame antenna is easy for manufacturing and increases the robustness of the metal casing. The dual-wideband operation of the half-loop frame antenna is obtained by using an elevated feed network supported by a thin feed substrate. The measured antenna efficiencies are, respectively, 45%–69% and 60%–83% in the low and high bands. By selecting different feed circuits, the antenna’s low band can also be shifted from 746–960 MHz to lower frequencies such as 698–840 MHz, with the antenna’s high-band coverage very slightly varied. The working principle of the antenna with the elevated feed network is discussed. The antenna is also fabricated and tested, and experimental results are presented.
Autors: Kin-Lu Wong;Chih-Yu Tsai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 71 - 81
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hands-On Learning Through Racing: Signal processing and engineering education through the China National Collegiate Intelligent Model Car Competition
Abstract:
The Intelligent Model Car Competition (IMCC) of China is an annual collegiate contest where student teams design, build, and race a model car around a track, and the fastest car that completes the track without failure wins [1]. The IMCC is in collaboration with the global NXP Cup Challenge, which was formerly known as the Freescale Cup Challenge until the acquisition of Freescale Semiconductor Inc. by NXP Semiconductors [2]. Creating this smart, autonomous car requires students to develop the hardware and software of motor control to propel and steer their model cars. It provides a collaborative, competitive, and hands-on way for students to learn about and make a synergistic use of theories and techniques from undergraduate engineering studies, such as sensing and control, circuit design and implementation, and embedded system and software programming. The first competition, formerly known as the Smart Car Race, began in 2003 in South Korea with 80 student teams. Since then, the NXP Cup has expanded to China, India, Malaysia, Latin America, North America, and Europe, engaging hundreds of schools and tens of thousands of students a year [2], [3].
Autors: Qing Zhuo;Yanpin Ren;Yongheng Jiang;Changshui Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 31 - 39
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hardware Design and Web-Based Communication Modules of a Real-Time Multisensor Fire Detection and Notification System Using Fuzzy Logic
Abstract:
This paper presents the design and development of a fuzzy logic based multisensor fire detection system and a web-based notification system. Until recently, most consumer grade fire detection systems relied solely on smoke detectors. The protection provided by these has been established to be limited by the type of fire present and the detection technology at use. The problem is further compounded by the lack of adequate alert and notification mechanisms. A typical system relies on the physical presence of a human being to act on the alert. In developing countries, poor planning and addressing negatively affects the fire and rescue crew's response time. To address this problem, a fuzzy logic system was implemented using an Arduino development board with inputs from an MQ2 smoke sensor, a TMP102 temperature sensor, and a DFRobot flame sensor. The output of the detection system is sent over short message service (SMS) using a SIM900 global system for mobile communication (GSM) module to the web-based system and the house owner or caretaker in real-time. With access granted to the web-based system, the fire and rescue crew also get notified in real-time with location information. A comparison between the efficiency of the notification system employed by standard fire detectors and the multisensor remote-based notification approach adopted in this paper showed significant improvements in the form of timely detection, alerting, and response.
Autors: Robert A. Sowah;Abdul R. Ofoli;Selase N. Krakani;Seth Yayra Fiawoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 559 - 566
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harmonic Injection-Based Adaptive Control of IPMSM Motor Drive for Reduced Motor Current THD
Abstract:
This paper presents a robust nonlinear controller for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors based on maximum torque per ampere. Harmonic reduction is achieved through strategic third harmonic injection into the command voltages. Third harmonic injection also permits increased utilization (transfer ratio) of supply potential, which facilitates a greater speed operating range. Stability of the control law state variables is demonstrated through Lyapunov stability criterion. Global asymptotic stability is assured through the application of criterion supported by Barbalat's lemma. Control expressions are derived using an adaptive back-stepping technique, with estimation of dynamic load and mechanical coefficient ensuring optimal performance under dynamic operating conditions. The proposed system has been implemented in a cosimulation environment, with control system and machine model implemented in Matlab/Simulink and PSIM, respectively. The complete drive system is implemented using the DS1104 DSP board for a 3.7 kW laboratory motor. Both experimental and simulation results have demonstrated excellent drive performance, harmonic distortion reduction, and an increase in the linear modulation range.
Autors: Garin Schoonhoven;M. Nasir Uddin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 483 - 491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harmonic Instability Assessment Using State-Space Modeling and Participation Analysis in Inverter-Fed Power Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a harmonic instability analysis method using state-space modeling and participation analysis in the inverter-fed ac power systems. A full-order state-space model for the droop-controlled distributed generation (DG) inverter is built first, including the time delay of the digital control system, inner current and voltage control loops, and outer droop-based power control loop. Based on the DG inverter model, an overall state-space model of a two-inverter-fed system is established. The eigenvalue-based stability analysis is then presented to assess the influence of controller parameters on the harmonic instability of the power system. Moreover, the harmonic-frequency oscillation modes are identified, where participation analysis is presented to evaluate the contributions of different states to these modes and to further reveal how the system gives rise to harmonic instability. Based on the participation analysis, a reduced-order model for harmonic instability analysis is also proposed. The experimental results are presented for validating the theoretical analyses.
Autors: Yanbo Wang;Xiongfei Wang;Frede Blaabjerg;Zhe Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 806 - 816
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harmonics and Interharmonics Compensation With Active Front-End Converters Based Only on Local Voltage Measurements
Abstract:
The current grid codes for distribution networks impose on operators to provide ancillary services, like fault ride through capability and reactive power compensation. In this context, generating units with power electronics interfaces could offer as an additional service the active compensation for harmonic and interharmonic currents introduced by other converters or distorting loads. Typically, the converters of these generating units do not have information on the distortion of either other loads or of the grid current. Thus, this paper presents a control algorithm for grid harmonics and interharmonics compensation that relies only on the measurement of the voltage at the point of connection of the unit. The reference for the compensating current is calculated from the harmonic components of grid voltage in the synchronous reference frame. The paper also addresses the influence on the compensation performance of the line impedance between the generating unit and the point of connection. Experimental tests on a laboratory setup fully validate the proposed compensation method.
Autors: Salvatore D'Arco;Miguel Ochoa-Gimenez;Luigi Piegari;Pietro Tricoli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 796 - 805
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hawking Humanitarian Efforts [Editorial]
Abstract:
Autors: Davis George Moye;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Health Ontology and Information Systems: A Systematic Review
Abstract:
One of the most important aspects for the development of information systems is that they were interoperable, so many initiatives consider that ontologies as useful tools for their development, especially when the application is in complex and dynamic domains as the case of health. In this article, a systematic review (SR) of the existing literature related to ontologies used in the health sector is carried out, not only to interpret and synthesize the available studies but also to provide a framework as a basis for conducting new researches. Recent publications (2010- 2016) in which topics such as the use and impact of ontologies in the development of information systems are discussed, taking into account the organizational objectives and the involved stakeholders were considered. The number of published studies shows a growing interest by researchers because they consider ontologies artifacts that facilitate interoperability, understanding of information and communication structures.
Autors: Maria Alexandra Corral Diaz;Leandro Antonelli;Luis Enrique Sanchez;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 103 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Heat Flow Dynamics in Thermal Systems Described by Diffusive Representation
Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to analyze the dynamics of heat flow in thermal structures working under constant temperature operation. This analysis is made using the tools of sliding mode controllers. The theory is developed considering that the thermal system can be described using diffusive representation. The experimental corroboration has been made with a prototype of a wind sensor for Mars atmosphere being controlled by a thermal sigma–delta modulator. This sensor structure allows to analyze the time-varying case experimentally since changes in wind conditions imply changes in the corresponding thermal models. The diffusive symbols of the experimental structures have been obtained from open-loop measurements in which pseudorandom binary sequences of heat are injected in the sensor. With the proposed approach, it is possible to predict heat flux transient waveforms in systems described by any arbitrary number of poles. This allows for the first time the analysis of lumped and distributed systems without any limitation on the number of poles describing it.
Autors: Manuel Dominguez-Pumar;Maria-Teresa Atienza;Lukasz Kowalski;Santiago Novio;Sergi Gorreta;Vicente Jimenez;Santiago Silvestre;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 664 - 673
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Helical Fiber Interferometer Using Flame-Heated Treatment for Torsion Sensing Application
Abstract:
An interferometer using a single-mode fiber helix (SFH) was fabricated by the flame-heated treatment for torsion sensing application. For the first time to the best of our knowledge, this kind of interferometer was designed and experimentally demonstrated. By launching a linear polarized beam into the SFH, the interference was formed at the output of the structure because of the fiber bending-induced birefringence. Theoretical analysis shows that the geometrical change will bring a resonant dip wavelength shift when torsion is applied to the sensor part. Additionally, by adjusting the helix radius and pitch, the torsion sensitivity can be further optimized. From the experiment data, the torsion sensitivity reaches 1.691 nm/rad from −9.39 to 13.42 rad/m for the SFH with a radius of 0.89 mm and a pitch of 2.04 mm.
Autors: Xin-Yu Li;Wei-Gang Zhang;Lei Chen;Yan-Xin Zhang;Song Wang;Tie-Yi Yan;Quan Zhou;Biao Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 161 - 164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Help from the Sky: Leveraging UAVs for Disaster Management
Abstract:
This article presents a vision for future unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)-assisted disaster management, considering the holistic functions of disaster prediction, assessment, and response. Here, UAVs not only survey the affected area but also assist in establishing vital wireless communication links between the survivors and nearest available cellular infrastructure. A perspective of different classes of geophysical, climate-induced, and meteorological disasters based on the extent of interaction between the UAV and terrestrially deployed wireless sensors is presented in this work, with suitable network architectures designed for each of these cases. The authors outline unique research challenges and possible solutions for maintaining connected aerial meshes for handoff between UAVs and for systems-specific, security- and energy-related issues. This article is part of a special issue on drones.
Autors: Milan Erdelj;Enrico Natalizio;Kaushik R. Chowdhury;Ian F. Akyildiz;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 24 - 32
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Here comes 5G-whatever that is [Top Tech 2017]
Abstract:
Unlike most epochs, those of the wireless age have come and gone with convenient numerical designations. And with each came marvelous new capabilities: 2G let us all text for the first time, for example, and 3G empowered us to surf the Web.
Autors: Amy Nordrum;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 44 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Heterogeneous Networks in Shared Spectrum Access Communications
Abstract:
We investigate an advanced two-phase shared spectrum access communication scheme as an efficient approach to enhance the spectral utilization of a network. In the first phase, we devise a spectrum-sharing policy based on demands, fairness, and so on, which utilizes a priority scheme in fulfilling operators’ demands, and envision a secure operator-specific information sharing policy where no critical information is exchanged between the operators. In the second phase, a macro cell network (MCN) benefits through offloading services offered by small cell network (SCN). This allows the MCN to satisfy its users’ capacity demands, improve its quality of services and coverage under Nakagami fading channel. As a repayment, the SCN is rewarded with licenses to share and operate on the spectrum originally owned by the MCN. We devise a density division-based shared spectrum access model, where the density of the licensee’s SCN deployment is exploited as network resources. A fair division of the densities of the licensee operator’s small cell base stations into fractions of licensed small cell base stations serving its own users and offloading small cells is presented. Unlike most of the previous research works that considered Poisson point process (PPP) to model the distribution of the network entities even when PPP modeling is not accurate for the networks, where the number of MCN/SCN base stations is definite and the number of MCN/SCN base stations in disjoint areas is not independent, we employ a more realistic network model known as binomial point process to perform an analytical analysis of the cumulative interference and performance of the system. Furthermore, we analyze the rate coverage and outage performances considering a wide range of values for path-loss exponent and fading severity parameter of Nakagami fading.
Autors: Mirza Golam Kibria;Gabriel Porto Villardi;Kien Nguyen;Kentaro Ishizu;Fumihide Kojima;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 145 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hexagonal TSV Bundle Topology for 3-D ICs
Abstract:
Through-substrate vias (TSVs) are key for enabling 3-D integrated circuits (ICs). A hexagonal topology for TSV bundles in 3-D ICs is introduced in this brief. The topology exhibits superior symmetry as compared to the standard mesh topology. A comparison between the hexagonal and mesh topologies in terms of area per TSV, capacitive coupling, effective inductance, and shielding characteristics is offered. The hexagonal topology exhibits a reduction of 13% and 7% in, respectively, area per TSV and capacitive coupling. In addition, a two- to three-orders-of-magnitude decrease in effective inductance within the hexagonal topology is observed.
Autors: Boris Vaisband;Eby G. Friedman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 11 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical and Networked Vehicle Surveillance in ITS: A Survey
Abstract:
Traffic surveillance has become an important topic in intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), which is aimed at monitoring and managing traffic flow. With the progress in computer vision, video-based surveillance systems have made great advances on traffic surveillance in ITSs. However, the performance of most existing surveillance systems is susceptible to challenging complex traffic scenes (e.g., object occlusion, pose variation, and cluttered background). Moreover, existing related research is mainly on a single video sensor node, which is incapable of addressing the surveillance of traffic road networks. Accordingly, we present a review of the literature on the video-based vehicle surveillance systems in ITSs. We analyze the existing challenges in video-based surveillance systems for the vehicle and present a general architecture for video surveillance systems, i.e., the hierarchical and networked vehicle surveillance, to survey the different existing and potential techniques. Then, different methods are reviewed and discussed with respect to each module. Applications and future developments are discussed to provide future needs of ITS services.
Autors: Bin Tian;Brendan Tran Morris;Ming Tang;Yuqiang Liu;Yanjie Yao;Chao Gou;Dayong Shen;Shaohu Tang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 25 - 48
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Clustering Multi-Task Learning for Joint Human Action Grouping and Recognition
Abstract:
This paper proposes a hierarchical clustering multi-task learning (HC-MTL) method for joint human action grouping and recognition. Specifically, we formulate the objective function into the group-wise least square loss regularized by low rank and sparsity with respect to two latent variables, model parameters and grouping information, for joint optimization. To handle this non-convex optimization, we decompose it into two sub-tasks, multi-task learning and task relatedness discovery. First, we convert this non-convex objective function into the convex formulation by fixing the latent grouping information. This new objective function focuses on multi-task learning by strengthening the shared-action relationship and action-specific feature learning. Second, we leverage the learned model parameters for the task relatedness measure and clustering. In this way, HC-MTL can attain both optimal action models and group discovery by alternating iteratively. The proposed method is validated on three kinds of challenging datasets, including six realistic action datasets (Hollywood2, YouTube, UCF Sports, UCF50, HMDB51 UCF101), two constrained datasets (KTH TJU), and two multi-view datasets (MV-TJU IXMAS). The extensive experimental results show that: 1) HC-MTL can produce competing performances to the state of the arts for action recognition and grouping; 2) HC-MTL can overcome the difficulty in heuristic action grouping simply based on human knowledge; 3) HC-MTL can avoid the possible incon istency between the subjective action grouping depending on human knowledge and objective action grouping based on the feature subspace distributions of multiple actions. Comparison with the popular clustered multi-task learning further reveals that the discovered latent relatedness by HC-MTL aids inducing the group-wise multi-task learning and boosts the performance. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first work that breaks the assumption that all actions are either independent for individual learning or correlated for joint modeling and proposes HC-MTL for automated, joint action grouping and modeling.
Autors: An-An Liu;Yu-Ting Su;Wei-Zhi Nie;Mohan Kankanhalli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 102 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Maximum Likelihood Clustering Approach
Abstract:
Objective: In this paper, we focused on developing a clustering approach for biological data. In many biological analyses, such as multiomics data analysis and genome-wide association studies analysis, it is crucial to find groups of data belonging to subtypes of diseases or tumors. Methods: Conventionally, the k-means clustering algorithm is overwhelmingly applied in many areas including biological sciences. There are, however, several alternative clustering algorithms that can be applied, including support vector clustering. In this paper, taking into consideration the nature of biological data, we propose a maximum likelihood clustering scheme based on a hierarchical framework. Results: This method can perform clustering even when the data belonging to different groups overlap. It can also perform clustering when the number of samples is lower than the data dimensionality. Conclusion: The proposed scheme is free from selecting initial settings to begin the search process. In addition, it does not require the computation of the first and second derivative of likelihood functions, as is required by many other maximum likelihood-based methods. Significance: This algorithm uses distribution and centroid information to cluster a sample and was applied to biological data. A MATLAB implementation of this method can be downloaded from the web link http://www.riken.jp/en/research/labs/ims/med_sci_math/.
Autors: Alok Sharma;Keith A. Boroevich;Daichi Shigemizu;Yoichiro Kamatani;Michiaki Kubo;Tatsuhiko Tsunoda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 112 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Multi-Area State Estimation via Sensitivity Function Exchanges
Abstract:
A new hierarchical multi-area power system state estimation method is proposed in this paper. Instead of exchanging boundary measurements or state estimates, the proposed technique is based on exchanging the sensitivity functions of local state estimators. The main benefit of the proposed scheme is the improved convergence speed, which also reduces the amount of information exchange required. Extensive numerical results involving IEEE standard systems and a utility scale system are presented.
Autors: Ye Guo;Lang Tong;Wenchuan Wu;Hongbin Sun;Boming Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 442 - 453
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Gain Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna Using Uniaxial Material at Fundamental Mode
Abstract:
The use of uniaxial anisotropic materials in rectangular dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) increases the radiation from their side walls compared to their top walls due to the fundamental radiating mode, which leads to the improvement of boresight directivity. The different boundary conditions on the walls of DRA are also investigated. The main phenomenon of gain enhancement is also theoretically explained. The proposed method is validated by comparing the simulation results for the cases of isotropic DRAs and anisotropic DRAs (ADRAs). The measured results for an aperture-coupled uniaxial ADRA show an impedance bandwidth of 20.65% between 3.17 and 3.9 GHz and a peak broadside gain of 8.4 dB.
Autors: Saeed Fakhte;Homayoon Oraizi;Ladislau Matekovits;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 342 - 347
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Light-Load Efficiency Power Conversion Scheme Using Integrated Bidirectional Buck Converter for Paralleled Server Power Supplies
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new power conversion scheme for paralleled server power supplies. The snubber capacitor voltage is utilized for the secondary voltage source, from which bidirectional buck converter provides output power to the load under a very light-load condition. To increase the energy of the secondary voltage source, an additional voltage bus is connected between the snubber capacitors from each power supply. The main advantage of the proposed scheme is that high efficiency can be achieved especially under a very light-load condition because of the low switching and core loss achieved by using the buck converter instead of the conventional structure composed of a primary inverter, an isolation transformer, and a secondary rectifier. Furthermore, the buck converter is integrated into the secondary rectifier circuits, so additional components are minimized. The validity of the proposed converter is confirmed by the experimental results from two 12-V/750-W prototype modules.
Autors: Jae-Kuk Kim;Deok-Ki Yang;Jae-Bum Lee;Jae-Il Baek;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 236 - 243
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Performance and High Scalable Packet Classification Algorithm for Network Security Systems
Abstract:
Packet classification is a core function in network and security systems; hence, hardware-based solutions, such as packet classification accelerator chips or Ternary Content Addressable Memory (T-CAM), have been widely adopted for high-performance systems. With the rapid improvement of general hardware architectures and growing popularity of multi-core multi-threaded processors, software-based packet classification algorithms are attracting considerable attention, owing to their high flexibility in satisfying various industrial requirements for security and network systems. For high classification speed, these algorithms internally use large tables, whose size increases exponentially with the ruleset size; consequently, they cannot be used with a large rulesets. To overcome this problem, we propose a new software-based packet classification algorithm that simultaneously supports high scalability and fast classification performance by merging partition decision trees in a search table. While most partitioning-based packet classification algorithms show good scalability at the cost of low classification speed, our algorithm shows very high classification speed, irrespective of the number of rules, with small tables and short table building time. Our test results confirm that the proposed algorithm enables network and security systems to support heavy traffic in the most effective manner.
Autors: Wooguil Pak;Young-June Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 37 - 49
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensor Based on Highly Overcoupled Tapered Fiber-Optic Couplers
Abstract:
In this paper, a simple and compact fiber-optic sensor based on an overcoupled tapered fiber coupler is studied. The coupler is fabricated to be operated well beyond the initial coupling cycles, where the rapid exchange of energy between outputs ports enable the fabrication of a highly sensitive device. The suitability and sensitivity of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by measuring refractive index (RI) variations of sugar concentrations in water. The device presents a linear response in terms of power transmission or wavelength shift versus RI changes. The best achieved sensitivity is 0.442 units of normalized transmission per unit of sugar concentration, with a noise detection limit of 0.003 weight percentage of sugar concentration (wt %). From this result the minimum detectable RI change is estimated as RI unit (RIU). The sensor can be also wavelength-encoded, exhibiting a sensitivity of 2171 nm/RIU, maintaining a linear response in a large range of RI. These experimental results are within the best results reported in the framework of fiber couplers and modal interferometer-based RI sensors.
Autors: Marco V. Hernández-Arriaga;Miguel A. Bello-Jiménez;A. Rodríguez-Cobos;R. López-Estopier;Miguel V. Andrés;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 333 - 339
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High stress wet aging of cable dielectrics-meeting new challenges
Abstract:
The development of large wind farms is seen as a part of the solution to lowering global carbon emissions through bulk renewable energy generation, and in Europe many wind farms have mainly been constructed offshore where wind and land resources are advantageous compared to onshore sites. Whether onshore or offshore, lowering the cost of production is driving the industry to build wind farms with more turbines each capable of generating more power [1]–[4]. In the UK, the Offshore Windfarm Accelerator, a collaborative R&D program led by the Carbon Trust, is aiming to reduce the cost of wind generation by 10% through a combination of technological advances.
Autors: Simon J. Sutton;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 7 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Efficiency Transmission of a Wireless Power Transmission System for Low-Frequency Using REBCO Double-Pancake Coils
Abstract:
Wireless power transmission has been investigated to realize more efficient and more convenient noncontact power transmission systems for electric tramways, electric vehicles, portable telephones, and so on. Since the magnetic resonance type wireless power transmission system is often used in frequency regions of megahertz, there are some problems, such as the increase of wire resistance due to skin effect and a switching loss in converter. Therefore, it is expected to realize high-power wireless power transmission in low-frequency regions of kilohertz. In a wireless power transmission system using copper coils, however, the transmission efficiency decreases with the decrease of resonance frequency because quality factor decreases with the decrease of the resonance frequency. Therefore, we fabricated a model system using high-temperature superconducting (HTS) double-pancake coils composed of REBCO tape and investigated the transmission efficiency characteristics to evaluate the possibility of application of the HTS coil to a high-efficiency wireless power transmission system operated in the low-frequency region of kilohertz. In the copper coil system, the transmission efficiency increases with the resonance frequency. In the HTS coil system, however, a high-efficiency transmission was obtained, even at a low-resonance frequency, due to a large quality factor at low frequency. Moreover, in the wireless power transmission system using HTS coils, the transmission efficiency was high not only at the resonance frequency but also around the resonance frequency. From these results, we believe that HTS coil can realize the high-efficiency wireless power transmission in a low-frequency region of kilohertz.
Autors: Ryota Inoue;Daisuke Miyagi;Makoto Tsuda;Hidetoshi Matsuki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Efficiency Urban Traffic Management in Context-Aware Computing and 5G Communication
Abstract:
With the increasing number of vehicle and traffic jams, urban traffic management is becoming a serious issue. In this article, we propose novel four-tier architecture for urban traffic management with the convergence of VANETs, 5G networks, software-defined networks, and mobile edge computing technologies. The proposed architecture provides better communication and more rapid responsive speed in a more distributed and dynamic manner. The practical case of rapid accident rescue can significantly shorten the rescue time. Key technologies with respect to vehicle localization, data pre-fetching, traffic lights control, and traffic prediction are also discussed. Obviously, the novel architecture shows noteworthy potential for alleviating traffic congestion and improving the efficiency of urban traffic management.
Autors: Jianqi Liu;Jiafu Wan;Dongyao Jia;Bi Zeng;Di Li;Ching-Hsien Hsu;Haibo Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 34 - 40
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Level Feature Selection With Dictionary Learning for Unsupervised SAR Imagery Terrain Classification
Abstract:
Features are of great importance for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery terrain classification, but low-level features usually readily suffer from the speckle noise and they are incapable or inaccurate to capture some complex and irregular texture structure. In this paper, a novel feature learning framework is proposed to address this problem, in which some mid-level and high-level features are simultaneously learned by exploiting the spatial context constraints and sparse priors. More specifically, the mid-level features served as the intermediates are extracted from several initialized low-level features by the spatial constraints to reduce the influence of the speckle noise. Then, more abstract and discriminative high-level features are learned with an effective dictionary learning algorithm so as to represent the complex structures in SAR imagery. Finally, both artificial synthesis and real SAR imagery are utilized to verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework. It is demonstrated from both quantitative evaluations and visual results that the proposed algorithm performs better than other compared algorithms and the learned high-level feature is robust to the speckle noise and can improve the classification performance.
Autors: Jiawei Chen;Licheng Jiao;Zaidao Wen;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 145 - 160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Depletion/Enhancement-ode $beta$ -Ga2O3 on Insulator (GOOI) Field-Effect Transistors With Record Drain Currents of 600/450 mA/mm
Abstract:
In this letter, we report on high-performance depletion/enhancement-mode -Ga2O3 on insulator (GOOI) field-effect transistors (FETs) with record high drain currents () of 600/450 mA/mm, which are nearly one order of magnitude higher than any other reported values. The threshold voltage () can be modulated by varying the thickness of the -Ga2O3 films and the E-mode GOOI FET can be simply achieved by shrinking the -Ga2O3 film thickness. Benefiting from the good interface between -Ga2O3 and SiO2 and wide bandgap of -Ga2O3, a negligible transfer characteristic hysteresis, high ON/OFF ratio of , and low subthreshold swing of 140 mV/decade for a 300-nm-thick SiO2 are observed. E-mode GOOI FET with source to drain spacing of 0.9- demonstrates a breakdown voltage of 185 V and an average electric field (E) of 2 MV/cm, showing the great promise of GOOI FET for future power devices.
Autors: Hong Zhou;Mengwei Si;Sami Alghamdi;Gang Qiu;Lingming Yang;Peide D. Ye;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 103 - 106
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Low Coherence Interferometry Using SSB Modulation
Abstract:
Low coherence interferometry (LCI) is an optical measurement technique that has attracted the interest for relevant fields like medicine or sensing. With the objective of improving LCI capabilities, microwave photonics (MWP) arises as an innovative technology to enhance LCI possibilities. In this letter, a novel MWP-LCI approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to measure the optical path difference (OPD) of a sample. The operation principle of the technique is based on the analysis of the interference pattern through a dispersive element to retrieve its visibility using a vector network analyzer. Different capabilities of the system in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and SNR have been proved. In this case, the proposal is able to avoid carrier-suppression effect leading to a sensitivity improvement of 20 dB in comparison with previous structures for certain values of the OPD. Moreover, the OPD range has been extended up to 10 mm achieving an invariant resolution over all operation range. Finally, the improvement of the SNR of the system has been experimentally demonstrated by controlling properly the RF resonance profile through the adjustment of the optical source power distribution. We have observed an improvement of the dynamic range close to 40 dB for a Gaussian profile.
Autors: J. Benítez;M. Bolea;J. Mora;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 90 - 93
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Noninvasive Side-Channel Attack Resistant ECC Coprocessor for GF(2m )
Abstract:
Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is one of the most popular public key cryptosystems in recent years due to its higher security strength and lower resource consumption. However, the noninvasive side-channel attacks (SCAs) have been proved to be a big threat to ECC systems in many previous researches. In this paper, we propose a low-area-time-product ECC coprocessor for GF(2m) with the ability to resist most of the existing noninvasive SCAs. The basic countermeasures are relied on the underlying finite field arithmetics in randomized Montgomery domain, which can blind the intermediate value in the iterations of scalar multiplication to prevent the adversaries from cracking the private key by statistical methods. Meanwhile, we optimize the modular division and modular multiplication algorithms to fix the operating time to resist some certain timing attacks, and the Montgomery Ladder algorithm makes the coprocessor immune against simple SCAs. To efficiently implement our coprocessor, we present a hybrid operation sequence which merely needs one multiplication module and one division module to complete the entire operations. The synthesis results indicate that our design is superior to other related works in area-time product (ATP) and the extra overhead paid for the countermeasures is less than 5%.
Autors: Kai Liao;Xiaoxin Cui;Nan Liao;Tian Wang;Dunshan Yu;Xiaole Cui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 727 - 738
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Personalized Heartbeat Classification Model for Long-Term ECG Signal
Abstract:
Long-term electrocardiogram (ECG) has become one of the important diagnostic assist methods in clinical cardiovascular domain. Long-term ECG is primarily used for the detection of various cardiovascular diseases that are caused by various cardiac arrhythmia such as myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis. In the past few years, the development of an automatic heartbeat classification method has been a challenge. With the accumulation of medical data, personalized heartbeat classification of a patient has become possible. For the long-term data accumulation method, such as the holter, it is difficult to obtain the analysis results in a short time using the original method of serial design. The pressure to develop a personalized automatic classification model is high. To solve these challenges, this paper implemented a parallel general regression neural network (GRNN) to classify the heartbeat, and achieved a 95% accuracy according to the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. We designed an online learning program to form a personalized classification model for patients. The achieved accuracy of the model is 88% compared to the specific ECG data of the patients. The efficiency of the parallel GRNN with GTX780Ti can improve by 450 times.
Autors: Pengfei Li;Yu Wang;Jiangchun He;Lihua Wang;Yu Tian;Tian-shu Zhou;Tianchang Li;Jing-song Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 78 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance RF Devices and Components on Flexible Cellulose Substrate by Vertically Integrated Additive Manufacturing Technologies
Abstract:
This paper aims to demonstrate that novel additive manufacturing (AM) technologies like metal adhesive laminate and multilayer inkjet printing can be effectively exploited to fabricate high-performing radio-frequency passive components on flexible substrates. Both processes are substrate independent and therefore suitable for manufacturing circuits on several unconventional materials, such as photo-paper. In addition, their complementary features can be combined to develop a novel hybrid process. Proof-of-concept AM prototypes of passive components, such as capacitors and inductors, exhibiting quality factors over 70, never achieved before on paper, and self-resonant frequencies beyond 4 GHz are described. The maximum inductance and capacitance per unit area are 1.4 nH/mm2 and 6.5 pF/mm2, respectively. Moreover, an AM RF mixer with a conversion loss below 10 dB is demonstrated still on paper substrate. The mixer, fabricated with the copper adhesive laminate method, operates at 1 GHz and exploits a lumped balun transformer connected to two packaged diodes in series.
Autors: Chiara Mariotti;Federico Alimenti;Luca Roselli;Manos M. Tentzeris;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 62 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Precision Active Suppression of DC Bias in AC Grids by Grid-Connected Power Converters
Abstract:
Increased dc injection from grid-connected power converters and an increased dc-bias sensitivity of recent distribution transformers require unprecedented precision in detecting and suppressing the dc bias in 0.4-kV ac grids. In this paper, an optimum design of the dc-bias sensing reactor is devised, along with a robust, simple-to-use sensing algorithm that does not require calibration or tuning. The sample sensors are used as feedback devices within an experimental setup comprising a three-phase grid-connected inverter and a novel dc-bias suppression algorithm. The steady-state dc bias is suppressed below , the level acceptable even with the most sensitive distribution transformers.
Autors: Slobodan N. Vukosavić;Ljiljana S. Perić;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 857 - 865
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Rate APSK-Aided Differential Spatial Modulation: Design Method and Performance Analysis
Abstract:
Differential spatial modulation (DSM) is a novel multiple-input multiple-output wireless transmission technique, which relies on a single radio-frequency transmit structure without the need of the channel state information. In this letter, a novel high-rate design scheme relying on the amplitude phase shift keying (APSK) is proposed for DSM schemes. Moreover, a simplified upper bound of the average bit error probability (ABEP) of the proposed APSK-aided DSM scheme is derived and the ring ratio of the designed DSM constellation is optimized based on our theoretical ABEP results. Simulation results show that, at the same throughputs, the proposed scheme is capable of providing considerable bit error rate performance improvement over conventional DSM schemes.
Autors: Jiang Liu;Lilin Dan;Ping Yang;Lixiao Xiao;Feng Yu;Yue Xiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 168 - 171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed In Situ Observation System for Sonoporation of Cells With Size- and Position-Controlled Microbubbles
Abstract:
A high-speed in situ microscopic observation system developed for basic studies on mechanisms of sonoporation is introduced in this paper. The main part of the system is an inverted-type fluorescence microscope, and a high-speed camera of 20 MHz in a maximum framing rate was used to visualize the dynamics of cavitation bubbles that causes a sonoporation effect. Differential interference contrast and fluorescence techniques were used for sensitive visualization of cell changes during sonoporation. The system is also equipped with optical tweezers that can move a microbubble of several microns in size by using a donut-shaped light beam. In situ microscopic observation of sonoporation was carried out using a cell with a size- and position-controlled microbubble. The experimental results showed that the ability of cells to repair sonoporation-induced damage depends on their membrane tension, indicating the usefulness of the observation system as a basic tool for the investigation of sonoporation phenomena.
Autors: Nobuki Kudo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 273 - 280
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed and Low-Latency ECC Processor Implementation Over GF( $2^{m})$ on FPGA
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel high-speed elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) processor implementation for point multiplication (PM) on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed. A new segmented pipelined full-precision multiplier is used to reduce the latency, and the Lopez-Dahab Montgomery PM algorithm is modified for careful scheduling to avoid data dependency resulting in a drastic reduction in the number of clock cycles (CCs) required. The proposed ECC architecture has been implemented on Xilinx FPGAs’ Virtex4, Virtex5, and Virtex7 families. To the best of our knowledge, our single- and three-multiplier-based designs show the fastest performance to date when compared with reported works individually. Our one-multiplier-based ECC processor also achieves the highest reported speed together with the best reported area-time performance on Virtex4 (5.32 at 210 MHz), on Virtex5 (4.91 at 228 MHz), and on the more advanced Virtex7 (3.18 at 352 MHz). Finally, the proposed three-multiplier-based ECC implementation is the first work reporting the lowest number of CCs and the fastest ECC processor design on FPGA (450 CCs to get 2.83 on Virtex7).
Autors: Zia U. A. Khan;Mohammed Benaissa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 165 - 176
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed Integrated Digital to Light Converter for Short Range Visible Light Communication
Abstract:
Design details and characterization results of an integrated digital to light converter (DLC) for short range visible light communication (VLC) is reported. The integrated DLC can generate 16 light intensity levels at fast switching speeds, up to 500 MHz, thus enabling fast intensity modulated VLC. Data rates up to 365 Mb/s are achieved with bit error rate (BER) at a link distance of 5 cm and an average electrical power efficiency of 70%. Optimization in the micro light emitting diode (LED) manufacturing process has resulted in approximately threefold increase in data rate of the system. Spectrally efficient modulation schemes such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) are also demonstrated using this integrated system.
Autors: Aravind V. N. Jalajakumari;Enyuan Xie;Jonathan McKendry;Erdan Gu;Martin D. Dawson;Harald Haas;Robert K. Henderson;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 118 - 121
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Voltage and Low-Leakage AlGaN/GaN Tri-Anode Schottky Diodes With Integrated Tri-Gate Transistors
Abstract:
We present AlGaN/GaN nanostructured Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on silicon substrate with high breakdown voltage () and low reverse leakage current (), based on a hybrid of tri-anode and tri-gate architectures. The fabricated SBDs presented a small turn-on voltage () of 0.76 ± 0.05 V, since the tri-anode architecture formed direct Schottky contact to the 2-D electron gas (2DEG). The reverse characteristic was controlled electrostatically by an embedded tri-gate transistor, instead of relying only on the Schottky barrier. This resulted in low below 10 and 100 nA/mm at large reverse biases up to 500 and 700 V, respectively. In addition, these devices exhibited record up to 1325 V at of /mm, rendering an excellent high-power figure-of-merit (FOM) of 939 MW/cm2 and demonstrating the significant potential of nanostructured GaN SBDs for future efficient power conversion.
Autors: Jun Ma;Elison Matioli;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 83 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Voltage Gain Half-Bridge Z-Source Inverter With Low-Voltage Stress on Capacitors
Abstract:
In this paper, a new topology for half-bridge Z-source inverter is proposed. The proposed topology has only one impedance network. Unlike to the conventional half-bridge inverter, the proposed topology can provide zero voltage level at the output. It also increases output voltage level and stabilizes it in the desired value. Capacitor voltage stress in the proposed topology is low, and, therefore, nominal voltage of capacitor and cost decreases. In this paper, the steady-state analysis of the proposed inverter in two new operations which are named synchronous operation of diodes and asynchronous operation of diodes is conducted based on mathematics calculations. A method to obtain high-voltage gains by cascading the Z-network and combining middle inductors is presented that leads to cost, size, and weight reduction. Comparison among the proposed converter with conventional ones shows its excellent performance. The experimental results have good agreement with analytical analysis for the proposed topology.
Autors: Ebrahim Babaei;Elias Shokati Asl;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 191 - 197
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Accurate Time-of-Flight Measurement Technique Based on Phase-Correlation for Ultrasonic Ranging
Abstract:
Ultrasonic-based distance measurements using time-of-flight (TOF) is a fundamental technique for different applications across a wide variety of fields. In general, cross correlation between a transmitted and received signal is considered to be the optimal TOF estimation technique, which produces a peak at the time delay between them. Cross correlation provides a superior performance in conjunction with a linear chirp. However, as its accuracy depends on the width of the peak, which is inversely proportional to the signal’s bandwidth, it can only be said to be highly accurate if the reflected signal at the receiver is separated in time by more than the width of the correlation peak; otherwise, errors are introduced into the system. To improve its accuracy, the bandwidth of the transmitted signal must be increased, which increases the system cost. In this paper, to solve this problem, a technique is proposed, which is able to provide a much narrower peak than cross correlation without increasing the signal’s physical bandwidth. To evaluate the proposed method, in a controlled environment, two experiments were performed under low and high multipath conditions. For an operational range of 600 mm (indoor), the root-mean-square errors were [0.10, 0.56] mm and [0.19, 1.19] mm for low and high multipath environments, respectively, which indicate that the proposed technique is precise enough to support high accuracy applications.
Autors: Md. Omar Khyam;Shuzhi Sam Ge;Xinde Li;Mark R. Pickering;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 434 - 443
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Efficient Implementation for Parameter Error Identification Method Exploiting Sparsity
Abstract:
Accuracy of the network parameters has a strong influence on the results of power system state estimation. It has been shown earlier that normalized Lagrange multipliers can be used as a systematic way for identifying errors in network parameters. However, this approach carries a rather heavy computational burden limiting its practical utilization to small-size systems. In this paper, a computationally efficient algorithm is proposed to address this limitation. The idea is to derive and compute only the necessary subset of the gain matrix and covariance matrix, thus avoiding the computation and storage of large dense matrices. The proposed efficient procedure can be applied either to the single-scan or multiple-scan schemes with equal ease. Test results confirm that the improvements in computational speed and memory requirements brought by the proposed algorithm are quite remarkable. The proposed implementation of the normalized Lagrange multipliers method is tested using a large utility power system. The effectiveness and limitations of the single-scan scheme, and the improvements brought by incorporating multiple measurement scans, are discussed in detail.
Autors: Yuzhang Lin;Ali Abur;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 734 - 742
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Efficient Solid Gear-Shaped Silicon Nanowire for Solar Energy Harvesting
Abstract:
Silicon nano-wire (SiNW) is a viable solution to harvest large amount of photons from the sun. In this letter, novel solid gear-shaped SiNW is presented and particle swarm optimization technique is used to optimize its geometrical parameters. The defined optimization goal was to increase the absorption capabilities of the proposed SiNW at the maximum wavelength emission of the sun, nm. For the sake of fabrication flexibility, we have also introduced the complementary of the proposed optimized SiNW with the same optimized dimensions. The optimal SiNW and its complementary structure with 1--thick Si substrate offer ultimate efficiencies of about 50.21% and 45.12% employing 3-D-finite-difference time-domain method. It is worth noting that the ultimate efficiencies of the proposed SiNWs are higher than that of the previous work of slanting SiNWs and funnel-shaped SiNW.
Autors: Nihal F. F. Areed;Mohamed Fouad;Salah S. A. Obayya;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 205 - 208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Integrated 4–32-GHz Two-Port Vector Network Analyzers for Instrumentation and Biomedical Applications
Abstract:
This paper addresses the miniaturization of microwave vector network analyzers (VNAs) and the future vision of the VNA on a chip. Therefore, a highly integrated two-port VNA with a multioctave bandwidth from 4 to 32 GHz is presented. The proposed system is based on a fully integrated radio-frequency frontend consisting of a two-port stimulus, a four-channel heterodyne receiver, and a wideband testset. The testset is comprised of on-chip multisection directional couplers. The chip is operated inside a hardware demonstrator using a 16-term calibration procedure. The measurement of arbitrary devices under test is in excellent agreement with commercial measurement equipment and showed a mean deviation from the reference measurement of 0.17 dB and 1.29° regarding the forward transmission of a coaxial 30-dB attenuator. The system and receiver dynamic ranges are 44–77 and 82–101 dB at a resolution bandwidth of 100 kHz over the full system bandwidth. The measurements are highly repeatable and are robust against drift over time. As a proof of concept, the developed integrated network analyzers are utilized in a biomedical sensing scenario with an external and an on-chip sensor. Both approaches showed good sensitivity regarding the mixture ratio of binary solutions of ethanol and methanol.
Autors: Johannes Nehring;Martin Schütz;Marco Dietz;Ismail Nasr;Klaus Aufinger;Robert Weigel;Dietmar Kissinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 229 - 244
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Power-Efficient Nyquist-mPPM-LQAM Modulation With Enhanced Spectrum Efficiency
Abstract:
Nyquist-mPPM-LQAM is proposed, theoretically analyzed, and experimentally demonstrated for power- and spectrum-efficient optical modulation. Based on Nyquist shaping, Nyquist-mPPM-LQAM halves the occupied bandwidth with doubled spectrum efficiency compared with mPPM-LQAM. Taking Nyquist-4PPM-QPSK as an example, a receiver sensitivity of −49.8 dBm at BER of 1e-3, corresponding to a calculated power efficiency of 9.1 dB with a spectrum efficiency of 1 bit/s/Hz/pol, is experimentally demonstrated at 10 Gbit/s. An improvement of 1.6 dB in power efficiency is observed over QPSK at the same spectrum efficiency. Thus, the proposed format can provide high power efficiency with double spectrum efficiency compared with non-Nyquist-shaped formats.
Autors: Miao Yu;Yan Li;Jiangchuan Pang;Deming Kong;Zhisheng Yang;Jian Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 94 - 97
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Versatile Coplanar Waveguide Line With Electronically Reconfigurable Bandwidth and Propagation Characteristics
Abstract:
This paper describes a coplanar waveguide coupled to two split-ring resonators that, in turn, are loaded with two different reactive elements. By these means, balanced composite right/left-handed-like (CRLH-like) and also dual balanced CRLH-like (D-CRLH-like) responses can be obtained with the same structure showing opposite propagation characteristics. This behavior is achieved by simply varying one of the reactive elements, i.e., the capacitive or inductive load. The physical behavior of these transmission lines has been successfully explained by means of a single equivalent circuit. Besides, the proposed transmission lines have an extended bandwidth due to the balanced nature of the structure. The bandwidth of these lines can be electronically controlled using varactor diodes reverse-biased by an external dc voltage. Thus, a reconfigurable cell with CRLH-like and D-CRLH-like propagation has been designed and manufactured. The simulated and measured results show fractional bandwidths from 0% (no transmission) to 9.3% for simulations and from 0% (no transmission) to 8.7% for measurements. Undoubtedly, these new proposed transmission lines will be useful for designing reconfigurable devices that can be used in future communication systems such as radar, wireless applications, global positioning systems, or radio-frequency identification systems, among others.
Autors: Leticia Martínez Cano;Alejandro L. Borja;Vicente E. Boria;Angel Belenguer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 128 - 135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly-Efficient Self-Compact Monopulse Antenna System With Integrated Comparator Network for RF Industrial Applications
Abstract:
A highly-efficient monopulse antenna system is proposed for radar tracking system application. In this study, a novel integrated front-end and back-end complicated three-dimensional (3-D) system is realized practically to achieve high-level of self-compactness. A wideband and compact monopulse comparator network is developed and integrated as the back-end circuit in the system. Performance of the complete monopulse system is verified together with the front-end antenna array. To ensure the system's electrical efficiency and mechanical strength, a 3-D metal-direct-printing technique is utilized to fabricate the complicated structure, avoiding drawbacks from conventional machining methods and assembly processes. Experimental results show the monopulse system can achieve a bandwidth of 12.9% with VSWR less than 1.5 in the Ku-band, and isolation is better than 30 dB. More than 31.5 dBi gain can be maintained in the sum-patterns of wide bandwidth. The amplitude imbalance is less than 0.2 dB and null-depths are lower than −30 dB in the difference-patterns. In particular, with the help of the metal-printing technique, more than 90% efficiency can be retained in the monopulse system. It is a great improvement compared with that obtained from traditional machining approaches, indicating that this technique is promising for realizing high-performance RF intricate systems electrically and mechanically.
Autors: Guan-Long Huang;Shi-Gang Zhou;Tan-Huat Chio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 674 - 681
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hitting the Sweet Spot: A Single-Ended Power Amplifier Exploiting Class AB Sweet Spots and Optimized Third Harmonic Termination
Abstract:
The single-ended RF power amplifier (PA) is a standard design approach in the RF engineer?s tool kit, but high efficiency and good linearity may only be achieved if the harmonic terminations and biasing conditions are carefully examined. This is demonstrated in a single-ended PA using class-AB "sweet spots" and an optimized third harmonic termination, which won first place at the 2016 IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) International Microwave Symposium?s high-efficiency PA student design competition, sponsored by Technical Committee MTT-5.
Autors: Paolo Enrico de Falco;James Birchall;Laurence Smith;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 63 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How Best to Teach Global Software Engineering? Educators Are Divided
Abstract:
Pioneering educators discuss how they inject realism into global-software-engineering education.
Autors: Sarah Beecham;Tony Clear;Daniela Damian;John Barr;John Noll;Walt Scacchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 16 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How Much Computing Capability Is Enough to Run a Cloud Radio Access Network?
Abstract:
Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has emerged as a promising solution to support exponentially increasing demand in data rate. The attractive capacity enhancement mainly comes from centralized and coordinated processing, which poses great challenges on computing capability in the baseband unit pool. This requires the efficient allocation of computing resources to minimize the hardware and energy costs of C-RANs. Therefore, in this letter, we first model the computing resource consumption of joint downlink transmissions from remote radio heads (RRHs) to users. Then, we investigate the computing resource minimization problem on how much computing capability is needed given certain number of RRHs and user density. Numerical results show that the computing resource consumption increases non-linearly with the user density. In particular, the required computing resource drastically increases when densely populated hotspots are present in the system.
Autors: Yun Liao;Lingyang Song;Yonghui Li;Yingjun Angela Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 104 - 107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Human Facial Age Estimation by Cost-Sensitive Label Ranking and Trace Norm Regularization
Abstract:
Human facial age estimation has attracted much attention due to its potential applications in forensics, security, and biometrics. In contrast to existing approaches that cast facial age estimation as either a multiclass classification or regression problem, in this work, we propose a novel approach that combines the strength of cost-sensitive label ranking methods with the power of low-rank matrix recovery theories. Instead of having to make a binary decision for each age label, our approach ranks age labels in a descending order in terms of their predicted relevance to the given facial image. In addition, the proposed approach aggregates the linear prediction functions for different ages into a matrix, and introduces the matrix trace norm regularization to explicitly capture the correlations among different age labels and control the model complexity as well. Furthermore, motivated by nonlinear generalization performance of kernel methods, we extend the trace norm regularization from a finite dimensional space to an infinite dimensional space. We also provide theoretical analysis on the efficiency of the proposed kernelized trace normalization, which guarantees the feasibility of the proposed method for solving large-scale prediction problems. Comprehensive experiments on multiple well-known facial image datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework for age estimation compared to the state-of-the-arts.
Autors: Songhe Feng;Congyan Lang;Jiashi Feng;Tao Wang;Jiebo Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 136 - 148
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Human Parsing with Contextualized Convolutional Neural Network
Abstract:
In this work, we address the human parsing task with a novel Contextualized Convolutional Neural Network (Co-CNN) architecture, which well integrates the cross-layer context, global image-level context, semantic edge context, within-super-pixel context and cross-super-pixel neighborhood context into a unified network. Given an input human image, Co-CNN produces the pixel-wise categorization in an end-to-end way. First, the cross-layer context is captured by our basic local-to-global-to-local structure, which hierarchically combines the global semantic information and the local fine details across different convolutional layers. Second, the global image-level label prediction is used as an auxiliary objective in the intermediate layer of the Co-CNN, and its outputs are further used for guiding the feature learning in subsequent convolutional layers to leverage the global image-level context. Third, semantic edge context is further incorporated into Co-CNN, where the high-level semantic boundaries are leveraged to guide pixel-wise labeling. Finally, to further utilize the local super-pixel contexts, the within-super-pixel smoothing and cross-super-pixel neighbourhood voting are formulated as natural sub-components of the Co-CNN to achieve the local label consistency in both training and testing process. Comprehensive evaluations on two public datasets well demonstrate the significant superiority of our Co-CNN over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F-1 score on the large dataset [1] reaches by Co-CNN, significantly higher than and 64.38,text{percent} by the state-of-the-art algorithms, M-CNN [2] and ATR [1] , respectively. By utilizing our newly collected large dataset for training, our Co-CNN can achieve in F-1 score.
Autors: Xiaodan Liang;Chunyan Xu;Xiaohui Shen;Jianchao Yang;Jinhui Tang;Liang Lin;Shuicheng Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 115 - 127
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Adaptive/Nonadaptive Delayed Signal Cancellation-Based Phase-Locked Loop
Abstract:
To improve the disturbance rejection capability of phase-locked loops (PLLs), which are undoubtedly the most common synchronization tool in power and energy applications, using different filtering techniques have been suggested in the literature. Among these filtering strategies, the delayed signal cancellation (DSC) operator is highly popular probably because it can be easily tailored for different grid scenarios. The DSC operator(s) can be used either as an in-loop filter in the PLL structure or as a preprocessing filter before the PLL input. The latter case is often preferred mainly because it results in a faster dynamic response in the extraction of grid voltage parameters. In this paper, a combination of an adaptive DSC operator with multiple nonadaptive DSC operators is suggested as the PLL preprocessing stage. To compensate for the phase and amplitude errors caused by the nonadaptive operators, a compensator is designed and cascaded with them. The proposed filter requires a low computational burden for the implementation and ensures a fast dynamic response and high filtering capability for the PLL. The effectiveness of this technique is verified through experimental results.
Autors: Saeed Golestan;Josep M. Guerrero;Juan Carlos Vasquez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 470 - 479
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Communication Topology and Protocol for Distributed-Controlled Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel STATCOM
Abstract:
Distributed control scheme is preferred to the multiple-modules-based system because of the simple structure, low maintenance, and high scalability. This paper proposes a hybrid communication topology and a route-switching communication protocol to implement the distributed control applied in the cascaded H-bridge (CHB) multilevel static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The hybrid topology consists of multiple paralleled synchronous communication branches and each branch has very small transmission delay, which makes it possible to apply the low-speed communication network, such as 5 Mb/s optical fiber, to reduce the cost and improve the reliability. The route-switching communication protocol promises the global fault response of the STATCOM as quick as 10 μs by switching from the long normal data to the short fault signal when the module fault occurs. Experiments based on the CHB 13-level STATCOM prototype verify the effectiveness, flexibility, and reliability of the proposed topology and protocol.
Autors: Hua Geng;Shuzhen Li;Chao Zhang;Geng Yang;Lei Dong;Babak Nahid-Mobarakeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 576 - 584
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Hardware/Software Floating-Point Implementations for Optimized Area and Throughput Tradeoffs
Abstract:
Hybrid floating-point (FP) implementations improve software FP performance without incurring the area overhead of full hardware FP units. The proposed implementations are synthesized in 65-nm CMOS and integrated into small fixed-point processors with a RISC-like architecture. Unsigned, shift carry, and leading zero detection (USL) support is added to a processor to augment an existing instruction set architecture and increase FP throughput with little area overhead. The hybrid implementations with USL support increase software FP throughput per core by for addition/subtraction, for multiplication, 3.07– for division, and 3.11– for square root, and use 90.7–94.6% less area than dedicated fused multiply-add (FMA) hardware. Hybrid implementations with custom FP-specific hardware increase throughput per core over a fixed-point software kernel by 3.69– for addition/subtraction, 1.22– for multiplication, for division, and for square root, and use 77.3–97.0% less area than dedicated FMA hardware. The circuit area and throughput are found for 38 multiply-add, 8 addition/subtraction, 6 multiplication, 45 division, and 45 square root designs. Thir- y-three multiply-add implementations are presented, which improve throughput per core versus a fixed-point software implementation by 1.11– and use 38.2–95.3% less area than dedicated FMA hardware.
Autors: Jon J. Pimentel;Brent Bohnenstiehl;Bevan M. Baas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 100 - 113
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Integrated Microfluidic Channels on Multilayer Organic Substrate and on Copper for Tuning and Cooling an RF Reconfigurable S-/C-Band GaN-Based Power Amplifier
Abstract:
In this paper, a gallium nitride (GaN)-based power amplifier (PA) is cooled and tuned thanks to multifunctional hybrid microfluidic channels integrated on a multilayer organic substrate composed of liquid crystal polymer and ceramic-filled polytetrafluoroethylene. The tuning microchannels are integrated in the organic materials, while the cooling microchannels are micromachined in a copper carrier. The tuning allows the PA to switch the frequency of operation from 2.4 to 5.8 GHz and vice versa. Heat removal is achieved by the motion of distilled water below the GaN die, while tuning is achieved by swapping air and acetone inside the source and load matching network microchannels. The novel idea behind the design of such tunable PAs relies on the design of microfluidically tunable matching networks. For the first time, tunability parameters are introduced and a generic methodology is described for the design of microfluidically tunable matching networks for any dies, frequencies, fluids, or stackups. The measured power added efficiency (PAE) and output power () are: 1) PAE = 33.9% and dBm at 2.4 GHz with acetone and 2) PAE = 51.1% and dBm at 5.8 GHz with air. The liquid cooling seems to have no effect on for all measurements but shows a 1.5% increase in PAE for the 5.8-GHz measurements.
Autors: Outmane Lemtiri Chlieh;John Papapolymerou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 156 - 164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid ORC Waste Heat Recovery System and Solar Thermal Plant in Ait Baha, Morocco
Abstract:
This paper presents the heat recovery system of a cement plant in Morocco. The particularity of the plant is that it utilizes a hybrid solution with an organic rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerator. The heat used in the ORC unit to be transformed into electricity comes from both heat recovery from the cement production and from solar collectors through a thermal oil loop.
Autors: Fabio Rizzi;Clotilde Rossi di Schio;Sabrina Santarossa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 602 - 607
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Single-Phase AC–AC Modular Multilevel DSCC Converters With Modulation and DC-Link Voltage Ripple Improvement
Abstract:
This paper proposes two hybrid topologies based on a single ac–ac modular multilevel cascade cascade converter (MMCC) with double-star chopper cells (DSCC), in each of which a voltage reference technique (VRT) is associated for generating the output modulating references. In doing so, either the grid-connected leg or the shared leg can be switched at the line frequency, thus reducing the switching losses. For proper operation of the VRTs in real-time, the input and output converter voltages must be in sync, hence a synchronization technique is proposed. Furthermore, when no dc-link capacitor is used in a DSCC converter, the dc-link is subjected to voltage ripples derived from the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) technique. In that case, high-frequency PWM techniques can produce high-frequency components across the arm inductors, which are reflected in the dc-link. Therefore, this paper focuses on the operability of the hybrid modular multilevel DSCC converters, but also on the investigation of the proposed VRTs in reducing the dc-link voltage ripple on the conventional DSCC converter using PWM with phase-shifted carriers (PSCs). Simulated and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed techniques and converters.
Autors: Italo Roger Ferreira Moreno Pinheiro da Silva;Cursino Brandão Jacobina;Alexandre Cunha Oliveira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 261 - 272
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Stator Design of Fault-Tolerant Permanent-Magnet Vernier Machines for Direct-Drive Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, a new hybrid stator developed from conventional open-slot and split-tooth stators is proposed for a fault-tolerant permanent-magnet (PM) vernier (FTPMV) machine to improve its performance. The design considerations of the new hybrid stator for FTPMV machines are presented. Afterward, on the basis of the designed hybrid stator, new FTPMV machines with surface-mounted and spoke-array PMs are proposed and analyzed, respectively. Comparative evaluation of the proposed FTPMV, conventional FTPMV, and the conventional PM machines are performed by using finite-element (FE) analysis. It is found that the proposed FTPMV machines with the new hybrid stator definitely offer the improved performances such as higher torque density, higher power factor, and lower iron core loss as compared to that of the conventional FTPMV machines. Finally, the experiments on the prototype machines are conducted, verifying the FE analysis results and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid stator design for FTPMV machines.
Autors: Liang Xu;Guohai Liu;Wenxiang Zhao;Xinyu Yang;Ran Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 179 - 190
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Z-Source Boost DC–DC Converters
Abstract:
This paper presents a new family of hybrid Z-source boost dc–dc converters intended for photovoltaic applications, where the high step-up dc–dc converters are demanded to boost the low-source voltages to a predefined grid voltage. Because the boost capabilities of the traditional Z-source networks are limited, the proposed converters are composed of combine traditional Z-source networks in different ways to enhance the boost abilities of the traditional Z-source networks. The new version of the proposed Z-source converters is termed as hybrid Z-source boost dc–dc converters to satisfy the traditional benefits of Z-source networks with stronger voltage boost abilities which can also be applied to dc–ac, ac–ac, and ac–dc power conversions. The performances of the proposed converters are compared with other Z-source networks behaviors. The simulation and experimental results of the proposed converters are validated at different operating conditions.
Autors: Hanyun Shen;Bo Zhang;Dongyuan Qiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 310 - 319
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Image Unmixing Based on Fast Kernel Archetypal Analysis
Abstract:
Restricted by the associated factors to spatial resolution in remote sensing, mixed pixels and relative pure pixels may both exist in hyperspectral images. In this paper, Kernel Archetypal Analysis (KAA) is investigated for flexible endmember extraction which implicitly takes the intraclass variability into account in relative pure pixel mapping and mixed pixel unmixing. As kernel matrix in KAA brings high computational cost, fast KAA (FKAA) is proposed in this study to relieve KAA's memory issue and reduce KAA's processing time using the Nyström method. Nyström method is used to realize low-rank approximation of the high-dimensional kernel matrix in KAA by using a small portion of informative samples obtained by K-means. Experiments were conducted on both synthetic and real hyperspectral images. The results show that both KAA and FKAA can generate representative endmembers from the mixed data. With proper parameter setting, they can address the intraclass endmember variability in endmember extraction and achieve more realistic unmixing results than conventional geometric methods. In particular, FKAA is able to speed up KAA without significant reduction in unmixing accuracy.
Autors: Chunhui Zhao;Genping Zhao;Xiuping Jia;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 331 - 346
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hysteresis Compensation Method for Magnetoresistive Sensors Based on Single Polar Controlled Magnetic Field Pulses
Abstract:
This paper presents an improved hysteresis compensation method based on magnetic field pulses. The magnetic field pulses are generated by current pulses applied to a one-winding coil structure on the top of the sensor element. This configuration allows the sensor electronic to drive a magnetoresistive (MR) sensor in its magnetic saturation. Anisotropic magnetoresistance, giant magnetoresistance, and tunnel magnetoresistance current sensors are chosen for conducting experiments. The magnetic field generated by current pulses and the magnetic field generated by the current to be measured always have to be in the same direction. As a result, the output characteristic of an MR current sensor can always be kept on the negative rising and the positive falling branch of the magnetic major loop during the measurement. Thus, a defined output of the MR current sensor independent from the magnetic history for all current values can be achieved. An electronic mixed signal circuit consisting of a field-programmable gate array, an optoisolator, analog switches, and attention display converters is used to generate the current pulses and to measure the output of the current sensor. Current measurements with and without controlled magnetic field (current) pulses are compared. A hysteresis reduction to nearly 20% of the original value, by using this hysteresis compensation method, was reached.
Autors: Fei Xie;Roland Weiss;Robert Weigel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 710 - 716
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IAS Volunteers Make a Difference [President's Message]
Abstract:
Presents the President's message for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Tomy Sebastian;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 4 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of the Optimum Relocalization Time in the Mobile Wireless Sensor Network Using Time-Bounded Relocalization Methodology
Abstract:
Contrary to the static sensor network that requires one-time localization, a mobile wireless sensor network (MWSN) requires an estimation of the optimum time to retrigger the localization of the network to accurately identify the sensor location after certain movements. However, triggering relocalization at predefined time intervals without proper consideration of the dynamic movement of sensors is insubstantial and results in poor resource management. In this paper, a new algorithm called time-bounded relocalization is proposed to identify the optimum relocalization time for the entire MWSN using the time-bounded localization method based on the analysis of the sensors' mobility pattern. In the proposed algorithm, the optimum retriggering time across the entire network can be calculated in two phases: local and global relocalizations. In the first phase, an island-based clustering method is used to estimate the local relocalization time. Next, the estimated local times are then used to decide on the optimum global relocalization time based on the statistical property of the estimated local times. For these calculations, a probabilistic model of the random waypoint (RWP) is selected. The soundness of the proposed algorithm is initially validated by deriving the probabilistic model of the optimum retriggering time, and its accuracy is checked by the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB). The proposed algorithm is then extensively tested by computer simulation using practical network parameters, including the number of nodes, the size of the network, and various sizes of islands, depending on the sensor mobility, to yield the respective optimum relocalization time. The simulation results show that by using the identified optimum relocalization time, the location estimation error can be reduced by up to 32% for the RWP model, as compared with the case of using fixed relocalization time.
Autors: Mona Nasseri;Junghwan Kim;Robert Green;Mansoor Alam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 344 - 357
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identifying facial gestures to emulate a mouse: navigation application on Facebook.
Abstract:
A system is presented for emulate a mouse from the movement of the head and eyelids. The position of the head is used for controlling the horizontal and vertical displacement of the cursor, and the closing of the eyelids to activate the click of the right and left buttons. The system includes zoom, navigation shortcuts, vertical scrollbars and menus activation according to the cursor position; that enhance the functionality and facilitate handling applications. The proposed solution eliminates the restriction of direct contact with the mouse, and empowers people with motor disabilities in the upper extremities to interact with the computer. The mouse emulator can also be used by people without limitations to expand command instructions. The system was tested in navigation on social network Facebook, where an average speed of 382 pixels / s was obtained, with an average accuracy of 22 pixels for the X axis and 17 pixels for the Y axis. However, after user interaction with the interface, improvements of 23% and 37% were observed, in execution time and location accuracy, respectively. Click activation by temporary location over a menu option had a performance of 100%; while the right and left clicks by eyelid closing had a performance of 93% and 92%, respectively. Finally, the surveys showed high satisfaction about the proposed interface during user interaction with Facebook.
Autors: Jose Hernando Mosquera;Humberto Loaiza;Sandra Esperaza Nope;Andres David Restrepo;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 121 - 128
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE 802.15.7r1 Reference Channel Models for Visible Light Communications
Abstract:
The IEEE has established the standardization group 802.15.7r1 “Short Range Optical Wireless Communications”, which is currently in the process of developing a standard for visible light communication (VLC). As with any other communication system, realistic channel models are of critical importance for VLC system design, performance evaluation, and testing. This article presents the reference channel models that were endorsed by the IEEE 802.15.7r1 Task Group for evaluation of VLC system proposals. These were developed for typical indoor environments, including home, office, and manufacturing cells. While highlighting the channel models, we further discuss physical layer techniques potentially considered for IEEE 802.15.7r1.
Autors: Murat Uysal;Farshad Miramirkhani;Omer Narmanlioglu;Tuncer Baykas;Erdal Panayirci;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 212 - 217
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IF-Matching: Towards Accurate Map-Matching with Information Fusion
Abstract:
With the advance of various location-acquisition technologies, a myriad of GPS trajectories can be collected every day. However, the raw coordinate data captured by sensors often cannot reflect real positions due to many physical constraints and some rules of law. How to accurately match GPS trajectories to roads on a digital map is an important issue. The problem of map-matching is fundamental for many applications. Unfortunately, many existing methods still cannot meet stringent performance requirements in engineering. In particular, low/unstable sampling rate and noisy/lost data are usually big challenges. Information fusion of different data sources is becoming increasingly promising nowadays. As in practice, some other measurements such as speed and moving direction are collected together with the spatial locations acquired, we can make use of not only location coordinates but all data collected. In this paper, we propose a novel model using the related meta-information to describe a moving object, and present an algorithm called IF-Matching for map-matching. It can handle many ambiguous cases which cannot be correctly matched by existing methods. We run our algorithm with taxi trajectory data on a city-wide road network. Compared with two state-of-the-art algorithms of ST-Matching and the winner of GIS Cup 2012, our approach achieves more accurate results.
Autors: Gang Hu;Jie Shao;Fenglin Liu;Yuan Wang;Heng Tao Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 114 - 127
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Contact Resistance on the $f_T$ and $f_{max}$ of Graphene Versus $text{MoS}_2$ Transistors
Abstract:
A key challenge in making 2-D materials viable for electronics is reducing the contact resistance of the source and drain, which can otherwise severely curtail performance. We consider the impact of contact resistance on the performance of transistors made with single-layer graphene and , two of the most popular 2-D materials presently under consideration for radio-frequency (RF) applications. While our focus is on the impact of , we include the impact of all the device parasitics. We consider a device structure based on the 7-nm node of the ITRS and use the unity-current-gain and unity-power-gain frequencies ( and ) found from quantum-mechanical simulations, ballistic for graphene and with scattering for , as indicators of RF performance. We quantify our results in terms of the values of needed to reach specific values of and . In terms of peak performance (over all bias conditions), we show that graphene retains a significant edge over , despite graphene's poor output conductance, with only being able to bridge the gap if considerably better contact resistanc- s can be realized. However, with the bias current restricted to a technologically relevant value, we show that graphene loses much of its advantage, primarily due to a reduction in its transconductance , and we show that can then meet or exceed the performance of graphene via the realization of contact resistances already achieved in multilayer structures. Our values of for short-channel devices (around the 7-nm ITRS node) are shown to be consistent with experimental data for present-day long-channel devices, supporting our approach and conclusions.
Autors: Kyle D. Holland;Ahsan U. Alam;Navid Paydavosi;Michael Wong;Christopher M. Rogers;Shahriar Rizwan;Diego Kienle;Mani Vaidyanathan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 94 - 106
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of CSI Feedback Strategies on LTE Downlink and Reinforcement Learning Solutions for Optimal Allocation
Abstract:
The constant increase in wireless handheld devices and the prospect of billions of connected machines has led the cellular community to research many different technologies that can deliver a high data rate and quality of service to mobile users (MUs). One of the problems that is usually overlooked by the community is that more devices mean higher signaling necessary to coordinate transmission and to allocate resources effectively. In particular, channel state information (CSI) of the users' channels is necessary in order for the base station to assign frequency resources. On the other hand, this feedback (FB) information comes at a cost of uplink (UL) bandwidth, which is traditionally not considered. In this paper, we analyze the impact that reduced user FB information has on a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network. A model, which considers the tradeoff between downlink (DL) performance and UL overhead, is presented. We introduce different FB-allocation strategies, which follow the same structure as the ones in the LTE standard, and study their effects on the network for varying number of users and different resource-allocation strategies. We show that dynamically allocating FB resources can be beneficial for the network. In order for the base station to determine which FB-allocation strategy is the most beneficial, in specific network conditions, we propose two reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms. The first solution allows the base station to allocate one homogeneous FB strategy valid for all the users served, whereas the second more complex solution determines a different strategy for each user based on its channel conditions. The RL methods show that, even in dynamic scenarios, each base station is capable of determining an optimal operating point autonomously, hence optimally balancing FB overhead and benefits.
Autors: Alessandro Chiumento;Claude Desset;Sofie Pollin;Liesbet Van der Perre;Rudy Lauwereins;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 550 - 562
Publisher: IEEE
 

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