Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2017 sorted by title, page: 7

» Extended Modal Gain Measurement in DFB Laser Diodes
Abstract:
A practical method is proposed for complete gain measurement in distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes. It is non-destructive and does not require any reference device. It includes the whole range of continuous gain values, from its minimum to threshold, passing through the transparency condition. The method requires a single absolute gain measurement for calibration. An example is reported for a DFB preserving Fabry–Perot multi-modes in the sub-threshold regime.
Autors: Massimo Vanzi;Giulia Marcello;Giovanna Mura;Germain Le Galès;Simon Joly;Yannick Deshayes;Laurent Bechou;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 197 - 200
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Extended State Observer-Based Sliding-Mode Control for Three-Phase Power Converters
Abstract:
This paper proposes an extended state observer (ESO) based second-order sliding-mode (SOSM) control for three-phase two-level grid-connected power converters. The proposed control technique forces the input currents to track the desired values, which can indirectly regulate the output voltage while achieving a user-defined power factor. The presented approach has two control loops. A current control loop based on an SOSM and a dc-link voltage regulation loop which consists of an ESO plus SOSM. In this work, the load connected to the dc-link capacitor is considered as an external disturbance. An ESO is used to asymptotically reject this external disturbance. Therefore, its design is considered in the control law derivation to achieve a high performance. Theoretical analysis is given to show the closed-loop behavior of the proposed controller and experimental results are presented to validate the control algorithm under a real power converter prototype.
Autors: Jianxing Liu;Sergio Vazquez;Ligang Wu;Abraham Marquez;Huijun Gao;Leopoldo G. Franquelo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 22 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Extended-State-Observer-Based Funnel Control for Nonlinear Servomechanisms With Prescribed Tracking Performance
Abstract:
In this paper, an approximation-free funnel feedback controller is proposed for a class of nonlinear servomechanisms to achieve prescribed tracking error performance. An improved funnel function is proposed to guarantee the transient and asymptotic behavior of the tracking error within a given funnel boundary. The proposed funnel function removes the imposed assumption used in conventional funnel controls (e.g., systems with relative degree one or two) and avoids the potential singularity problem in prescribed performance controls. Moreover, an extended state observer (ESO) is used to address the effect of unknown dynamics in the control system (e.g., friction and disturbances), where the ESO parameters can be easily designed based on the control system bandwidth. The stability of the proposed control system with ESO and funnel function is analyzed via the Lyapunov theory. Comparative simulations and experimental results are conducted based on a practical turntable servomechanisms to validate the efficacy of the proposed method.
Autors: Shubo Wang;Xuemei Ren;Jing Na;Tianyi Zeng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 98 - 108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Extension of the QuikSCAT Sea Ice Extent Data Set With OSCAT Data
Abstract:
The Ku-band Oceansat-2 Scatterometer (OSCAT) is very similar to the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT), which operated from 1999 to 2009. OSCAT continues the Ku-band scatterometer data record through 2014 with an overlap of 19 days with QuikSCAT’s mission in 2009. This letter discusses a particular climate application of the time series for sea ice extent observation. In this letter, a QuikSCAT sea ice extent algorithm is modified for OSCAT. Gaps in OSCAT data are accounted for and filled in to support sea ice extent mapping. The OSCAT sea ice extent data are validated with QuikSCAT and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager sea ice extent data.
Autors: Jordan C. Hill;David G. Long;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 92 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Eyeriss: An Energy-Efficient Reconfigurable Accelerator for Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Abstract:
Eyeriss is an accelerator for state-of-the-art deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). It optimizes for the energy efficiency of the entire system, including the accelerator chip and off-chip DRAM, for various CNN shapes by reconfiguring the architecture. CNNs are widely used in modern AI systems but also bring challenges on throughput and energy efficiency to the underlying hardware. This is because its computation requires a large amount of data, creating significant data movement from on-chip and off-chip that is more energy-consuming than computation. Minimizing data movement energy cost for any CNN shape, therefore, is the key to high throughput and energy efficiency. Eyeriss achieves these goals by using a proposed processing dataflow, called row stationary (RS), on a spatial architecture with 168 processing elements. RS dataflow reconfigures the computation mapping of a given shape, which optimizes energy efficiency by maximally reusing data locally to reduce expensive data movement, such as DRAM accesses. Compression and data gating are also applied to further improve energy efficiency. Eyeriss processes the convolutional layers at 35 frames/s and 0.0029 DRAM access/multiply and accumulation (MAC) for AlexNet at 278 mW (batch size ), and 0.7 frames/s and 0.0035 DRAM access/MAC for VGG-16 at 236 mW ().
Autors: Yu-Hsin Chen;Tushar Krishna;Joel S. Emer;Vivienne Sze;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 52, issue:1, pages: 127 - 138
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fabrication of Linear Array and Top-Orthogonal-to-Bottom Electrode CMUT Arrays With a Sacrificial Release Process
Abstract:
The microfabrication processes for sacrificial-release-based capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer arrays are provided with an emphasis on top-orthogonal-to-bottom electrode 2-D arrays. These arrays have significant promise for high-quality 3-D imaging with reduced wiring complexity compared with fully wired arrays. The protocols and best practices are outlined in significant detail along with design considerations and notes of caution for pitfalls and factors impacting yield.
Autors: Benjamin A. Greenlay;Roger J. Zemp;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 93 - 107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fabrication of Two Flow Phantoms for Doppler Ultrasound Imaging
Abstract:
Flow phantoms are widely used in studies associated with Doppler ultrasound measurements, acting as an effective experimental validation system in cardiovascular-related research and in new algorithm/instrumentation development. The development of materials that match the acoustic and mechanical properties of the vascular system is of great interest while designing flow phantoms. Although recipes that meet the flow phantom standard defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission 61685 are already available in the literature, the standard procedure for material preparations and phantom fabrications has not been well established. In this paper, two types of flow phantoms, with and without blood vessel mimic, are described in detail in terms of the material preparation and phantom fabrication. The phantom materials chosen for the two phantoms are from published phantom studies, and their physical properties have been investigated previously. Both the flow phantoms have been scanned by ultrasound scanners and images from different modes are presented. These phantoms may be used in the validation and characterization of Doppler ultrasound measurements in blood vessels with a diameter above 1 mm.
Autors: Xiaowei Zhou;David A. Kenwright;Shiying Wang;John A. Hossack;Peter R. Hoskins;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 53 - 65
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fabrication of Vertical Silicon Nanotube Array Using Spacer Patterning Technique and Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching
Abstract:
We propose a process combining metal-assisted chemical etching and a spacer patterning technique to fabricate dense, vertical silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) with sub-60 nm wall thickness, which may have potential advantages for various devices. Moreover, we investigate the effect of the etch rate controlled by the mixture solution ratio to obtain SiNTs with ideal morphology. The fabricated high aspect ratio SiNTs exhibit good structural stability, leading to bundle-free arrays, which can be ideal for nanostructure-based suppression of optical reflection.
Autors: Hyeonho Jeong;Junghyung Lee;Cheolkyu Bok;Seok-Hee Lee;Seunghyup Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 130 - 134
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Face recognition tech goes on trial [Top Tech 2017]
Abstract:
Nimesh Patel, aggrieved user of Facebook and Illinois resident, isn’t naive: He well understands that the social networking company collects information about him. But Facebook went too far for his liking when it collected certain intimate details about his physiognomy, such as how many millimeters of skin lie between his eyebrows, how far the corners of his mouth extend across his cheeks, and dozens of other aspects of his facial geometry that enable the company’s face recognition software to identify him.
Autors: Eliza Strickland;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 40 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Farewell Editorial
Abstract:
Presents the farewell address from the editor of this publication.
Autors: Prasant Mohapatra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 1 - 1
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Online Video Synopsis Based on Potential Collision Graph
Abstract:
Video synopsis is a smart solution to fast browsing and retrieval of raw surveillance data, in which tube rearrangement plays a key role. However, conventional methods for tube rearrangement are based on minimizing a global energy function, which is computational intensive and time consuming. In this letter, we propose a novel tube rearrangement strategy for online video synopsis by analyzing collision relationship between tubes. A potential collision graph (PCG) is constructed to represent the tubes and their potential collision relationship. Based on the PCG, tube rearrangement is achieved by filling the tubes into synopsis video in a deterministic way, which decreases computational complexity. Finally, we incorporate the proposed tube rearrangement into an online framework to generate video synopsis and validate its efficiency with extensive experiments.
Autors: Yi He;Zhiguo Qu;Changxin Gao;Nong Sang;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 22 - 26
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Registration Methodology for Fastener Assembly of Large-Scale Structure
Abstract:
Fastener assembly is a tedious and time-consuming work because operators have to check assembly manuals and find right fastener for each hole. Hence, this paper aims to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) projection system that projects assembly instruction onto the work piece surface directly to guide operators to assemble. However, in order to project the instruction accurately, the corresponding part of the computer-aided design model of the physical scanned area needs to be attained through the rapid and accurate registration. In order to achieve this goal, first, a high-accuracy and rapid 3-D measurement system is developed; second, a fast registration method based on local multiscale geometric feature vector is proposed to accelerate the registration speed and improve the registration reliability. Experimental results demonstrate the measurement accuracy of the developed system, and verify the feasibility of the proposed registration method. Hence, the proposed method can lead to improved assembly efficiency and decreased error probability, making great contributions to large-scale structure assembly.
Autors: Jing Xu;Rui Chen;Heping Chen;Song Zhang;Ken Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 717 - 726
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Variance Prediction for Iteratively Reconstructed CT Images With Locally Quadratic Regularization
Abstract:
Predicting noise properties of iteratively reconstructed CT images is useful for analyzing reconstruction methods; for example, local noise power spectrum (NPS) predictions may be used to quantify the detectability of an image feature, to design regularization methods, or to determine dynamic tube current adjustment during a CT scan. This paper presents a method for fast prediction of reconstructed image variance and local NPS for statistical reconstruction methods using quadratic or locally quadratic regularization. Previous methods either require impractical computation times to generate an approximate map of the variance of each reconstructed voxel, or are restricted to specific CT geometries. Our method can produce a variance map of the entire image, for locally shift-invariant CT geometries with sufficiently fine angular sampling, using a computation time comparable to a single back-projection. The method requires only the projection data to be used in the reconstruction, not a reconstruction itself, and is reasonably accurate except near image edges where edge-preserving regularization behaves highly nonlinearly. We evaluate the accuracy of our method using reconstructions of both simulated CT data and real CT scans of a thorax phantom.
Autors: Stephen M. Schmitt;Mitchell M. Goodsitt;Jeffrey A. Fessler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 17 - 26
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Vascular Ultrasound Imaging With Enhanced Spatial Resolution and Background Rejection
Abstract:
Ultrasound super-localization microscopy techniques presented in the last few years enable non-invasive imaging of vascular structures at the capillary level by tracking the flow of ultrasound contrast agents (gas microbubbles). However, these techniques are currently limited by low temporal resolution and long acquisition times. Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) is a fluorescence microscopy technique enabling sub-diffraction limit imaging with high temporal resolution by calculating high order statistics of the fluctuating optical signal. The aim of this work is to achieve fast acoustic imaging with enhanced resolution by applying the tools used in SOFI to contrast-enhance ultrasound (CEUS) plane-wave scans. The proposed method was tested using numerical simulations and evaluated using two in-vivo rabbit models: scans of healthy kidneys and VX-2 tumor xenografts. Improved spatial resolution was observed with a reduction of up to 50% in the full width half max of the point spread function. In addition, substantial reduction in the background level was achieved compared to standard mean amplitude persistence images, revealing small vascular structures within tumors. The scan duration of the proposed method is less than a second while current super-localization techniques require acquisition duration of several minutes. As a result, the proposed technique may be used to obtain scans with enhanced spatial resolution and high temporal resolution, facilitating flow-dynamics monitoring. Our method can also be applied during a breath-hold, reducing the sensitivity to motion artifacts.
Autors: Avinoam Bar-Zion;Charles Tremblay-Darveau;Oren Solomon;Dan Adam;Yonina C. Eldar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 169 - 180
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Feasibility of InxGa1–xAs High Mobility Channel for 3-D NAND Memory
Abstract:
Epitaxial InxGa1–xAs is grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy as replacement of polycrystalline silicon (Si) channel for high-density 3-D NAND memory applications. The most challenging steps to integrate InxGa1–xAs are thoroughly discussed; their impact on the electrical performances are investigated and the tunnel oxide (TuOx) quality is assessed. InxGa1–xAs channels with a diameter down to ~45 nm and different In concentrations are obtained after using two alternative surface preparation routes: HCl and Cl2. Thanks to the lower thermal budget involved, Cl2 seems the most suitable route to preserve the thickness of the TuOx. InxGa1–xAs channels with In concentration, x, higher than 0.45 have superior conduction properties compared with poly-Si channel, showing higher and transconductance.
Autors: E. Capogreco;A. Subirats;J. G. Lisoni;A. Arreghini;B. Kunert;W. Guo;C.-L. Tan;R. Delhougne;G. Van den bosch;K. De Meyer;A. Furnemont;J. Van Houdt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 130 - 136
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Federated Internet of Things and Cloud Computing Pervasive Patient Health Monitoring System
Abstract:
The exponentially growing healthcare costs coupled with the increasing interest of patients in receiving care in the comfort of their own homes have prompted a serious need to revolutionize healthcare systems. This has prompted active research in the development of solutions that enable healthcare providers to remotely monitor and evaluate the health of patients in the comfort of their residences. However, existing works lack flexibility, scalability, and energy efficiency. This article presents a pervasive patient health monitoring (PPHM) system infrastructure. PPHM is based on integrated cloud computing and Internet of Things technologies. In order to demonstrate the suitability of the proposed PPHM infrastructure, a case study for real-time monitoring of a patient suffering from congestive heart failure using ECG is presented. Experimental evaluation of the proposed PPHM infrastructure shows that PPHM is a flexible, scalable, and energy-efficient remote patient health monitoring system.
Autors: Jemal H. Abawajy;Mohammad Mehedi Hassan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 48 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FiDoop-DP: Data Partitioning in Frequent Itemset Mining on Hadoop Clusters
Abstract:
Traditional parallel algorithms for mining frequent itemsets aim to balance load by equally partitioning data among a group of computing nodes. We start this study by discovering a serious performance problem of the existing parallel Frequent Itemset Mining algorithms. Given a large dataset, data partitioning strategies in the existing solutions suffer high communication and mining overhead induced by redundant transactions transmitted among computing nodes. We address this problem by developing a data partitioning approach called FiDoop-DP using the MapReduce programming model. The overarching goal of FiDoop-DP is to boost the performance of parallel Frequent Itemset Mining on Hadoop clusters. At the heart of FiDoop-DP is the Voronoi diagram-based data partitioning technique, which exploits correlations among transactions. Incorporating the similarity metric and the Locality-Sensitive Hashing technique, FiDoop-DP places highly similar transactions into a data partition to improve locality without creating an excessive number of redundant transactions. We implement FiDoop-DP on a 24-node Hadoop cluster, driven by a wide range of datasets created by IBM Quest Market-Basket Synthetic Data Generator. Experimental results reveal that FiDoop-DP is conducive to reducing network and computing loads by the virtue of eliminating redundant transactions on Hadoop nodes. FiDoop-DP significantly improves the performance of the existing parallel frequent-pattern scheme by up to 31 percent with an average of 18 percent.
Autors: Yaling Xun;Jifu Zhang;Xiao Qin;Xujun Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 101 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Field-Related Failure of GaN-on-Si HEMTs: Dependence on Device Geometry and Passivation
Abstract:
This paper reports on an extensive analysis of the breakdown of GaN-based Schottky-gated HEMTs submitted to high-voltage stress. The analysis was carried out on transistors with different lengths of the drain-side gate-head (), corresponding to different levels of electric field across the SiN passivation. Based on dc measurements, 2-D simulations, and optical analysis, we demonstrate the following original results: 1) when submitted to high drain voltages (in the OFF-state), the transistors can show catastrophic failure; 2) electroluminescence microscopy indicates the presence of hot-spots on the drain-side of the gate; 2-D simulations support the hypothesis that failure occurs in correspondence of the gate-head, on the drain-side edge, where the electric field in the silicon nitride passivation has its maximum; 3) this hypothesis is confirmed by the results of transmission electron microscope failure analysis that demonstrate the generation of a leakage path between the gate metal and the channel, 4) and by the dependence of the destructive voltage on the value. 5) in addition, we propose and demonstrate an approach for improving the reliability of the devices, i.e., using a graded SiN passivation with increased thickness. The results described in this paper provide important information for the device optimization of Schottky-gated HEMTs.
Autors: I. Rossetto;M. Meneghini;S. Pandey;M. Gajda;G. A. M. Hurkx;J. A. Croon;J. Šonský;G. Meneghesso;E. Zanoni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 73 - 77
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finding Equilibria in the Pool-Based Electricity Market With Strategic Wind Power Producers and Network Constraints
Abstract:
This paper proposes a model to find the equilibria in the short-term electricity market with large-scale wind power penetration. The behavior of each strategic player is modeled through a two-stage mathematical problem with equilibrium constraints (MPEC), where the upper-level problem maximizes the profit of the strategic player and the lower-level problem describes the clearing processes of the day-ahead and real-time markets while considering the network constraints. The joint solution of all the MPECs constitutes an equilibrium problem with equilibrium constraints (EPEC). The uncertain wind power production and demand are represented by a set of plausible scenarios. By using the duality theory and Karush–Kuhn–Tucker condition, each MPEC is transferred into a mixed-integer linear programing problem. The Nash equilibria of the electricity market are obtained by solving the EPEC using Game theory and the diagonalization algorithm. Case studies are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Autors: Ting Dai;Wei Qiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 389 - 399
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finding the Kinematic Base Frame of a Robot by Hand-Eye Calibration Using 3D Position Data
Abstract:
When a robot is required to perform specific tasks defined in the world frame, there is a need for finding the coordinate transformation between the kinematic base frame of the robot and the world frame. The kinematic base frame used by the robot controller to define and evaluate the kinematics may deviate from the mechanical base frame constructed based on structural features. Besides, by using kinematic modeling rules such as the product of exponentials (POE) formula, the base frame can be arbitrarily located, and does not have to be related to any feature of the mechanical structure. As a result, the kinematic base frame cannot be measured directly. This paper proposes to find the kinematic base frame by solving a hand-eye calibration problem using 3D position measurements only, which avoids the inconvenience and inaccuracy of measuring orientations and thus significantly facilitates practical operations. A closed-form solution and an iterative solution are explicitly formulated and proved effective by simulations. Comprehensive analyses of the impact of key parameters to the accuracy of the solution are also carried out, providing four guidelines to better conduct practical operations. Finally, experiments on a 7-DOF industrial robot are performed with an optical tracking system to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method using position data only over the method using full pose data.
Autors: Liao Wu;Hongliang Ren;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 314 - 324
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FinFET With Encased Air-Gap Spacers for High-Performance and Low-Energy Circuits
Abstract:
We experimentally demonstrate n-channel bulk FinFET with encased air-gap spacers. Encased air gap in the spacer region is formed by depositing carbon sidewalls, encasing them with silicon nitride (SiN) film and finally removing carbon using mild oxygen plasma. We show that the drive current of air-spacer FinFET is improved by about 40% compared with the baseline bulk FinFET with SiN spacers likely due to enhanced tensile stress in the channel. The parasitic capacitance and ring oscillator delay of FinFET with air-spacers is about 25% and 40% lower compared with that with SiN spacers.
Autors: Angada B. Sachid;Yao-Min Huang;Yi-Ju Chen;Chun-Chi Chen;Darsen D. Lu;Min-Cheng Chen;Chenming Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 16 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fingerprint Liveness Detection Using Local Coherence Patterns
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a novel image descriptor for fingerprint liveness detection using the local coherence of a given image. Based on the observation that materials employed for making fake fingerprints (e.g., silicone, wood glue, etc.) tend to yield the nonuniformity in the captured image due to the replica fabrication process, we focus on the difference of the dispersion in the image gradient field between live and fake fingerprints. More specifically, we propose to define the local patterns of the coherence along the dominant direction, the so-called local coherence patterns, as our features, which are fed into the linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine whether a given fingerprint is fake or not. Experimental results on various datasets show that the proposed image descriptor is effective for fingerprint liveness detection compared to other approaches employed in the literature.
Autors: Wonjun Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 51 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finite-Horizon Throughput Region for Wireless Multi-User Interference Channels
Abstract:
This paper studies a wireless network consisting of multiple transmitter-receiver pairs where interference is treated as noise. Previously, the throughput region of such networks was characterized for either one time slot or an infinite time horizon. We aim to fill the gap by investigating the throughput region for transmissions over a finite time horizon. Unlike the infinite-horizon throughput region, which is simply the convex hull of the throughput region of one time slot, the finite-horizon throughput region is generally non-convex. Instead of directly characterizing all achievable rate-tuples in the finite-horizon throughput region, we propose a metric termed the rate margin, which not only determines whether any given rate-tuple is within the throughput region (i.e., achievable or unachievable), but also tells the amount of scaling that can be done to the given achievable (unachievable) rate-tuple such that the resulting rate-tuple is still within (brought back into) the throughput region. Furthermore, we derive an efficient algorithm to find the rate-achieving policy for any given rate-tuple in the finite-horizon throughput region.
Autors: Yirui Cong;Xiangyun Zhou;Rodney A. Kennedy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 634 - 646
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Firefly-Algorithm-Inspired Framework With Band Selection and Extreme Learning Machine for Hyperspectral Image Classification
Abstract:
A firefly algorithm (FA) inspired band selection and optimized extreme learning machine (ELM) for hyperspectral image classification is proposed. In this framework, FA is to select a subset of original bands to reduce the complexity of the ELM network. It is also adapted to optimize the parameters in ELM (i.e., regularization coefficient C, Gaussian kernel σ, and hidden number of neurons L). Due to very low complexity of ELM, its classification accuracy can be used as the objective function of FA during band selection and parameter optimization. In the experiments, two hyperspectral image datasets acquired by HYDICE and HYMAP are used, and the experiment results indicate that the proposed method can offer better performance, compared with particle swarm optimization and other related band selection algorithms.
Autors: Hongjun Su;Yue Cai;Qian Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 309 - 320
Publisher: IEEE
 
» First Principles Investigation of Small Molecules Adsorption on Antimonene
Abstract:
The gas-adsorption behaviors of the pristine antimonene are investigated by first principles calculations to exploit its potential for high-performance gas sensing. The results show that the atmospheric gas molecules (N2, CO2, O2, and H2O) presented ubiquitously in the sensing environments weakly bind to antimonene, while the polluted gas adsorbates (NH3, SO2, NO, and NO2) show stronger affinity toward antimonene with considerable adsorption energies and elevated charge transfers. Considering the susceptibility of the electronic properties of antimonene induced by the adsorbed molecules, we suggest that single-layered antimonene could be an eligible sensing material for polluted gases detection.
Autors: Rui-Shen Meng;Miao Cai;Jun-Ke Jiang;Qiu-Hua Liang;Xiang Sun;Qun Yang;Chun-Jian Tan;Xian-Ping Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 134 - 137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Floating Random Walk-Based Capacitance Extraction for General Non-Manhattan Conductor Structures
Abstract:
The non-Manhattan conductor geometry existing in some capacitance extraction problems brings difficulty to the floating random walk (FRW) method using cubic transition domains. In this paper, techniques are proposed to enhance the FRW method for handling the structures with non-Manhattan conductors. Based on the aligned-box distances and corresponding calculating approaches, the techniques for generating the Gaussian surface and constructing axis-aligned transition cubes are proposed. A practical strategy is then proposed to judge the domination relationship of non-Manhattan conductor blocks for building the space management structure with candidate list. Finally, the strategy using rotated transition cube and related space management technique are proposed to make further acceleration. Experiments on 3-D interconnect structures including from 8 to 1000 non-Manhattan blocks show that the proposed method is from to faster than a simple extension of the original FRW method. The proposed method is also up to faster than a boundary element method-based solver. Additional experiments are carried out to further validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed techniques, and to demonstrate their suitability for large and multi-dielectric structures.
Autors: Zhezhao Xu;Chao Zhang;Wenjian Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 120 - 133
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Floorplanning Automation for Partial-Reconfigurable FPGAs via Feasible Placements Generation
Abstract:
When dealing with partially reconfigurable designs on field-programmable gate array, floorplanning represents a critical step that highly impacts system’s performance and reconfiguration overhead. However, current vendor design tools still require the floorplan to be manually defined by the designer. Within this paper, we provide a novel floorplanning automation framework, integrated in the Xilinx tool chain, which is based on an explicit enumeration of the possible placements of each region. Moreover, we propose a genetic algorithm (GA), enhanced with a local search strategy, to automate the floorplanning activity on the defined direct problem representation. The proposed approach has been experimentally evaluated with a synthetic benchmark suite and real case studies. We compared the designed solution against both the state-of-the-art algorithms and alternative engines based on the same direct problem representation. Experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed direct problem representation and the superiority of the defined GA engine with respect to the other approaches in terms of exploration time and identified solution.
Autors: Marco Rabozzi;Gianluca Carlo Durelli;Antonio Miele;John Lillis;Marco Domenico Santambrogio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 151 - 164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flow Allocation for Maximum Throughput and Bounded Delay on Multiple Disjoint Paths for Random Access Wireless Multihop Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider random-access wireless multihop networks, with multipacket reception capabilities, where multiple flows are forwarded to the gateways through node disjoint paths. We explore the issue of allocating flow on multiple paths, exhibiting both intra- and interpath interference, in order to maximize average aggregate flow throughput (AAT) and provide bounded packet delay. A distributed flow allocation scheme is proposed where allocation of flow on paths is formulated as an optimization problem. Through an illustrative topology, it is shown that the corresponding problem is nonconvex. Furthermore, a simple but accurate model is employed for the AAT achieved by all flows, which captures both intra- and interpath interference through the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) model. The proposed scheme is evaluated through Ns2 simulations of several random wireless scenarios. Simulation results reveal that the model employed accurately captures the AAT observed in the simulated scenarios, even when the assumption of saturated queues is removed. Simulation results also show that the proposed scheme achieves significantly higher AAT for the vast majority of the wireless scenarios explored than for the following flow allocation schemes: one that assigns flows on paths on a round-robin fashion, one that optimally utilizes the best path (BP) only, and another one that assigns the maximum possible flow on each path. Finally, a variant of the proposed scheme is explored, where interference for each link is approximated by considering its dominant interfering nodes only.
Autors: Manolis Ploumidis;Nikolaos Pappas;Apostolos Traganitis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 720 - 733
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flux Control Range Broadening and Torque Ripple Minimization of a Double Excitation Synchronous Motor
Abstract:
This paper presents performance improvements of a double excitation synchronous motor by using a reluctance network (RN). The distinguishing feature of the double excitation principle is to use permanent magnets with high energy, while air-gap flux is flexibly controlled by field windings. Therefore, the first contribution of this paper focuses on maximizing air-gap flux range control. Second, an approach for torque ripple reduction is proposed by directly modifying air-gap flux according to the instantaneous torque profile. The achieved resultant torque stays almost constant for a case study. The validity of the RN method is examined by comparisons with 3-D finite element and experimental results for several machines.
Autors: K. Hoang;L. Vido;M. Gabsi;F. Gillon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fly robotic? [Top Tech 2017]
Abstract:
In the future, the joke goes, airliners will each have a pilot and a dog. The dog will be there to bite the pilot if he touches the controls, and the pilot will be there to feed the dog.
Autors: Philip E. Ross;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 54 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Focus Improvement for High-Resolution Highly Squinted SAR Imaging Based on 2-D Spatial-Variant Linear and Quadratic RCMs Correction and Azimuth-Dependent Doppler Equalization
Abstract:
The results of the linear range cell migration (RCM) correction and inherent range-dependent squint angle in the case of high-resolution highly squinted synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging produce two-dimensional (2-D) spatial-variant RCMs and azimuth-dependent Doppler parameters (i.e., highly varying Doppler centroid and frequency modulation rates), which make highly squinted SAR imaging difficult. However, the most existing algorithms failed to consider these problems. To obtain high-quality SAR image, in this study, both the 2-D spatial-variant RCMs and the azimuth-dependent Doppler parameters are studied. First, a reference range linear RCM correction (RCMC) is used to remove the most of the linear RCM components and to mitigate the range-azimuth coupling of the 2-D spectrum. And then, in the azimuth time dimension, a new perturbation function is designed in the extended nonlinear chirp scaling (CS) (ENLCS) algorithm to overcome the azimuth-dependent RCM and to equalize Doppler parameters. To remove both the inherent range-dependent RCM and the linear RCM caused by the range-dependent squint angle, a modified CS (MCS) algorithm with a new scaling function is proposed, and for the residual RCMs, a bulk RCMC and second range compression (SRC) are utilized to compensate them. With the proposed ENLCS and MCS operation, the 2-D spatial-variant RCMC and the azimuth-dependent Doppler equalization are, thus, achieved. The experimental results with simulated data in the case of the high-resolution highly squinted SAR demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Dong Li;Huan Lin;Hongqing Liu;Guisheng Liao;Xiaoheng Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 168 - 183
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fokker—Planck Study of Parameter Dependence on Write Error Slope in Spin-Torque Switching
Abstract:
This paper analyzes write errors in spin-torque switching due to thermal fluctuations in a system with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Prior analytical and numerical methods are summarized; a physics-based general 2-D Fokker–Planck equation (FPE) is solved numerically. Due to its computational efficiency and broad applicability to all switching regimes and system symmetries, the 2-D FPE has been used to study the relation between write error slope and material parameters as well as some emerging switching schemes.
Autors: Yunkun Xie;Behtash Behin-Aein;Avik W. Ghosh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 319 - 324
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fold-up screens could make their big debut [Top Tech 2017]
Abstract:
The rumors have been swirling for months. Though they couldn’t be confirmed, their persistence suggests that something significant may be coming from Samsung, possibly as early as this year: a foldable mobile.
Autors: Amy Nordrum;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 50 - 51
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Folded Substrate-Integrated Waveguide Band-Pass Post Filter
Abstract:
This letter presents a novel concept of band-pass filter realized with metal posts in folded substrate-integrated waveguide (FSIW) technology, together with an efficient specific design procedure. As a first step, it is shown that a particular dimension of the middle vane in the FSIW yields an equivalence to a dielectric-loaded unfolded rectangular waveguide. This equivalence is investigated by comparing the modal dispersion characteristics in both folded and unfolded structures. A direct comparison of the posts placed in the FSIW and in the equivalent unfolded waveguide then further confirms their similar characteristics. As a result, the classical mode-matching method (MMM), straightforwardly applied in the equivalent unfolded structure, can be used to efficiently design a post filter in FSIW technology. For illustration, the method is applied to realize a -order Chebyshev band-pass post FSIW filter with a center frequency of 7GHz and a fractional bandwidth of 5.71%. The viability and efficiency of the design approach is successfully validated by finite-element simulations and measurements.
Autors: Cheng Zhao;Christophe Fumeaux;Cheng-Chew Lim;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 22 - 24
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Four-Dimensional Imaging of Cardiac Trabeculae Contracting In Vitro Using Gated OCT
Abstract:
Cardiac trabeculae are widely used as experimental muscle preparations for studying heart muscle. However, their geometry (diameter, length, and shape) can vary not only among samples, but also within a sample, leading to inaccuracies in estimating their stress production, volumetric energy output, and/or oxygen consumption. Hence, it is desirable to have a system that can accurately image each trabecula in vitro during an experiment. To this end, we constructed an optical coherence tomography system and implemented a gated imaging procedure to image actively contracting trabeculae and reconstruct their time-varying geometry. By imaging a single cross section while monitoring the developed force, we found that gated stimulation of the muscle was sufficiently repeatable to allow us to reconstruct multiple contractions to form a four-dimensional representation of a single muscle contraction cycle. The complete muscle was imaged at various lengths and the cross-sectional area along the muscle was quantified during the contraction cycle. The variation of cross-sectional area along the length during a contraction tended to increase as the muscle was contracting, and this increase was greater at longer muscle lengths. To our knowledge, this is the first system that is able to measure the geometric change of cardiac trabeculae in vitro during a contraction, allowing cross-sectional stress and other volume-dependent parameters to be estimated with greater accuracy.
Autors: Ming L. Cheuk;Alexander J. Anderson;June-Chiew Han;Norman Lippok;Frédérique Vanholsbeeck;Bryan P. Ruddy;Denis S. Loiselle;Poul M.F. Nielsen;Andrew J. Taberner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 218 - 224
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fourier Analysis of Noise Characteristics in Cone-Beam Microtomography Laboratory Scanners
Abstract:
Goal: We investigate the signal and noise performance of an x-ray microtomography system that incorporates a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor flat-panel detector as a projection image receptor. Methods: Signal and noise performance is analyzed in the Fourier domain using modulation-transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) with respect to magnification and different convolution kernels for image reconstruction. Results: Higher magnification provides lower NPS, and thus, higher NEQ performance in the transaxial planes from microtomography. A window function capable of smoothing the ramp filter edge to below one-half of the Nyquist limit results in better performance in terms of NPS and NEQ. The characteristics of convolution kernels do not affect signal and noise performance in longitudinal planes; hence, MTF performance mainly dominates the NEQ performance. The signal and noise performances investigated in this study are demonstrated with images obtained from the contrast phantom and postmortem mouse. Conclusion: The results of our study could be helpful in developing x-ray microtomography systems based on flat-panel detectors.
Autors: Sun Young Jang;Ho Kyung Kim;Hanbean Youn;Seungryong Cho;Ian A. Cunningham;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 173 - 183
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Framework for the Development of Neuroprostheses: From Basic Understanding by Sciatic and Median Nerves Models to Bionic Legs and Hands
Abstract:
Neuroprostheses based on electrical stimulation are becoming a therapeutic reality, dramatically improving the life of disabled people. They are based on neural interfaces that are designed to create an intimate contact with neural cells. These devices speak the language of electron currents, while the human nervous system uses ionic currents to communicate. A deep understanding of the complex interplay between these currents, during the electrical stimulation, is essential for the development of optimized neuroprostheses. Neural electrodes can have different geometries, placement within the nervous system, and the stimulation protocols (paradigms of use). This high-dimensional problem is not tractable by an empiric, brute-force approach and should be tackled by exact computational models, making use of our accumulated knowledge. In pursuit of this goal, a hybrid finite element method—NEURON modeling—is used for a solution of electrical field generated by stimulation, within the different neural structures having anisotropic conductivity, and a corresponding neural response computation. In this work, an important correction of perineurium electrical conductivity is computed. Models of median and sciatic nerves, innervating the hand and foot areas, relevant to the development of bionic hands and legs with sensory feedback, are implemented. The obtained results have the potential to optimize the design of neural interfaces, in terms of shape and number of stimulating contacts. Guidelines for the neurosurgical planning are proposed, by indicating the optimal number of implants for a specific nerve to obtain the best efficacy with the lowest invasiveness. The interpretation is proposed for one of the basic problems of neural interfaces, consisting in the change of the stimulation threshold due to fibrotic reaction of tissue. We show that it is possible to use human microstimulation as an experimental setup for testing of afferent s- imulation paradigms, which can be translated to further chronic implants. In the future, models will have a key role in the decision of the most appropriate design of customized neuroprostheses, their optimal modality of use, understanding the effects that occur during their use, and minimizing animal and human experimentation.
Autors: Stanisa Raspopovic;Francesco Maria Petrini;Marek Zelechowski;Giacomo Valle;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 105, issue:1, pages: 34 - 49
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FreeScup: A Novel Platform for Assisting Sculpture Pose Design
Abstract:
Sculpture design is challenging due to its inherent difficulty in characterizing artworks quantitatively; thus, few works have been done to assist sculpture design in the past decades in the multimedia community. We have cooperated with several sculptors on analyzing styles of different artists consisting of Giacometti, Augeuste Rodin, Henry Moore, and Marino Marini from which we find pose editing plays an important role in sculpture design. Motivated by this, we present a novel platform that allows sculptors to edit virtual three-dimensional (3-D) sculptures by a free way. The proposed platform consists of three modules, namely, sculpture initialization, sculptor-sculpture mapping, and interactive pose editing. In sculpture initialization, a virtual 3-D sculpture is first incrementally reconstructed from multiview images. Then, we define Laplace operator and its corresponding spectrum to describe the geometry information of the reconstructed sculpture. During sculptor–sculpture mapping, we apply spectral analysis on the low-frequency parts of the spectrum to search for candidate editing points on the surface of the sculpture. Next, body actions of the sculptor are captured by Kinect and further mapped onto editing points as a predefined configuration set. Finally, during interactive pose editing, a real-time Kinect-driven sculpture pose editing scheme is presented, which not only preserves geometry features of the sculpture but also allows instant changes of sculpture poses. We demonstrate that our platform successfully assists sculptors on real-time pose editing by comparing its performance with those of the existing sculpture assisting methods.
Autors: Yirui Wu;Tong Lu;Zehuan Yuan;Hao Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 183 - 195
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Analysis of Dopant Profiling and Capacitance Spectroscopy Using Scanning Microwave Microscopy
Abstract:
Broadband dopant profiling at gigahertz frequencies and in situ calibrated capacitance–voltage spectroscopy of silicon p–n junctions using scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) are reported. Using a 3-D finite element model to obtain the E-field distribution at the tip/sample interface, we show that the reflected signal is expected to vary monotonically with the doping concentration. imaging performed on two doped silicon samples confirms the simulation results for the full SMM operating frequency range of 1–20 GHz. In this frequency range, we compare the data with the differential data commonly used for dopant profiling. In standard SMM operating conditions, the data are monotonic over the full frequency range of 1–20 GHz, while the data show a monotonic dependence on the doping concentration between and only at lower frequencies. A nonmonotonic behavior is typically observed at higher frequencies and an interpretation based on charged carriers dynamic is given. This is important for routine and robust frequency selection workflows of for dopant profiling applications. We also show based calibrated capacitance measurements and capacitance–voltage curves of differently doped sample regions and of p–n junction interfaces.
Autors: Enrico Brinciotti;Giulio Campagnaro;Giorgio Badino;Manuel Kasper;Georg Gramse;Silviu Sorin Tuca;Juergen Smoliner;Thomas Schweinboeck;Soeren Hommel;Ferry Kienberger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 75 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Estimators in Sensor Networks—Bounds and Consequences
Abstract:
The Cramer–Rao lower bounds are derived for the sinusoidal signals estimation in the collaborative systems or sensor networks. Obtained expressions point to the way how to design estimator in order to achieve high accuracy. In addition, they show accuracy limits of existing approaches.
Autors: Igor Djurović;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 422 - 427
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency-Adaptive Observer to Extract AC-Coupled Signals for Grid Synchronization
Abstract:
In three-phase grids, the grid synchronization has been widely discussed with mainly focusing on the mitigation of low-order harmonics and unbalances. In this paper, the elimination of a dc bias is also considered in the process of the grid synchronization. Because the proposed method is based on a frequency-adaptive observer, it can maintain its performances even if the fundamental frequency is changed. The state equation is newly established for the observer, and its gains are discussed in terms of their influences to the filtering performances. The effectiveness of the proposed method is assessed with various simulations and experiments.
Autors: Yongsoon Park;Hyeon-Sik Kim;Seung-Ki Sul;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 273 - 282
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency-Channelized Mismatch-Shaped Quadrature Data Converters for Carrier Aggregation in MU-MIMO LTE-A
Abstract:
Emerging wireless standards aggregate information by selecting combinations of contiguous or non-contiguous channels, thereby enabling wider transmission bandwidths, and hence, higher data rates. Frequency-interleaved analog-to-digital conversion (FI-ADC) is an attractive emerging technique for carrier aggregation receivers because it facilitates an efficient way to dynamically vary the receiver bandwidth in order to address the many possible channel combinations. Compared to their time-interleaved counterparts, the specifications of the samplers in the parallel channels in FI-ADCs are significantly relaxed, thereby resulting in lower overall power consumption in the receiver. This work extends the FI-ADC concept to the quadrature frequency-interleaved oversampled data converter (QFI-ADC) to achieve greater aggregate data rates. Previously, digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and other inter-channel mismatches have limited the performance of QFI-ADCs. In this paper, we propose a low-complexity element rotation algorithm (ERA) to mitigate DAC mismatches. The ERA is synthesized from the corresponding mismatch transfer function using a rigorous mathematical procedure which is shown to be applicable generally to low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and quadrature ERAs. Simulations confirm that the resulting low-complexity quadrature ERAs have advantages over previously proposed approaches in both performance and hardware complexity. An additional gain calibration technique alleviates image folding due to gain and timing mismatches between the quadrature DAC elements, which yields higher SNDR.
Autors: Sandipan Kundu;Subhanshu Gupta;David J. Allstot;Jeyanandh Paramesh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 3 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency-Varying Current Harmonics for Active Magnetic Bearing via Multiple Resonant Controllers
Abstract:
The rotating machinery suspended by an active magnetic bearing (AMB) system always suffers from rotor mass imbalance and sensor runout disturbances, which lead to the periodic fluctuations in control currents. This paper presents a novel multiple resonant controllers (MRC) for an AMB system to suppress the multifrequency current harmonics in the presence of variable rating speed. The principle and structure of the plug-in MRC used for current harmonics suppression in the AMB system is discussed. The design of the proposed MRC, using the progressively tuning and segmentation switch strategy, is given. The proposed design method for the MRC can achieve the balance between good stability and harmonics suppression precision. As well, the robustness of the overall system is systematically analyzed for the entire operational speed range. Simulation and experimental results for current fluctuations and multifrequency vibration forces on a magnetically suspended flywheel validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Cong Peng;Jinji Sun;Xinda Song;Jiancheng Fang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 517 - 526
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fresh Ideas, Young Minds-2016 IMS Student Design Competition Winners [From the Guest Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
DIscusses the MTTS 2016 IMS Student Design competitions and reports on the research of the competition winners.
Autors: Robert Caverly;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 7 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From the editors' desk
Abstract:
The first article in this issue is “High stress wet aging of cable dielectrics— Meeting new challenges,” by Simon Sutton, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Group, University of Southampton, UK. This review article identifies a number of gaps and contradictions in the current understanding of water treeing and highlights the inability to predict accurately future performance based on even modest changes in cable design or materials. These gaps have been identified as a consequence of the offshore windfarm industry’s desire to adopt more cost effective higher voltage cables. The article indicates a need for more focused research on the specific issues which will be faced by higher electrical stress wet design cables in a subsea environment, particularly on full scale or model cables, where the interactions of the different material layers may be important, e.g., limiting the diffusion of water or salt ions into the core. In addition, water treeing behavior at lower temperatures, more representative of the minimum temperature likely to be experienced by subsea cables, needs further investigation.
Autors: Ed Cherney;Robert Fleming;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 5 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Front-End Isolated Quasi-Z-Source DC–DC Converter Modules in Series for High-Power Photovoltaic Systems—Part I: Configuration, Operation, and Evaluation
Abstract:
A quasi-Z-source modular cascaded converter (qZS-MCC) is proposed for dc integration of high-power photovoltaic (PV) systems. The qZS-MCC comprises series-connected front-end isolated qZS half-bridge (HB) dc–dc converter submodules (SMs). With the front-end isolation, the qZS-MCC achieves high-voltage dc capability, while maintaining modularity and PV panel grounded. The post-stage qZS-HB handles the PV voltage and power flows, dc-link voltage balance, and output-series power integration. Whereas, the front-end isolation converters of all SMs perform a constant duty cycle, lowing the control complexity. There is no double-line-frequency power flowing through the dc-side PV panels, qZS inductors, and qZS capacitors in the qZS-MCC, so small qZS impedance is possible compared to the existing qZS cascaded multilevel inverter. The configuration, operating principle, power loss evaluation, and passive components design of the proposed system are investigated in this part of the paper. The system control, modeling, and corresponding verifications are stated in Part II of this paper.
Autors: Yushan Liu;Haitham Abu-Rub;Baoming Ge;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 347 - 358
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FSK-Based Reactive Jammer Piggybacking
Abstract:
The complexity and sophistication of communications jamming will continue to increase over time. The traditional approach to jammer mitigation is to harden radios, often sacrificing communications performance for more advanced jamming protection. To provide an escape from this trend, we propose a jammer exploitation strategy in which the communications system causes an enemy reactive jammer to act as an unwitting relay. This can lead to an improvement in communications as a result of the jamming attack itself. The strategy proposed in this letter revolves around using a frequency-shift keying waveform that is tuned in such a way to exploit the jammer’s behavior. We derive the channel capacity when using the waveform along with practical coding, and provide numerical results to gain insight.
Autors: Marc Lichtman;T. Charles Clancy;Jeffrey H. Reed;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 68 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Diversity Dispersion Matrices From Algebraic Field Extensions for Differential Spatial Modulation
Abstract:
We consider differential spatial modulation (DSM) operating in a block fading environment and propose sparse unitary dispersion matrices (DMs) using algebraic field extensions. The proposed DM sets are capable of exploiting full transmit diversity and, in contrast to the existing schemes, can be constructed for systems having an arbitrary number of transmit antennas. More specifically, two schemes are proposed: 1) field-extension-based DSM (FE-DSM), where only a single conventional symbol is transmitted per space–time block; and 2) FE-DSM striking a diversity–rate tradeoff (FE-DSM-DR), where multiple symbols are transmitted in each space–time block at the cost of a reduced transmit diversity gain. Furthermore, the FE-DSM scheme is analytically shown to achieve full transmit diversity, and both proposed schemes are shown to impose decoding complexity, which is independent of the size of the signal set. It is observed from our simulation results that the proposed FE-DSM scheme suffers no performance loss compared with the existing DM-based DSM (DM-DSM) scheme, whereas FE-DSM-DR is observed to give a better bit-error-ratio performance at higher data rates than its DM-DSM counterpart. Specifically, at data rates of 2.25 and 2.75 bits per channel use, FE-DSM-DR is observed to achieve about 1- and 2-dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain with respect to its DM-DSM counterpart.
Autors: Rakshith Rajashekar;Naoki Ishikawa;Shinya Sugiura;K. V. S. Hari;Lajos Hanzo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 385 - 394
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Diversity Uncoordinated Cooperative Transmission for Asynchronous Relay Networks
Abstract:
Due to the distributed nature of cooperative communications systems, the cooperative signals arriving at the destination may not be perfectly aligned, i.e., the system is inherently asynchronous, and signal coordination among multiple relay nodes is imperative. In this paper, we propose a distributed space–time transmission scheme for a general asynchronous cooperative relay network. The scheme provides asymptotic full cooperative diversity, even when the signals arrive at the receiver asynchronously, which can be achieved by a low-complexity minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE) decision feedback equalizer (DFE) instead of the maximum-likelihood (ML) detector. Furthermore, signal coordination is no longer required, which avoids extra coordinating overhead. The proposed scheme applies for both general amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) cooperative communications networks, such as coordinated multipoint/networked multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) systems, distributed antenna systems, and relay architecture for cellular systems. Simulation results confirm our analytical results.
Autors: Hui-Ming Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 468 - 480
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Duplex Meets Multiuser MIMO: Comparisons and Analysis
Abstract:
Efficient utilization of wireless communication resources and increases in the capacity of the communication networks have become very crucial claims for next-generation cellular networks. Full-duplex (FD) is a very promising technique that allows for the efficient use of wireless communication resources, given that the self-interference level can be suppressed to an acceptable level. In this paper, we consider a simple FD communication system, consisting of one FD access point (AP) and two half-duplex (HD) mobile users, and investigate when it is more advantageous for the communication network to operate in FD or HD multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) mode. Since FD transmission is degraded by self-interference while HD suffers from spatial correlation between MIMO antennas, which causes rate loss, we study the effect of both the self-interference cancelation parameter at the FD AP and the mutual distance between the HD users on FD performances and the effect of the spatial correlation coefficient on HD MIMO. Afterward, a switching criterion is proposed, which chooses the operation mode that maximizes the downlink channel capacity while maintaining the uplink channel capacity at a certain level. Subsequently, based on our study of the system's parameters that affect the performance of both FD and HD, theoretical thresholds for these parameters are derived. Finally, numerical analysis is presented, verifying the validity of the optimization problem solution and the derived thresholds.
Autors: Radwa Sultan;Lingyang Song;Karim G. Seddik;Zhu Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 455 - 467
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Duplex-Based Rate/Mode Adaptation Strategies for Wi-Fi/LTE-U Coexistence: A POMDP Approach
Abstract:
The rapid increase in wireless demand prompted the FCC to open up parts of the 5-GHz band for unlicensed access. This caught the interest of 4G/LTE providers, who wish to extend their LTE-A services to the unlicensed spectrum (LTE-U). In LTE-U, small-cell base stations aggregate unlicensed and licensed bands to increase the throughput. Wi-Fi/LTE-U coexistence is a challenging issue due to the different access mechanisms of these two systems, which may cause high collision rates and delays. By leveraging self-interference-suppression techniques, we propose joint mode/rate adaptation strategies for Wi-Fi/LTE-U coexistence. Specifically, a full-duplex enabled Wi-Fi station can transmit and receive data simultaneously to increase the throughput, or transmit and sense (TS mode) simultaneously to monitor the LTE-U activity. We model the LTE-U interference as a hidden Markov process, and solve the problem of jointly adapting Wi-Fi rates/modes using a framework of partially observable Markov decision process. A detection approach based on the sliding window correlator is analyzed for the TS mode, which can differentiate between Wi-Fi and LTE-U signals. Our results indicate that our scheme provides 1.5x (1.9x) average throughput gain for Wi-Fi system in the low (high) signal-to-interference-and-noise regime relative to a half-duplex-based scheme.
Autors: Mohammed Hirzallah;Wessam Afifi;Marwan Krunz;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 20 - 29
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fully Depleted Pinned Photodiode CMOS Image Sensor With Reverse Substrate Bias
Abstract:
A new pixel design using fully depleted pinned photodiode (PPD) in a 180-nm CMOS image sensor (CIS) process has been developed and the first experimental results from a test chip are presented. The sensor can be fully depleted by means of reverse bias applied to the substrate, and the principle of operation is applicable to very thick sensitive volumes. Additional n-type implants under the in-pixel p-wells have been added to the manufacturing process in order to eliminate the large parasitic substrate current that would otherwise be present in a normal device. The new design shows the same electro-optical performance as the PPD pixel it is based on, and can be fully depleted without significant leakage currents. This development has the potential to greatly increase the quantum efficiency of scientific PPD CIS at near-infrared and soft X-ray wavelengths.
Autors: Konstantin D. Stefanov;Andrew S. Clarke;Andrew D. Holland;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 64 - 66
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fully Integrated Class-J Power Amplifier in Standard CMOS Technology
Abstract:
This letter discusses the integration of Class-J power amplifiers (PA). A set of modified design equations considering harmonic losses is derived and the inductor losses are discussed. Based on the discussion, a fully integrated Class-J PA with stacked-FET structure is designed and implemented in a CMOS process. The proposed Class-J PA, powered by a 3.3 V supply, achieves a power-added efficiency (PAE) and drain efficiency (DE) of 43.7% and 45.1%, respectively, with a saturated output power of 22 dBm. Along with a maximum gain of 17.4 dB, the broadband PA exhibits a 3-dB band from 2.1 GHz to 4.8 GHz.
Autors: Yezi Dong;Luhong Mao;Sheng Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 64 - 66
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fully Scalable Methods for Distributed Tensor Factorization
Abstract:
Given a high-order large-scale tensor, how can we decompose it into latent factors? Can we process it on commodity computers with limited memory? These questions are closely related to recommender systems, which have modeled rating data not as a matrix but as a tensor to utilize contextual information such as time and location. This increase in the order requires tensor factorization methods scalable with both the order and size of a tensor. In this paper, we propose two distributed tensor factorization methods, CDTF and SALS. Both methods are scalable with all aspects of data and show a trade-off between convergence speed and memory requirements. CDTF, based on coordinate descent, updates one parameter at a time, while SALS generalizes on the number of parameters updated at a time. In our experiments, only our methods factorized a five-order tensor with 1 billion observable entries, 10 M mode length, and 1 K rank, while all other state-of-the-art methods failed. Moreover, our methods required several orders of magnitude less memory than their competitors. We implemented our methods on MapReduce with two widely-applicable optimization techniques: local disk caching and greedy row assignment. They speeded up our methods up to 98.2 and also the competitors up to 5.9 .
Autors: Kijung Shin;Lee Sael;U. Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 100 - 113
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fundamental Limits of Parallel Optical Wireless Channels: Capacity Results and Outage Formulation
Abstract:
Multi-channel (MC) optical wireless communication (OWC) systems employing wave-division multiplexing for outdoors free-space optical communications, or multi-user time-division multiple access for indoors visible-light communications, e.g., can be modeled as parallel channels. Multi-input multi-output OWC systems can also be transformed, possibly with some performance loss, to parallel channels using pre-/post-coding. Studying the performance of such MC-OWC systems requires characterizing the capacity of the underlying parallel channels. In this paper, upper and lower bounds on the capacity of constant parallel OWC channels with a total average intensity constraint are derived. Then, this paper focuses on finding intensity allocations that maximize the lower bounds given channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT). Due to its nonconvexity, the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions are used to describe a list of candidate allocations. Instead searching exhaustively for the best solution, low-complexity near-optimal algorithms are proposed. The resulting optimized lower bound nearly coincides with capacity at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Under a quasi-static channel model and in the absence of CSIT, outage probability upper and lower bounds are derived. Those bounds also meet at high SNR, thus characterizing the outage capacity in this regime. Finally, the results are extended to a system with both average and peak intensity constraints.
Autors: Anas Chaaban;Zouheir Rezki;Mohamed-Slim Alouini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 296 - 311
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fusing Multiple Neuroimaging Modalities to Assess Group Differences in Perception–Action Coupling
Abstract:
In the last few decades, noninvasive neuroimaging has revealed macroscale brain dynamics that underlie perception, cognition, and action. Advances in noninvasive neuroimaging target two capabilities: 1) increased spatial and temporal resolution of measured neural activity; and 2) innovative methodologies to extract brain–behavior relationships from evolving neuroimaging technology. We target the second. Our novel methodology integrated three neuroimaging methodologies and elucidated expertise-dependent differences in functional (fused EEG-fMRI) and structural (dMRI) brain networks for a perception–action coupling task. A set of baseball players and controls performed a Go/No-Go task designed to mimic the situation of hitting a baseball. In the functional analysis, our novel fusion methodology identifies 50-ms windows with predictive EEG neural correlates of expertise and fuses these temporal windows with fMRI activity in a whole-brain 2-mm voxel analysis, revealing time-localized correlations of expertise at a spatial scale of millimeters. The spatiotemporal cascade of brain activity reflecting expertise differences begins as early as 200 ms after the pitch starts and lasts up to 700 ms afterwards. Network differences are spatially localized to include motor and visual processing areas, providing evidence for differences in perception–action coupling between the groups. Furthermore, an analysis of structural connectivity reveals that the players have significantly more connections between cerebellar and left frontal/motor regions, and many of the functional activation differences between the groups are located within structurally defined network modules that differentiate expertise. In short, our novel method illustrates how multimodal neuroimaging can provide specific macroscale insights into the functional and structural correlates of expertise development.
Autors: Jordan Muraskin;Jason Sherwin;Gregory Lieberman;Javier O. Garcia;Timothy Verstynen;Jean M. Vettel;Paul Sajda;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 105, issue:1, pages: 83 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fusion of Sun-Synchronous and Geostationary Images for Coastal and Ocean Color Survey Application to OLCI (Sentinel-3) and FCI (MTG)
Abstract:
Open ocean and coastal area monitoring requires multispectral satellite images with a middle spatial resolution and a high temporal repeatability . As no current satellite sensors have such features, the aim of this study is to propose a fusion method to merge images delivered by a low earth orbit (LEO) sensor with images delivered by a geostationary earth orbit (GEO) sensor. This fusion method, called spatial spectral temporal fusion (SSTF), is applied to the future sensors—Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) (on Sentinel-3) and Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) (on Meteosat Third Generation) whose images were simulated. The OLCI bands, acquired at t0, are divided by the oversampled corresponding FCI band acquired at t0 and multiplied by the FCI bands acquired at t1. The fusion product is used for the next fusion at t1 and so on. The high temporal resolution of FCI allows its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to be enhanced by the means of temporal filtering. The fusion quality indicator ERGAS computed between SSTF fusion products and reference images is around 0.75, once the FCI images are filtered from the noise and 1.08 before filtering. We also compared the estimation of chlorophyll (Chl), suspended particulate matter (SPM), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) maps from the fusion products with the input simulation maps. The comparison shows an average relative errors on Chl, SPM, and CDOM, respectively, of 64.6%, 6.2%, and 9.5% with the SSTF method. The SSTF method was also compared with an existing fusion method called the spati l and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM).
Autors: Cécile Peschoud;Audrey Minghelli;Sandrine Mathieu;Manchun Lei;Ivane Pairaud;Christel Pinazo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 45 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gait Rhythm Fluctuation Analysis for Neurodegenerative Diseases by Empirical Mode Decomposition
Abstract:
Previous studies have indicated that gait rhythm fluctuations are useful for characterizing certain pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, no previous study has investigated the properties of frequency range distributions of gait rhythms. Therefore, in our study, empirical mode decomposition was implemented for decomposing the time series of gait rhythms into intrinsic mode functions from the high-frequency component to the low-frequency component sequentially. Then, Kendall's coefficient of concordance and the ratio for energy change for different IMFs were calculated, which were denoted as W and , respectively. Results revealed that the frequency distributions of gait rhythms in patients with neurodegenerative diseases are less homogeneous than healthy subjects, and the gait rhythms of the patients contain much more high-frequency components. In addition, parameters of W and can significantly differentiate among the four groups of subjects (HD, ALS, PD, and healthy subjects) (with the minimum p-value of 0.0000493). Finally, five representative classifiers were utilized in order to evaluate the possible capabilities of W and to distinguish the patients with neurodegenerative diseases from the healthy subjects. This achieved maximum area under the curve values of 0.949, 0.900, and 0.934 for PD, HD, and ALS detection, respectively. In sum, our study suggests that gait rhythm features extracted in the frequency domain should be given consideration seriously in the future neurodegenerative disease cha acterization and intervention.
Autors: Peng Ren;Shanjiang Tang;Fang Fang;Lizhu Luo;Lei Xu;Maria L. Bringas-Vega;Dezhong Yao;Keith M. Kendrick;Pedro A. Valdes-Sosa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 52 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Game User-Oriented Multimedia Transmission Over Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
Cognitive radio (CR) is an emerging technique to improve the efficiency of spectrum resource utilization. In CR networks, the selfish behavior of secondary users (SUs) can considerably affect the performance of primary users (PUs). Accordingly, game theory, which considers the game players’ selfish behavior, has been applied to the design of CR networks. Most of the existing studies focus on the network design only from the network perspective to improve system performance, such as utility and throughput. However, the users’ experience to the service, which cannot simply be reflected by quality of service, has been largely ignored. The user-perceived multimedia quality and service can be different from the actual received multimedia quality, and thus is very important to consider the network design. To better serve the network users, quality of experience (QoE) is adopted to measure the network service from the users’ perspective and help improve the users’ satisfaction to the CR network service. As CR networks require a lot of data storage and computation for spectrum sensing, spectrum sharing, and algorithm design, cloud computation comes as a convenient solution, because it can provide massive storage and fast computation. In this paper, we propose to design a user-oriented CR cloud network for multimedia applications, where the user’s satisfaction is reflected in the CR cloud network design. In the proposed framework, the PU and SU game is formulated as Stackelberg game. In particular, a refunding term is defined in the users’ utility function to effectively consider and to reflect the network users’ QoE requirement. Our contributions are twofold: 1) a game-based CR cloud network design for multimedia transmission is proposed, and the network user’s QoE requirement is satisfied in the design and 2) the existence- and the uniqueness of the Stackelberg Nash equilibrium are proved, and the design is optimal. Our simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the game user-oriented CR cloud network design.
Autors: Jingfang Huang;Honggang Wang;Yi Qian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 198 - 208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gaussian States Minimize the Output Entropy of the One-Mode Quantum Attenuator
Abstract:
We prove that Gaussian thermal input states minimize the output von Neumann entropy of the one-mode Gaussian quantum-limited attenuator for fixed input entropy. The Gaussian quantum-limited attenuator models the attenuation of an electromagnetic signal in the quantum regime. The Shannon entropy of an attenuated real-valued classical signal is a simple function of the entropy of the original signal. A striking consequence of energy quantization is that the output von Neumann entropy of the quantum-limited attenuator is no more a function of the input entropy alone. The proof starts from the majorization result of De Palma et al., IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 62, 2895 (2016), and is based on a new isoperimetric inequality. Our result implies that geometric input probability distributions minimize the output Shannon entropy of the thinning for fixed input entropy. Moreover, our result opens the way to the multimode generalization that permits to determine both the triple trade-off region of the Gaussian quantum-limited attenuator and the classical capacity region of the Gaussian degraded quantum broadcast channel.
Autors: Giacomo De Palma;Dario Trevisan;Vittorio Giovannetti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 728 - 737
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Analytical Approach to Assess Reliability of Renewable-Based Energy Hubs
Abstract:
This paper proposes a generalized analytical approach to evaluate the reliability of active distribution networks. The studies are implemented in the context of renewable-based energy hubs. The reliability of energy demands is determined as a function of reliability characteristics of energy hub input resources and converters as well as hub operating strategies. The framework proposed in this paper involves the main attributes of different distributed generation technologies as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G)-capable vehicles in the reliability studies. Dealing with the uncertainty in energy services provided by the wind turbine output generation and V2G programs, efficient probabilistic methods are presented to attain the reliability models of these energy resources for the studies. The fluctuations in energy demands are also represented through multistate analytical models. Convolving the probabilistic models of energy hub resources by the load profiles’ models, different reliability indices are calculated taking into consideration possible operating strategies of the energy hubs. Effectiveness of the proposed methodology is validated using extensive numerical studies on an energy hub and the obtained results demonstrate its applicability in adequacy studies of active energy networks.
Autors: Moein Moeini-Aghtaie;Hossein Farzin;Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad;Reza Amrollahi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 368 - 377
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized MUSIC-Like Array Processing for Underwater Environments
Abstract:
This paper proposes the generalized MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC)-like algorithm for robust MUSIC-like processing for underwater applications. The solution proposed in this paper is to generalize the noise correlation assumption and include a noise correlation model in its problem formulation. By doing so, the proposed generalized MUSIC-like algorithm is able to provide robust MUSIC-like performances in any noise condition, so long as the noise correlation property of the environment is known partially. Results from simulations and real data processing show that our proposed algorithm is able to suppress spurious peaks caused by mismatched noise assumptions in standard MUSIC-like algorithms. The bound of the controlling parameter denoted by for the proposed generalized MUSIC-like algorithm is also discussed in this paper. Performance study using Monte Carlo simulations shows that the proposed generalized MUSIC-like algorithm has the same resolving power as the MUSIC method but slightly poorer accuracy in direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. This paper also presents the results from real data processing by the generalized MUSIC-like algorithm and demonstrates better resolving power than the Capon and MUSIC algorithms used consistently in the experiment.
Autors: Hock Siong Lim;Boon Poh Ng;Vinod V. Reddy;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 42, issue:1, pages: 124 - 134
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Soft-and-Hard/DB Boundary
Abstract:
A novel class of boundary conditions is introduced as a generalization of the previously defined class of soft-and-hard/DB (SHDB) boundary conditions. It is shown that the conditions for the generalized SHDB (GSHDB) boundary arise most naturally in a simple and straightforward manner by applying 4-D differential-form and dyadic formalism. At a given boundary surface, the GSHDB conditions are governed by two one-forms. In terms of Gibbsian 3-D vector and dyadic algebra, the GSHDB conditions are defined in terms of two vectors tangential to the boundary surface and two scalars. Considering plane-wave reflection from the GSHDB boundary, for two eigenpolarizations, the GSHDB boundary can be replaced by the perfect electric conductor or perfect magnetic conductor boundary. Special attention is paid to the problem of plane waves matched to the GSHDB boundary, defined by a 2-D dispersion equation for the wave vector, making the reflection dyadic indeterminate. Examples of dispersion curves for various chosen parameters of the GSHDB boundary are given. Conditions for a possible medium, whose interface acts as a GSHDB boundary, are discussed.
Autors: Ismo V. Lindell;Ari Sihvola;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 226 - 233
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Wavelet Shrinkage of Inline Raman Spectroscopy for Quality Monitoring of Continuous Manufacturing of Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper
Abstract:
Process monitoring and quality control is essential for continuous manufacturing processes of carbon nano- tube (CNT) thin sheets or buckypaper. Raman spectroscopy is an attractive inline quality characterization and quantification tool for nanomanufacturing because of its nondestructive nature, fast data acquisition speed, and ability to provide detailed material information. However, there is signal-dependent noise buried in the Raman spectra, which reduces the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and affects the accuracy, efficiency, and sensitivity for Raman spectrum-based quality control approaches. In this paper, a signal analysis model with signal-dependent noise for Raman spectroscopy is developed and validated based on experimental data. The wavelet shrinkage method is used for denoising and improving the S/N ratio of raw Raman spectra. Based on the validated signal-noise relationship, a novel generalized wavelet shrinkage approach is introduced to remove noise in all wavelet coefficients by applying individual adaptive wavelet thresholds. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated using both simulation and experimental case studies of inline Raman monitoring of continuous buckypaper manufacturing. The proposed method allows for a significant reduction of Raman data acquisition time without much loss of S/N ratio, which inherently enables Raman spectroscopy for inline monitoring and control for continuous nanomanufacturing processes.
Autors: Xiaowei Yue;Kan Wang;Hao Yan;Jin Gyu Park;Zhiyong Liang;Chuck Zhang;Ben Wang;Jianjun Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 196 - 207
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized-Spatial-Modulation-Based Reduced-RF-Chain Millimeter-Wave Communications
Abstract:
A generalized spatial modulation (GSM)-based millimeter-wave communications system is proposed. The GSM transmitter is characterized by a lower number of radio frequency (RF) chains than the number of transmit antennas; hence, it is capable of reducing both the transmitter cost and the energy consumption. The antenna array alignment is optimized so as to maximize the rank of the channel matrix encountered. Furthermore, we employ an array of analog beamformers, which allows us to benefit both from the beamforming gain and from the GSM scheme's high rate. It is demonstrated that the constrained capacity of the GSM transmitter equipped with as few as two RF chains is capable of approaching the performance of the full-RF spatial multiplexing having eight RF chains.
Autors: Naoki Ishikawa;Rakshith Rajashekar;Shinya Sugiura;Lajos Hanzo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 879 - 883
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation and Heterodyne Detection of >100-Gb/s $Q$ -Band PDM-64QAM mm-Wave Signal
Abstract:
We experimentally demonstrate a hardware- and spectral-efficient large-capacity single-carrier radio-over-fiber system at -band (33–50 GHz), employing high-level polarization-division-multiplexing 64-ary quadrature-amplitude-modulation (PDM-64QAM) modulation and heterodyne coherent detection. In our demonstrated system, up to 10-GBd (120-Gb/s) PDM-64QAM vector millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal at 37.5 GHz can be generated and delivered over 1-m wireless distance, with a bit-error ratio (BER) less than the hard-decision forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of . Our demonstrated system can also generate up to 16-GBd (192-Gb/s) PDM-64QAM vector mm-wave signal at 37.5 GHz, with a BER less than the soft-decision FEC threshold of . During the receiver digital signal processing, the employment of large-tap decision-directed least-mean-square equalization after carrier recovery significantly improves the system performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to demonstrate single-carrier PDM-64QAM modulated wireless mm-wave signal delivery.
Autors: Xinying Li;Jianjun Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 27 - 30
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation of Customized Accelerators for Loop Pipelining of Binary Instruction Traces
Abstract:
Many embedded applications process large amounts of data using regular computational kernels, amenable to acceleration by specialized hardware coprocessors. To reduce the significant design effort, the dedicated hardware may be automatically generated, usually starting from the application’s source or binary code. This paper presents a moduloscheduled loop accelerator capable of executing multiple loops and a supporting toolchain. A generation/scheduling procedure, which fully relies on MicroBlaze instruction traces, produces accelerator instances, customized in terms of functional units and interconnections. The accelerators support integer and single-precision floating-point arithmetic, and exploit instruction-level parallelism, loop pipelining, and memory access parallelism via two read/write ports. A complete implementation of the proposed architecture is evaluated in a Virtex-7 device. Augmenting a MicroBlaze processor with a tailored accelerator achieves a geometric mean speedup, over software-only execution, of 6.61 for 13 floating-point kernels from the Livermore Loops set, and of 4.08 for 11 integer kernels from Texas Instruments’ IMGLIB. The proposed customized accelerators are compared with ALU-based ones. The average specialized accelerator requires only 0.47 the number of field-programmable gate array slices of an accelerator with four ALUs. A geometric mean speedup of 1.78 over a four-issue very long instruction word (without floating-point support) was obtained for the integer kernels.
Autors: Nuno M. C. Paulino;João Canas Ferreira;João M. P. Cardoso;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 21 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation of Flat Optical Frequency Comb Based on a DP-QPSK Modulator
Abstract:
An approach to generate flat optical frequency comb (OFC) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated using a single integrated dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator. By adjusting six dc bias points and two modulation indices of the modulator, the OFC with adjustable comb number and exactly the same intensity can be theoretically generated according to the equations derived from the DP-QPSK modulation model. Experimental results show that the proposed OFC generator can produce 7, 9, 11, and 13 lines with a spectral flatness of 0.96, 1.13, 2.01, and 1.17 dB, respectively. The unwanted-mode suppression ratio of the generated 7, 9, 11, and 13 lines OFCs are 10.33, 9.54, 6.79, and 10.45 dB, respectively. In addition, the generated OFC exhibits good frequency tunability. The nine-lines OFCs with frequency spacing of 6.02, 7.02, 8.02, and 9.02 GHz are experimentally generated.
Autors: Tao Lin;Shanghong Zhao;Zihang Zhu;Xuan Li;Kun Qu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 146 - 149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generic Soft-Error Detection and Correction for Concurrent Data Structures
Abstract:
Recent studies indicate that transient memory errors (soft errors) have become a relevant source of system failures. This paper presents a generic software-based fault-tolerance mechanism that transparently recovers from memory errors in object-oriented program data structures. The main benefits are the flexibility to choose from an extensible toolbox of easily pluggable error detection and correction schemes, such as Hamming and CRC codes. This is achieved by a combination of aspect-oriented and generative programming techniques. Furthermore, we present a wait-free synchronization algorithm for error detection in data structures that are used concurrently by multiple threads of control. We give a formal correctness proof and show the excellent scalability of our approach in a multiprocessor environment. In a case study, we present our experiences with selectively hardening the eCos operating system and its benchmark suite. We explore the trade-off between resiliency and performance by choosing only the most vulnerable data structures for error recovery. Thereby, the total number of system failures, manifesting as silent data corruptions and crashes, is reduced by 69.14 percent at a negligible runtime overhead of 0.36 percent.
Autors: Christoph Borchert;Horst Schirmeier;Olaf Spinczyk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 22 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Geo-Conquesting Based on Graph Analysis for Crowdsourced Metatrails from Mobile Sensing
Abstract:
This article investigates graph analysis for intelligent marketing in smart cities, where metatrails are crowdsourced by mobile sensing for marketing strategies. Unlike most works that focus on client sides, this study is intended for market planning, from the perspective of enterprises. Several novel crowdsourced features based on metatrails, including hotspot networks, crowd transitions, affinity subnetworks, and sequential visiting patterns, are discussed in the article. These smart footprints can reflect crowd preferences and the topology of a site of interest. Marketers can utilize such information for commercial resource planning and deployment. Simulations were conducted to demonstrate the performance. At the end, this study also discusses different scenarios for practical geo-conquesting applications.
Autors: Bo-Wei Chen;Wen Ji;Seungmin Rho;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 92 - 97
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Geometrical Characterization of Offloading through Wireless LANs
Abstract:
The offloading of cellular traffic through WLAN APs (wireless local area network access points) distributed in a homogeneous Poisson process (HPP) is theoretically evaluated. The probability that a user can use WLAN and the expected number of vertical handovers are evaluated as the basic performance metrics of WLAN AP coverage. Explicit formulas are derived for the metrics, and the fundamental relationships between the metrics and many parameters such as the shape of each WLAN coverage region are described. These metrics depend on the size and perimeter length of but do not depend on their other shape parameters for a convex . In addition, it is proven that a disk-shaped minimizes for a fixed WLAN coverage size and that is often insensitive to the perimeter length of . It is also proven that the of a user at a random location is equal to that moving along a random straight line or a random bounded curve. One hundred empirical location data sets of WLAN APs in Japan, Korea, and the US were used to confirm the theoretical results. Although these locations do not follow an HPP, many theoretical results are shown to be valid. For example, is minimized by a disk-shaped . Simultaneously, we find that slightly increases when a slender is used for highly clustered AP locations.
Autors: Hiroshi Saito;Ryoichi Kawahara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 130 - 142
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Communications Newsletter
Abstract:
Autors: Stefano Bregni;Andrzej Jajszczyk;F. Hashim;A. Sali;A. A. El-Saleh;W. Nurdiana;K. Anuar;K. Abdullah;M. Y. Alias;M. Roslee;N. Ramli;H. Mohamad;B. M. Ali;M. Ismail;G. Seco-Granados;J. Nurmi;J. A. Lopez-Salcedo;E. S. Lohan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 13 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Standards for Rotating Machinery: Navigating Worldwide Industry Requirements for Electric Motors
Abstract:
The end users, engineering firms, and manufacturers for the motor industry utilize several standards to specify, design, and procure rotating machinery. The world of legal responsibility, liability, and safety is driving the industry to have rotating machinery built to various standards. It is often difficult to navigate through the multitudes of standards developed by the different industries and global associations. This article will focus on the global industry standards for low- and mediumvoltage rotating machinery and show how to navigate through their provisions to determine the applicable requirements for areas of performance such as efficiency, vibration, sound, temperature rise, winding insulation, electrical installation, and test requirements. Furthermore, the article will specify hazardous location needs as well as construction requirements that incorporate terminal box volumes, mounting arrangements, physical dimensions, nameplate markings, and shaft and frame design requirements. With the number of requirements increasing for rotating machinery, many standards have been revised and developed to improve design, testing, certification, and installations. As these standards continue to grow, it can be challenging at times to keep up with which standards are applicable when procuring rotating machinery. Electric motors have many standards depending on what part of the world the machine is going to.
Autors: Gabriel Arce;Matthew D. Campbell;Matthew Fisher;Ron Turner;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 58 - 69
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GPU Projection of ECAS-II Segmenter for Hyperspectral Images Based on Cellular Automata
Abstract:
Segmentation is a key issue in the processing of multidimensional images such as those in the field of remote sensing. Most of the segmentation algorithms developed for multidimensional images begin by reducing the dimensionality of the images, thus loosing information that could be relevant in the segmentation process. Evolutionary cellular automata segmentation (ECAS-II) is an evolutionary approach that provides cellular automata-based segmenters considering all the spectral information contained in a hyperspectral image without applying any technique for dimensionality reduction. This paper presents an efficient graphics processor unit implementation of the type of segmenters produced by ECAS-II for land cover hyperspectral images. The method is evaluated over remote sensing hyperspectral images, introducing it on a spectral–spatial classification scheme based on extreme learning machines. Experiments have shown that the proposed approach achieves better accuracy results for land cover purposes than other spectral–spatial classification techniques based on segmentation.
Autors: Javier López-Fandiño;Blanca Priego;Dora B. Heras;Francisco Argüello;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 20 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gradient-Based Optimization for Poroelastic and Viscoelastic MR Elastography
Abstract:
We describe an efficient gradient computation for solving inverse problems arising in magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). The algorithm can be considered as a generalized ‘adjoint method’ based on a Lagrangian formulation. One requirement for the classic adjoint method is assurance of the self-adjoint property of the stiffness matrix in the elasticity problem. In this paper, we show this property is no longer a necessary condition in our algorithm, but the computational performance can be as efficient as the classic method, which involves only two forward solutions and is independent of the number of parameters to be estimated. The algorithm is developed and implemented in material property reconstructions using poroelastic and viscoelastic modeling. Various gradient- and Hessian-based optimization techniques have been tested on simulation, phantom and in vivo brain data. The numerical results show the feasibility and the efficiency of the proposed scheme for gradient calculation.
Autors: Likun Tan;Matthew D. J. McGarry;Elijah E. W. Van Houten;Ming Ji;Ligin Solamen;John B. Weaver;Keith D. Paulsen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 236 - 250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graph Regularized Nonlinear Ridge Regression for Remote Sensing Data Analysis
Abstract:
In this paper, a graph regularized nonlinear ridge regression (RR) model is proposed for remote sensing data analysis, including hyper-spectral image classification and atmospheric aerosol retrieval. The RR is an efficient linear regression method, especially in handling cases with a small number of training samples or with correlated features. However, large amounts of unlabeled samples exist in remote sensing data analysis. To sufficiently explore the information in unlabeled samples, we propose a graph regularized RR (GRR) method, where the vertices denote labeled or unlabeled samples and the edges represent the similarities among different samples. A natural assumption is that the predict values of neighboring samples are close to each other. To further address the nonlinearly separable problem in remote sensing data caused by the complex acquisition process as well as the impacts of atmospheric and geometric distortions, we extend the proposed GRR into a kernelized nonlinear regression method, namely KGRR. To evaluate the proposed method, we apply it to both classification and regression tasks and compare with representative methods. The experimental results show that KGRR can achieve favorable performance in terms of predictability and computation time.
Autors: Renlong Hang;Qingshan Liu;Huihui Song;Yubao Sun;Fuping Zhu;Hucheng Pei;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 277 - 285
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for In Vitro and Ex Vivo Recordings
Abstract:
Recording extracellular potentials from electrogenic cells (especially neurons) is the hallmark destination of modern bioelectronics. While fabrication of flexible and biocompatible in vivo devices via silicon technology is complicated and time-consuming, graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs), instead, can easily be fabricated on flexible and biocompatible substrates. In this work, we compare GFETs fabricated on rigid (SiO2 /Si and sapphire) and flexible (polyimide) substrates. The GFETs, fabricated on the polyimide, exhibit extremely large transconductance values, up to 11 mS·V–1, and mobility over 1750 cm2 ·V–1·s–1. In vitro recordings from cardiomyocyte-like cell culture are performed by GFETs on a rigid transparent substrate (sapphire). Via multichannel measurement, we are able to record and analyze both: difference in action potentials as well as their spatial propagation over the chip. Furthermore, the controllably flexible polyimide-on-steel (PIonS) substrates are able to ex vivo record electrical signals from primary embryonic rat heart tissue. Considering the flexibility of PIonS chips, together with the excellent sensitivity, we open up a new road into graphene-based in vivo biosensing.
Autors: Dmitry Kireev;Ihor Zadorozhnyi;Tianyu Qiu;Dario Sarik;Fabian Brings;Tianru Wu;Silke Seyock;Vanessa Maybeck;Martin Lottner;Benno M. Blaschke;Jose Garrido;Xiaoming Xie;Svetlana Vitusevich;Bernhard Wolfrum;Andreas Offenhäusser;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 140 - 147
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grating-Position-Shifted Cavity-Resonator- Integrated Guided-Mode Resonance Filter
Abstract:
A cavity-resonator-integrated guided-mode resonance filter (CRIGF) is a type of narrowband wavelength filter for an incident free-space beam of small diameter. A CRIGF consists of a grating coupler (GC) and a pair of distributed Bragg reflectors used to construct a waveguide cavity resonator. This time, the dependence of the reflection spectrum on the relative position of the centers of the GC and the waveguide cavity resonator is investigated in detail. The position shift of 3/16 of the GC period reduces the bandwidth from 6 to 1 nm, and the position shift of a quarter of the GC period eliminates the guided-mode resonance effect.
Autors: Kenji Kintaka;Kosuke Asai;Katsuaki Yamada;Junichi Inoue;Shogo Ura;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 201 - 204
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Green Controller for Efficient Diesel Engine Driven Single-Phase SEIG Using Maximum Efficiency Point Operation
Abstract:
This paper presents a green controller for a governor-less diesel engine driven two-winding single phase standalone self-excited induction generator (SEIG) based on search-then-converge network algorithm. Diesel engines used for driving standalone electric generators are designed with a rated power output. Normally such engines exhibit maximum efficiency at about 80% of their maximum power rating. This point of operation is called as maximum efficiency point of operation. The proposed control operates the single-phase SEIG to generate a fixed electric power to achieve a maximum efficiency point of operation of the diesel engine irrespective of quantum and nature of load. The proposed controller diverts the surplus generated electric power to the battery energy storage system after satisfying the power demand of the load in order to conserve electrical energy and to improve the overall system efficiency. The operation of a diesel engine at maximum efficiency point of operation with constant mechanical loading irrespective of amount of electrical loading on the generator reduces the brake specific CO, smoke, and unwanted hydro carbon emission from the engine. Thus this scheme is named as a green controller.
Autors: Ujjwal Kumar Kalla;Bhim Singh;S. Sreenivasa Murthy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 264 - 274
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Green Video Transmission in the Mobile Cloud Networks
Abstract:
Video transmission is an indispensable component of most applications related to the mobile cloud networks (MCNs). However, because of the complexity of the communication environment and the limitation of resources, attempts to develop an effective solution for video transmission in the MCN face certain difficulties. In this paper, we propose a novel green video transmission (GVT) algorithm that uses video clustering and channel assignment to assist in video transmission. A video clustering model is designed based on game theory to classify the different video parts stored in mobile devices. Using the results of video clustering, the GVT algorithm provides the function of channel assignment, and its assignment process depends on the content of the video to improve channel utilization in the MCN. Extensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the GVT with several performance criteria. Our analysis and simulations show that the proposed GTV demonstrates a superior video transmission performance compared with the existing methods.
Autors: Kai Lin;Jeungeun Song;Jiming Luo;Wen Ji;M. Shamim Hossain;Ahmed Ghoneim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 159 - 169
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GreenCoMP: Energy-Aware Cooperation for Green Cellular Networks
Abstract:
Switching off base stations (BSs) is an effective and efficient energy-saving solution for green cellular networks. The previous works focus mainly on when to switch off BSs without sacrificing the traffic demands of current active users, and then enlarge the coverage of the stay-on cells to cover as many users as possible. Based on this objective, both constant power and transmission power of each BS become the major energy consumption sources. However, the transmission powers of enlarged cells, which have not been taken into account in previous research, are not negligible as compared to other energy consumption sources. To tackle this problem, we observe that the transmission power of one specific BS could be reduced via cooperation among two or more BSs, which is typically used to improve the throughput or enhance the spectrum efficiency in wireless systems. The challenges come mainly from how to jointly consider which BSs to switch off and how to cooperate among active-mode BSs. In this paper, we design energy-aware cooperation strategies that ensure that our system is energy-saving while satisfying user demands. To cope with sleep-mode BSs and perform cooperation among active BSs, we formulate this problem as a binary integer programming problem, and prove it is NP-hard. Based on our formulation, we derive a performance lower bound for this problem via Lagrangian Relaxation with search enumeration. Furthermore, we propose two heuristic algorithms accounting for the properties of energy savings and the constraints of bandwidth resources. The simulation results show that our algorithms outperform pure power control mechanisms that do not consider the transmission power and pure cooperation without power control in terms of the total consumed energy. We also observe that larger cooperative size does not imply a better strategy under different scenarios. Compared to the total consumed energy given that all BSs are turned on, our algorithms can save up to 60 perce- t of energy. This demonstrates that our methods are indeed efficient energy-saving cooperation strategies for green cellular networks.
Autors: Po-Han Huang;Shi-Sheng Sun;Wanjiun Liao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 143 - 157
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm-Based Tuning of Fuzzy Control Systems With Reduced Parametric Sensitivity
Abstract:
This paper proposes an innovative tuning approach for fuzzy control systems (CSs) with a reduced parametric sensitivity using the Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) algorithm. The CSs consist of servo system processes controlled by Takagi–Sugeno–Kang proportional-integral fuzzy controllers (TSK PI-FCs). The process models have second-order dynamics with an integral component, variable parameters, a saturation, and dead-zone static nonlinearity. The sensitivity analysis employs output sensitivity functions of the sensitivity models defined with respect to the parametric variations of the processes. The GWO algorithm is used in solving the optimization problems, where the objective functions include the output sensitivity functions. GWO's motivation is based on its low-computational cost. The tuning approach is validated in an experimental case study of a position control for a laboratory nonlinear servo system, and TSK PI-FCs with a reduced process small time constant sensitivity are offered.
Autors: Radu-Emil Precup;Radu-Codrut David;Emil M. Petriu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 527 - 534
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grounded Wye-Delta Transformer Bank Backfeed Short-Circuit Currents
Abstract:
A common load on a distribution feeder consists of a combination single-phase lighting load and a three-phase load such as an induction motor. This combination load can be served by a wye-delta transformer bank. The question is whether the wye connection should be directly connected to ground, connected to ground through a grounding resistor or left ungrounded. During normal loading conditions, each connection has advantages and disadvantages. However, during a short-circuit condition, a grounded wye-delta bank will provide a “backfeed” short-circuit current for an upstream ground fault. This paper will develop methods for the analysis of the backfeed currents for an upstream line-to-ground fault.
Autors: W. H. Kersting;Wayne Carr;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 65 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Group Buying Spectrum Auctions in Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
Spectrum has been sold at millions of dollars per megahertz through spectrum auctions. The staggering price hinders small network providers from becoming auction winners. Inspired by the group buying service on the Internet, group buying strategy has been introduced into the design of spectrum auctions to increase the buying power of small network providers. In this paper, we propose two truthful group buying auctions, namely, and , to take advantage of the collective buying power of secondary users (SUs) within each secondary network (SN). We carefully design the budget extraction for each secondary access point (SAP) within the SN to maximize the budget collected from the SUs. In addition, we allow the primary user (PU) to assign its channels strategically to boost the chance of successful transactions. These two features together empower and to significantly improve system performance, as compared with the existing group buying auction, in terms of the number of successful transactions (up to 16 times in the evaluation results), the number of winning SUs (up to 21 times), the average utility of the SUs (up to 19 times), and the utility of SAPs (up to 85 times). In , the utility of the PU is improved by up to 44 times.
Autors: Dejun Yang;Guoliang Xue;Xiang Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 810 - 817
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Growth Mechanism of Vanadium (II) Oxide Nanowires
Abstract:
Understanding the growth mechanism to synthesize metal oxide nanostructures is crucial for applications that require mass manufacturing. In this paper, a root growth mechanism for the facile synthesis of vanadium (II) oxide nanowires is reported. The growth mechanism is derived with the help of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The investigation on the impact of flow rate and catalyst on nanowire growth indicates bimodal growth. Early in the growth process, vanadium (II) oxide nanowires tend to grow horizontally along the substrate surface and reach a critical size density. After reaching a critical density, vertically aligned nanowires extrude from catalyst alloy islands. The vertical growth continues to grow unhindered after the catalyst alloy is formed. The evidence presented here indicates that 1) a metal catalyst is required for the vertical growth of vanadium (II) oxide nanowires in this setup, and 2) the horizontal growth observed is independent of the metal catalyst.
Autors: Jesse Steven Kysar;Francesca L. Wignes;Praveen Kumar Sekhar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 3 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Issue on Visual Computing in the Cloud: Mobile Computing
Abstract:
Recent advances in mobile devices (e.g., smartphones and wearables) and wireless technologies are fueling a new wave of user demands for an improved user experience. Indeed, users are not only expecting ubiquitous network connections for traditional services (e.g., messaging and calling), but also demanding extensive access to a wealth of video contents and services. However, this growing demand is seriously hindered by the fact that the onboard resources with mobile devices are inherently limited and their growth rate falls behind that of their desktop counterparts. It follows that new solutions should be in order to resolve this fundamental tussle. Fortunately, the emerging cloud computing offers a natural solution to extend the desktop visual experience to mobile devices. It actually provides both computational and storage support for media-rich applications with both front-end and back-end functionalities.
Autors: Yonggang Wen;Jacov Chakareski;Pascal Frossard;Di Wu;Wenjun Zeng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Section on the Thirteenth IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics
Abstract:
This Special Issue draws six papers from the Thirteenth IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR). SSRR is an international forum for furthering the study of key issues underpinning the research of safety, security, and rescue robotics as well as solutions necessary for the fielding of robots and sensor systems across a variety of challenging application areas. We are very pleased to have selected these subset of papers from an extremely strong technical program focused on automation themes for SSRR applications.
Autors: M. Ani Hsieh;Yu Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 3 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Spectrum Sharing and Aggregation for Future Wireless Networks, Part III
Abstract:
Welcome to the third one in the sequel of three IEEE JSAC special issues on Spectrum Sharing and Aggregation for Future Wireless Networks. In recognition of the fact that a substantial number of submissions have been received in response to the call for papers, the decision has been made to publish three issues on the cutting-edge advances in spectrum sharing and aggregation. The first two issues were published in October 2016 with 20 papers and November 2016 with 19 papers, respectively. This is the third issue with 17 papers, covering a feast of hot research topics as follows.
Autors: Theodoros A. Tsiftsis;Guoru Ding;Yulong Zou;George K. Karagiannidis;Zhu Han;Lajos Hanzo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guidelines for Finite-Element Modeling of Acoustic Radiation Force-Induced Shear Wave Propagation in Tissue-Mimicking Media
Abstract:
Ultrasound shear wave elastography is emerging as an important imaging modality for evaluating tissue material properties. In its practice, some systematic biases have been associated with ultrasound frequencies, focal depths and configuration, and transducer types (linear versus curvilinear), along with displacement estimation and shear wave speed estimation algorithms. Added to that, soft tissues are not purely elastic, so shear waves will travel at different speeds depending on their spectral content, which can be modulated by the acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation focusing, duration, and the frequency-dependent stiffness of the tissue. To understand how these different acquisition and material property parameters may affect the measurements of shear wave velocity, the simulations of the propagation of shear waves generated by ARF excitations in viscoelastic media are a very important tool. This paper serves to provide an in-depth description of how these simulations are performed. The general scheme is broken into three components: 1) simulation of the 3-D ARF push beam; 2) applying that force distribution to a finite-element model; and 3) extraction of the motion data for post-processing. All three components will be described in detail and combined to create a simulation platform that is powerful for developing and testing algorithms for academic and industrial researchers involved in making quantitative shear-wave-based measurements of tissue material properties.
Autors: Mark L. Palmeri;Bo Qiang;Shigao Chen;Matthew W. Urban;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 78 - 92
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guidelines for Managing Requirements Rationales
Abstract:
Requirements are identified and elaborated on the basis of stakeholders' decisions. The reasoning behind those decisions can be expressed as rationales. Systematic rationale management offers both short-term benefits, such as clearer requirements leading to fewer defects, and long-term benefits, such as simplified requirements evolution. However, little guidance exists for managing requirements rationales. This article presents guidelines to pragmatically capture, trace, maintain, and reuse such rationales. A list of questions augments the guidelines, improving their usability.
Autors: Anil Kumar Thurimella;Mathias Schubanz;Andreas Pleuss;Goetz Botterweck;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 82 - 90
Publisher: IEEE
 
» H2ONoC: A Hybrid Optical–Electronic NoC Based on Hybrid Topology
Abstract:
Next-generation chip multiprocessors will require communication performance levels that cannot be achieved by traditional electronic ON-chip interconnects. Silicon photonics has recently emerged as a promising alternative to handle future communication needs thanks to the ultrahigh bandwidth and low power consumption. Optical networks-on-chip (ONoCs) are affected by insertion loss and crosstalk noise effects, which constrain the network scalability and impact the power consumption. This paper proposes a hybrid electronic/photonic, hybrid-topology ONoC (H2ONoC), based on a novel architecture aimed at mitigating the above effects. This paper provides a thorough description of the H2ONoC architectures as well as an experimental evaluation based on both synthetic benchmarks and real-world applications. Compared with hybrid mesh- and torus-based network-on-chip architectures, H2ONoC achieves, respectively, 13% and 18% less insertion loss, 32% and 8% less energy consumption under synthetic traffic, 74% and 14% less energy consumption with real applications, as well as better SNR when the system size scales up.
Autors: Edoardo Fusella;Alessandro Cilardo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 330 - 343
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hail, robo-taxi! [Top Tech 2017]
Abstract:
Take a short walk through Singapore’s city center and you’ll cross a helical bridge modeled on the structure of DNA, pass a science museum shaped like a lotus flower, and end up in a towering grove of artificial Supertrees that pulse with light and sound. It’s no surprise, then, that this is the first city to host a fleet of autonomous taxis.
Autors: Evan Ackerman;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 26 - 29
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Half-Loop Frame Antenna for the LTE Metal-Casing Tablet Device
Abstract:
The use of metal casing is attractive to achieve robustness of modern slim tablet devices. The metal casing includes the metal back cover and the metal frame around the edges thereof. For such metal-casing tablet devices, the frame antenna that uses a part of the metal frame as an antenna’s radiator is promising to achieve wide bandwidths for mobile communications. In this paper, the frame antenna based on the simple half-loop antenna structure to cover the long-term evolution 746–960 and 1710–2690 MHz bands is presented. The half-loop structure for the frame antenna is easy for manufacturing and increases the robustness of the metal casing. The dual-wideband operation of the half-loop frame antenna is obtained by using an elevated feed network supported by a thin feed substrate. The measured antenna efficiencies are, respectively, 45%–69% and 60%–83% in the low and high bands. By selecting different feed circuits, the antenna’s low band can also be shifted from 746–960 MHz to lower frequencies such as 698–840 MHz, with the antenna’s high-band coverage very slightly varied. The working principle of the antenna with the elevated feed network is discussed. The antenna is also fabricated and tested, and experimental results are presented.
Autors: Kin-Lu Wong;Chih-Yu Tsai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 71 - 81
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hands-On Learning Through Racing: Signal processing and engineering education through the China National Collegiate Intelligent Model Car Competition
Abstract:
The Intelligent Model Car Competition (IMCC) of China is an annual collegiate contest where student teams design, build, and race a model car around a track, and the fastest car that completes the track without failure wins [1]. The IMCC is in collaboration with the global NXP Cup Challenge, which was formerly known as the Freescale Cup Challenge until the acquisition of Freescale Semiconductor Inc. by NXP Semiconductors [2]. Creating this smart, autonomous car requires students to develop the hardware and software of motor control to propel and steer their model cars. It provides a collaborative, competitive, and hands-on way for students to learn about and make a synergistic use of theories and techniques from undergraduate engineering studies, such as sensing and control, circuit design and implementation, and embedded system and software programming. The first competition, formerly known as the Smart Car Race, began in 2003 in South Korea with 80 student teams. Since then, the NXP Cup has expanded to China, India, Malaysia, Latin America, North America, and Europe, engaging hundreds of schools and tens of thousands of students a year [2], [3].
Autors: Qing Zhuo;Yanpin Ren;Yongheng Jiang;Changshui Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 31 - 39
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hardware Design and Web-Based Communication Modules of a Real-Time Multisensor Fire Detection and Notification System Using Fuzzy Logic
Abstract:
This paper presents the design and development of a fuzzy logic based multisensor fire detection system and a web-based notification system. Until recently, most consumer grade fire detection systems relied solely on smoke detectors. The protection provided by these has been established to be limited by the type of fire present and the detection technology at use. The problem is further compounded by the lack of adequate alert and notification mechanisms. A typical system relies on the physical presence of a human being to act on the alert. In developing countries, poor planning and addressing negatively affects the fire and rescue crew's response time. To address this problem, a fuzzy logic system was implemented using an Arduino development board with inputs from an MQ2 smoke sensor, a TMP102 temperature sensor, and a DFRobot flame sensor. The output of the detection system is sent over short message service (SMS) using a SIM900 global system for mobile communication (GSM) module to the web-based system and the house owner or caretaker in real-time. With access granted to the web-based system, the fire and rescue crew also get notified in real-time with location information. A comparison between the efficiency of the notification system employed by standard fire detectors and the multisensor remote-based notification approach adopted in this paper showed significant improvements in the form of timely detection, alerting, and response.
Autors: Robert A. Sowah;Abdul R. Ofoli;Selase N. Krakani;Seth Yayra Fiawoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 559 - 566
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harmonic Injection-Based Adaptive Control of IPMSM Motor Drive for Reduced Motor Current THD
Abstract:
This paper presents a robust nonlinear controller for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors based on maximum torque per ampere. Harmonic reduction is achieved through strategic third harmonic injection into the command voltages. Third harmonic injection also permits increased utilization (transfer ratio) of supply potential, which facilitates a greater speed operating range. Stability of the control law state variables is demonstrated through Lyapunov stability criterion. Global asymptotic stability is assured through the application of criterion supported by Barbalat's lemma. Control expressions are derived using an adaptive back-stepping technique, with estimation of dynamic load and mechanical coefficient ensuring optimal performance under dynamic operating conditions. The proposed system has been implemented in a cosimulation environment, with control system and machine model implemented in Matlab/Simulink and PSIM, respectively. The complete drive system is implemented using the DS1104 DSP board for a 3.7 kW laboratory motor. Both experimental and simulation results have demonstrated excellent drive performance, harmonic distortion reduction, and an increase in the linear modulation range.
Autors: Garin Schoonhoven;M. Nasir Uddin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 483 - 491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harmonic Instability Assessment Using State-Space Modeling and Participation Analysis in Inverter-Fed Power Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a harmonic instability analysis method using state-space modeling and participation analysis in the inverter-fed ac power systems. A full-order state-space model for the droop-controlled distributed generation (DG) inverter is built first, including the time delay of the digital control system, inner current and voltage control loops, and outer droop-based power control loop. Based on the DG inverter model, an overall state-space model of a two-inverter-fed system is established. The eigenvalue-based stability analysis is then presented to assess the influence of controller parameters on the harmonic instability of the power system. Moreover, the harmonic-frequency oscillation modes are identified, where participation analysis is presented to evaluate the contributions of different states to these modes and to further reveal how the system gives rise to harmonic instability. Based on the participation analysis, a reduced-order model for harmonic instability analysis is also proposed. The experimental results are presented for validating the theoretical analyses.
Autors: Yanbo Wang;Xiongfei Wang;Frede Blaabjerg;Zhe Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 806 - 816
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harmonics and Interharmonics Compensation With Active Front-End Converters Based Only on Local Voltage Measurements
Abstract:
The current grid codes for distribution networks impose on operators to provide ancillary services, like fault ride through capability and reactive power compensation. In this context, generating units with power electronics interfaces could offer as an additional service the active compensation for harmonic and interharmonic currents introduced by other converters or distorting loads. Typically, the converters of these generating units do not have information on the distortion of either other loads or of the grid current. Thus, this paper presents a control algorithm for grid harmonics and interharmonics compensation that relies only on the measurement of the voltage at the point of connection of the unit. The reference for the compensating current is calculated from the harmonic components of grid voltage in the synchronous reference frame. The paper also addresses the influence on the compensation performance of the line impedance between the generating unit and the point of connection. Experimental tests on a laboratory setup fully validate the proposed compensation method.
Autors: Salvatore D'Arco;Miguel Ochoa-Gimenez;Luigi Piegari;Pietro Tricoli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 796 - 805
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hawking Humanitarian Efforts [Editorial]
Abstract:
Autors: Davis George Moye;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Heat Flow Dynamics in Thermal Systems Described by Diffusive Representation
Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to analyze the dynamics of heat flow in thermal structures working under constant temperature operation. This analysis is made using the tools of sliding mode controllers. The theory is developed considering that the thermal system can be described using diffusive representation. The experimental corroboration has been made with a prototype of a wind sensor for Mars atmosphere being controlled by a thermal sigma–delta modulator. This sensor structure allows to analyze the time-varying case experimentally since changes in wind conditions imply changes in the corresponding thermal models. The diffusive symbols of the experimental structures have been obtained from open-loop measurements in which pseudorandom binary sequences of heat are injected in the sensor. With the proposed approach, it is possible to predict heat flux transient waveforms in systems described by any arbitrary number of poles. This allows for the first time the analysis of lumped and distributed systems without any limitation on the number of poles describing it.
Autors: Manuel Dominguez-Pumar;Maria-Teresa Atienza;Lukasz Kowalski;Santiago Novio;Sergi Gorreta;Vicente Jimenez;Santiago Silvestre;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 664 - 673
Publisher: IEEE
 

Publication archives by date

  2017:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2016:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2015:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2014:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2013:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2012:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2011:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2010:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2009:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

 
0-C     D-L     M-R     S-Z