Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2017 sorted by title, page: 10

» Limitations on Lateral Nanowire Scaling Beyond 7-nm Node
Abstract:
In this letter, we have studied the impact on lateral nanowire transistor’s (LNW) performance of reducing the wire diameter from 7 nm to 5 nm. As technology scaling continues, the LNW device size is scaled here for beyond 7-nm nodes. Reducing the NW’s gate length causes huge degradation in electrostatic control of the device. The degraded electrostatic is improved by reducing the wire diameter. DC and ring oscillator benchmark have been performed for different NW size for sub-7-nm node using TCAD-based compact models. Using the 5-nm-diameter-based LNW at the gate length of 10 nm around 8-mV/decade subthreshold slope improvement is observed as compared with the 7-nm-diameter LNW. This leads to the possibility of improved performances for the 5-nm-diameter-based device. The NW device, with 5-nm wire diameter and 10-nm gate length can provide some area gain. Although the 5-nm-diameter device increases channel confinement, due to the reduced drive current and increased parasitics, overall device speed is lagging behind the 7-nm diameter device.
Autors: Uttam Kumar Das;M. Garcia Bardon;D. Jang;G. Eneman;P. Schuddinck;D. Yakimets;P. Raghavan;Guido Groeseneken;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 9 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Limits in Timing Jitters of Forced Microwave Oscillator Using Optical Self-ILPLL
Abstract:
A novel optical feedback technique using self-injection locked and phase locked loop (SILPLL) is employed for phase noise reduction of free-running microwave oscillators. Phase noise reduction of 27 dB at 10-kHz offset has been demonstrated by applying this technique for a 10-GHz state of art dielectric resonator oscillator achieving −137 dBc/Hz at 10-kHz offset. A phase noise prediction of this feedback technique is also presented, which very closely corroborates with experimental results. Analysis of SILPLL using the modeling has shown that further phase noise reductions could be achieved, by reducing the flicker phase noise of the long delay lines and microwave amplifiers. Phase noise of −147 dBc/Hz at 10-kHz offset is predicted when the relative intensity noise (RIN) is reduced to the RIN of −170 dB/Hz for an optical power leading to a photocurrent of 5 mA and the (flicker noise) levels of −125 dBc/Hz for RF amplifiers.
Autors: Tianchi Sun;Li Zhang;Ajay K. Poddar;Ulrich L. Rohde;Afshin S. Daryoush;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 181 - 184
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Limits on Support Recovery With Probabilistic Models: An Information-Theoretic Framework
Abstract:
The support recovery problem consists of determining a sparse subset of a set of variables that is relevant in generating a set of observations, and arises in a diverse range of settings, such as compressive sensing, subset selection in regression, and group testing. In this paper, we take a unified approach to support recovery problems, considering general probabilistic models relating a sparse data vector to an observation vector. We study the information-theoretic limits of both exact and partial support recovery, taking a novel approach motivated by thresholding techniques in channel coding. We provide general achievability and converse bounds characterizing the trade-off between the error probability and number of measurements, and we specialize these to the linear, 1-bit, and group testing models. In several cases, our bounds not only provide matching scaling laws in the necessary and sufficient number of measurements, but also sharp thresholds with matching constant factors. Our approach has several advantages over previous approaches. For the achievability part, we obtain sharp thresholds under broader scalings of the sparsity level and other parameters (e.g., signal-to-noise ratio) compared with several previous works, and for the converse part, we not only provide conditions under which the error probability fails to vanish, but also conditions under which it tends to one.
Autors: Jonathan Scarlett;Volkan Cevher;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 593 - 620
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Linear Decision Rules for Hydropower Scheduling Under Uncertainty
Abstract:
We investigate the hydropower scheduling problem, in which a price-taking producer determines a reservoir management strategy that maximises the present value of revenues from selling the produced electricity in a well-functioning market. Uncertainty is present both in market prices and in reservoir inflows. To solve the problem, we apply linear decision rules, which is an approximation method for solving multistage stochastic linear programming problems. Traditional methods for solving these types of problems suffer from computational efforts that grow exponentially with the number of stages and state variables. By restricting the decision variables to be affine functions of the realisations of the uncertain parameters, the original intractable problem is transformed into a problem with short computational time. The aim is to investigate feasibility of the framework. The approach is demonstrated on four Norwegian hydropower plants using recent inflow and price data over a ten year time horizon. We obtain flexible reservoir management strategies, providing feasible solutions where a deterministic approach fails, and otherwise improving expected profits by up to 4.5% compared to a deterministic approach. Solutions times are in the order of minutes.
Autors: Ruud Egging;Stein-Erik Fleten;Ida Grønvik;Ajla Hadziomerovic;Nina Ingvoldstad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 103 - 113
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Linear Degrees of Freedom of MIMO Broadcast Channels With Reconfigurable Antennas in the Absence of CSIT
Abstract:
The -user multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channel (BC) with no channel state information at the transmitter is considered, where each receiver is assumed to be equipped with either conventional antennas or reconfigurable antennas in which each reconfigurable antenna is capable of choosing a subset of receiving modes from several preset modes. Under general antenna configurations, the sum linear degrees of freedom (DoFs) of the -user MIMO BC with reconfigurable antennas are completely characterized, which corresponds to the maximum sum DoF achievable by linear coding strategies.
Autors: Minho Yang;Sang-Woon Jeon;Dong Ku Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 320 - 335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Linear Degrees of Freedom of the MIMO X-Channel With Delayed CSIT
Abstract:
We study the degrees of freedom (DoFs) of the multiple-input multiple-output X-channel (MIMO XC) with delayed channel state information at the transmitters (delayed CSITs), assuming linear coding strategies at the transmitters. We present two results: 1) the linear sum DoF for MIMO XC with general antenna configurations and 2) the linear DoF region for MIMO XC with symmetric antennas. The converse for each result is based on developing a novel rank-ratio inequality that characterizes the maximum ratio between the dimensions of received linear subspaces at the two multiple-antenna receivers. The achievability of the linear sum DoF is based on a three-phase strategy, in which during the first two phases only the transmitter with fewer antennas exploits delayed CSIT in order to minimize the dimension of its signal at the unintended receiver. During the third phase, both transmitters use delayed CSIT to send linear combinations of past transmissions, such that each receiver receives a superposition of desired message data and known interference, thus simultaneously serving both receivers. We also derive other linear DoF outer bounds for the MIMO XC that, in addition to the outer bounds from the sum DoF converse and the proposed transmission strategy, allow us to characterize the linear DoF region for symmetric antenna configurations.
Autors: David T. H. Kao;A. Salman Avestimehr;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 297 - 319
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Linearization of a Highly Nonlinear Envelope Tracking Power Amplifier Targeting Maximum Efficiency
Abstract:
This letter presents a linearization algorithm designed for envelope tracking transmitters with an optimal highly efficient envelope shaping function. Targeting high efficiency at all power regions of the PA results in a severe nonlinear input-output response, and broadening of the PA output spectrum compared with a fixed voltage, or other envelope shaping functions. A two-box modeling approach is used, where a static nonlinearity function focuses on reducing the nonlinearity of the transmitter, and a memory polynomial model is used in cascade to reduce remaining distortions. The results show a definite improvement over traditional one-box models, and is suitable for PAs exhibiting unique nonlinear responses, especially for ET applications.
Autors: Andrew K. Kwan;Mayada Younes;Oualid Hammi;Mohamed Helaoui;Fadhel M. Ghannouchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 82 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Linking Heterogeneous Data in the Semantic Web Using Scalable and Domain-Independent Candidate Selection
Abstract:
Due to the decentralized nature of the Semantic Web, the same real-world entity may be described in various data sources with different ontologies and assigned syntactically distinct identifiers. In order to facilitate data utilization and consumption in the Semantic Web, without compromising the freedom of people to publish their data, one critical problem is to appropriately interlink such heterogeneous data. This interlinking process is sometimes referred to as Entity Matching, i.e., finding which identifiers refer to the same real-world entity. In this paper, we propose two candidate selection algorithms to improve the scalability of entity matching systems. First of all, we propose HistSim that utilizes the matching histories of the instances to prune instance pairs that are not sufficiently similar to the same pool of other instances. A sigmoid function based thresholding method is proposed to automatically adjust the threshold for such commonality on-the-fly. Furthermore, we propose DisNGram that selects candidate instance pairs by computing a character-level similarity metric on discriminating literal values that are chosen using domain-independent unsupervised learning. Instances are indexed on the chosen predicates’ literal values to enable efficient look-up for similar instances. Finally, in order to be able to handle heterogeneous datasets with a large number of predicates, a mechanism for automatically determining predicate comparability is proposed. We evaluate our two candidate selection algorithms against six state-of-the-art systems on three Semantic Web datasets, and demonstrate that our proposed algorithms frequently outperform state-of-the-art systems on F1-score and runtime.
Autors: Dezhao Song;Yi Luo;Jeff Heflin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 143 - 156
Publisher: IEEE
 
» List Decodability of Random Subcodes of Gabidulin Codes
Abstract:
Efficient list decoding of rank-metric codes seems more difficult compared with classical block codes although list decodability of random rank-metric codes is completely determined by Ding. For example, it was shown by Raviv and Wachter-Zeh that the list decoding radius of Gabidulin codes is the same as the unique decoding radius, i.e., half the minimum distance for some instances of parameters. On the other hand, Guruswami and Xing give an explicit construction of subcodes of Gabidulin codes, which can be list decoded up to the Singleton bound. This implies that subcodes of Gabidulin codes are good candidates for list decoding. In this paper, we confirm that, with overwhelming probability, a random subcode of a Gabidulin code can be list decoded with decoding radius far beyond half of the minimum distance.
Autors: Shu Liu;Chaoping Xing;Chen Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 159 - 163
Publisher: IEEE
 
» List Decoding of Crisscross Errors
Abstract:
In this paper, list decoding of crisscross errors in arrays over finite fields is considered. For this purpose, the so-called cover metric is used, where the cover of a matrix is a set of rows and columns which contains all non-zero elements of the matrix. A Johnson-like upper bound on the maximum list size in the cover metric is derived, showing that the list of codewords has polynomial size up to a certain radius. Furthermore, a simple list decoding algorithm for a known optimal code construction is presented, which decodes errors in the cover metric up to our upper bound. These results reveal significant differences between the cover metric and the rank metric and show that the cover metric is more suitable for correcting crisscross errors.
Autors: Antonia Wachter-Zeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 142 - 149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Listen-and-Talk: Protocol Design and Analysis for Full-Duplex Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
In traditional cognitive radio networks (CRNs), secondary users (SUs) typically access the spectrum of primary users (PUs) by a two-stage “listen-before-talk” (LBT) protocol, i.e., SUs sense the spectrum holes in the first stage before transmitting in the second. However, there exist two major problems: transmission time reduction due to sensing and sensing accuracy impairment due to data transmission. In this paper, we propose a “listen-and-talk” (LAT) protocol with the help of full-duplex (FD) technique that allows SUs to simultaneously sense and access the vacant spectrum. Spectrum utilization performance is carefully analyzed, with the closed-form spectrum waste ratio and collision ratio with the PU provided. In addition, with regard to the secondary throughput, we report the existence of a tradeoff between the secondary transmit power and throughput. Based on the power–throughput tradeoff, we derive the analytical local optimal transmit power for SUs to achieve both high throughput and satisfying sensing accuracy. Numerical results are given to verify the proposed protocol and the theoretical results.
Autors: Yun Liao;Tianyu Wang;Lingyang Song;Zhu Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 656 - 667
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Electric Vehicle State-of-Charge Estimation Based on Evolutionary Gaussian Mixture Regression
Abstract:
Lithium batteries have the characteristics of high energy density and charge–discharge rate, but exhibit high chemical activity. State-of-charge (SOC) estimation is critical to the lithium battery electric vehicle (EV) operation safety. In this paper, a novel SOC estimation method is proposed based on Gaussian process regression. A mixture Gaussian process is used in this model to strengthen the reliability of data description and to increase the estimation accuracy. Optimal number of Gaussian processes is obtained by a revolutionary expectation maximum method. A nonlinear correlation feature selection method is introduced to improve the model efficiency. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by an EV field test. Compared with other data-based approaches, this method exhibits higher estimation accuracy and computational efficiency.
Autors: Hanmin Sheng;Jian Xiao;Peng Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 544 - 551
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Lithography Defect Probability and Its Application to Physical Design Optimization
Abstract:
Modern standard cells contain intercell margins at the left and right ends for better lithography. We introduce defect probability, which is the probability that a lithography defect occurs if the margins between two adjacent cells are missing. Computing the defect probability of all cell pairs is impractical due to lengthy lithography simulations and huge number of cell pair combinations. Two approximate methods are employed to make this computation possible: reducing the range of optical proximity correction and grouping cell pairs of similar geometry at the cell boundary. We also present how the cell layout can be modified for a lower defect probability with no impact on the cell electrical parameters. Defect probability is applied to two physical design optimization problems. In the automatic placement, we consider that all cells are initially without margins. We want to locate two cells adjacent if their defect probability is zero (or negligibly small) or insert margins in between; this is achieved using the average defect probability as one of the cost terms of the placement. Experiments in 28-nm commercial library demonstrate an 8% reduction in the area with a 4% shorter wirelength. In the second application, we assume that the standard placement using cells with margins have been performed. We want to identify redundant margins that can be removed while the defect probability is kept zero. We take a step forward and shuffle the location of a few consecutive cells in the same row so that more redundant margins are identified. Once all the redundant margins are removed, newly created whitespace is distributed to reduce routing congestion in highly congested areas. Experiments indicate a 48% reduction in the number of overflow routing grids.
Autors: Seongbo Shim;Woohyun Chung;Youngsoo Shin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 271 - 285
Publisher: IEEE
 
» LLR-Based Successive-Cancellation List Decoder for Polar Codes With Multibit Decision
Abstract:
Due to their capacity-achieving property, polar codes have become one of the most attractive channel codes. To date, the successive-cancellation list (SCL) decoding algorithm is the primary approach that can guarantee outstanding error-correcting performance of polar codes. However, the hardware designs of the original SCL decoder have a large silicon area and a long decoding latency. Although some recent efforts can reduce either the area or latency of SCL decoders, these two metrics still cannot be optimized at the same time. This brief, for the first time, proposes a general log-likelihood-ratio (LLR) based SCL decoding algorithm with multibit decision. This new algorithm, referred to as , can determine bits simultaneously for arbitrary with the use of LLR messages. In addition, a reduced-data-width scheme is presented to reduce the critical path of the sorting block. Then, based on the proposed algorithm, a VLSI architecture of the new SCL decoder is developed. Synthesis results show that, for an example (1024, 512) polar code with list size 4, the proposed decoders achieve a significant reduction in both area and latency as compared to prior works. As a result, the hardware efficiencies of the proposed designs with are 2.33 times and 3.32 times of that of the state-of-the-art works, respectively.
Autors: Bo Yuan;Keshab K. Parhi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 21 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Load and Wind Power Scenario Generation Through the Generalized Dynamic Factor Model
Abstract:
Load and wind power scenarios are synthesized through the generalized dynamic factor model (GDFM), which represents the load and wind power as the sum of a periodic component, idiosyncratic noise component, and common component, where the GDFM preserves the correlation structure between load and wind. The common component consists of the dynamic shock, which is white noise, and the matrix polynomial, which represents the temporal and geographical correlation between load and wind power. Since the dimension of dynamic shocks is less than that of actual load and wind power, the GDFM requires fewer dimensions and variables than multivariate time series models. Scenarios are verified through statistical, spectral density, and correlation analysis. The usefulness of scenarios is also verified by calculating the total generation and transmission upgrade costs on the IEEE 300-bus benchmark. Using correlated scenarios results in higher generation and upgrade costs than using uncorrelated or weakly correlated scenarios. Therefore, correlated scenarios should be used in order to more accurately estimate power system planning costs.
Autors: Duehee Lee;Ross Baldick;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 400 - 410
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Load Sensitivity Studies in Power Systems With Non-Smooth Load Behavior
Abstract:
One of the most important aspects of time-domain simulations for power system planning studies is load modeling. For a realistic representation of the load, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model validation and working group developed the composite load model. The composite load model represents the aggregation of different types of loads at the substation level. However, there exists some uncertainty in determining the load parameters and the percentage composition of the different components. Trajectory sensitivity (TS) analysis provides a systematic approach to study the impact of parameter uncertainty on power system response to disturbances. The non-smooth nature of the composite load model may present some additional challenges to sensitivity analysis in a realistic power system. This paper presents an application of TS analysis to study the impact of load parameter uncertainty on the system response. The impact of the non-smooth nature of load models on the sensitivity analysis is also addressed. This paper further suggests a method to determine the perturbation size limit for which accurate linear approximations can be made. The study was performed using the WECC system model.
Autors: Parag Mitra;Vijay Vittal;Pouyan Pourbeik;Anish Gaikwad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 705 - 714
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Local Culture, Global Habits
Abstract:
Computing technology has changed local culture and has been changed by it. The web extra at https://youtu.be/StKxA4SaplU is an audio recording of author David Alan Grier reading the first installment of his new Global Code column, in which he contemplates how computing technology has both changed and been changed by local culture--and what this might mean for our field and for the world.
Autors: David Alan Grier;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 50, issue:1, pages: 96 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Locally Weighted Prediction Methods for Latent Factor Analysis With Supervised and Semisupervised Process Data
Abstract:
Through calculating the similarity between the historical and the new query data samples, a probabilistic locally weighted prediction method based on supervised latent factor analysis (SLFA) model is proposed. In this method, the contributions of different historical samples are expressed through incorporating the similarity index into the noise variance of the process variables, which renders strong adaptability of the method for describing nonlinear relationships and abrupt changes of the process. Additionally, the proposed locally weighted method is extended to the semisupervised form, which is apparently more practical in real industrial processes, since the sampling rates of quality variables are much lower than those of ordinary process variables. Efficient expectation maximization algorithms are designed for parameter learning in both SLFA and semisupervised locally weighted LFA methods. Two real industrial processes are provided to evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the newly developed soft sensors.
Autors: Le Yao;Zhiqiang Ge;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 126 - 138
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Logic-Base Interconnect Design for Near Memory Computing in the Smart Memory Cube
Abstract:
Hybrid memory cube (HMC) has promised to improve bandwidth, power consumption, and density for the next-generation main memory systems. In addition, 3-D integration gives a second shot for revisiting near memory computation to fill the gap between processors and memories. In this paper, we study the required infrastructure inside the HMC to support near memory computation in a modular and flexible fashion. We propose a fully backward compatible extension to the standard HMC called the smart memory cube, and design a high bandwidth, low latency, and Advanced eXtensible Interface-4.0 compatible logic base (LoB) interconnect to serve the huge bandwidth demand by the HMCs serial links, and to provide extra bandwidth to a generic processor-in-memory (PIM) device embedded in the LoB. This interconnect features a novel address scrambling mechanism for the reduction in the vault/bank conflicts and robust operation even in the presence of pathological traffic patterns. Our cycle accurate simulation results demonstrate that this interconnect can easily meet the demands of the latest HMC specifications (up to 205 GB/s read bandwidth with 4 serial links and 32 memory vaults for injected random traffic). It further shown that the default addressing scheme of the HMC (low interleaving) is not reliable enough and operates poorly in the presence of specific traffic patterns from real applications. This is while the proposed scrambling mechanism operates robustly even in those cases. The interference between the PIM traffic and the main links is shown to be negligible when the number of PIM ports is limited to 2, requesting up to 64 GB/s without pushing the system into saturation. Finally, logic synthesis with Synopsys Design Compiler confirms that our interconnect is implementable and effective in terms of power, area, and timing (power consumption less than 5 mW up to 1 GHz and area less than 0.4 mm2).
Autors: Erfan Azarkhish;Christoph Pfister;Davide Rossi;Igor Loi;Luca Benini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 210 - 223
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Long Cyclic Codes Over GF(4) and GF(8) Better Than BCH Codes in the High-Rate Region
Abstract:
An explicit construction of an infinite family of cyclic codes is presented which, over GF(4) (resp., GF(8)), have approximately 8/9 (resp., 48/49) the redundancy of BCH codes of the same minimum distance and length. As such, the new codes are the best codes currently known in a regime where the minimum distance is fixed and the code length goes to infinity.
Autors: Ron M. Roth;Alexander Zeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 150 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Long-Term Ship Speed Prediction for Intelligent Traffic Signaling
Abstract:
Yangtze River is probably the world's busiest inland waterway. Ships need to be guided when passing through a controlled waterway based on their long-term speed prediction. Inaccurate ship speed prediction leads to nonoptimal traffic signaling, which may cause a significant traffic jam. For the existing intelligent traffic signaling system, the ship speed is assumed to be constant, which has caused many problems and issues. This paper proposes a novel algorithm to construct an improved multilayer perceptron (MLP) network for accurate long-term ship speed prediction, in which the hidden neurons of the MLP are optimized by the particle swarm optimization method. The effectiveness and efficiency of the method are guaranteed by using the orthogonal least squares method, which is the fast approach for the construction of the MLP network in a stepwise forward procedure. The model is driven by easily acquired dynamic data of the ships, including the speed and the position. The effectiveness of the proposed method is further confirmed by comparing with several traditional modeling techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a ship speed model is built for long-term prediction. The experimental results show that the developed model is in good agreement with the real-life data, with more than 97% accuracy. It will help to generate the optimal traffic commands for Yangtze River in an intelligent traffic signaling system.
Autors: Shaojun Gan;Shan Liang;Kang Li;Jing Deng;Tingli Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 82 - 91
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Looking at Intersections: A Survey of Intersection Monitoring, Behavior and Safety Analysis of Recent Studies
Abstract:
Intersections are known for their integral and complex nature due to a variety of the participants' behaviors and interactions. This paper presents a review of recent studies on the behavior at intersections and the safety analysis for three types of participants at intersections: vehicles, drivers, and pedestrians. This paper emphasizes on techniques which are strong candidates for automation with visual sensing technology. A new behavior and safety classification is presented based on key features used for intersection design, planning, and safety. In addition, performance metrics are introduced to evaluate different studies, and insights are provided regarding the state of the art, inputs, algorithms, challenges, and shortcomings.
Autors: Mohammad Shokrolah Shirazi;Brendan Tran Morris;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 4 - 24
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Looking Forward [President's Column]
Abstract:
Presents the President's message for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Ke Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 8 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low Complexity Automatic Modulation Classification Based on Order-Statistics
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose three automatic modulation classification classifiers based on order-statistics and reduced order-statistics, where the order-statistics are the random variables sorted by ascending order and the reduced order-statistics represent a subset of the original order-statistics. Specifically, the linear support vector machine classifier applies the linear combination of the order-statistics of the received signals, while the approximate maximum likelihood and the backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs) classifier resort to the reduced order-statistics to decrease the computational complexity. Moreover, BPNN is applicable for modulation classification both in known and unknown channel scenarios. It is shown that in the known channel scenario, the proposed classifiers provide a good tradeoff between performance and computational complexity, while in the unknown channel scenario, the proposed BPNN classifier outperforms the expectation maximization classifier in terms of both classification performance and computational complexity. Simulations results are provided to evaluate the proposed classifiers.
Autors: Lubing Han;Feifei Gao;Zan Li;Octavia A. Dobre;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 400 - 411
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low Complexity Message Passing-Based Receiver Design for Wiener Phase-Noise Channels
Abstract:
This letter concerns low complexity receiver design for Wiener phase-noise channels, where the variance of the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is unknown. By representing the system with a factor graph, both the variational message passing and the sum-product message passing are used to achieve efficient joint decoding, phase noise estimation, and AWGN precision (the reciprocal of AWGN variance) estimation. Compared with the state-of-the-art receiver, the proposed receiver is able to achieve the same performance with much lower complexity.
Autors: Wei Wang;Yuanyuan Zhang;Zhongyong Wang;Qinghua Guo;Jiangtao Xi;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 88 - 91
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low Computational Complexity Model Reduction of Power Systems With Preservation of Physical Characteristics
Abstract:
A data-driven algorithm recently proposed to solve the problem of model reduction by moment matching is extended to multi-input, multi-output systems. The algorithm is exploited for the model reduction of large-scale interconnected power systems and it offers, simultaneously, a low computational complexity approximation of the moments and the possibility to easily enforce constraints on the reduced order model. This advantage is used to preserve selected slow and poorly damped modes. The preservation of these modes has been shown to be important from a physical point of view and in obtaining an overall good approximation. The problem of the choice of the so-called tangential directions is also analyzed. The algorithm and the resulting reduced order model are validated with the study of the dynamic response of the NETS-NYPS benchmark system (68-Bus, 16-Machine, 5-Area) to multiple fault scenarios.
Autors: Giordano Scarciotti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 743 - 752
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low Frequency Excess Noise Source Investigation of Off-Diagonal GMI-Based Magnetometers
Abstract:
The equivalent magnetic noise spectral densities of off-diagonal giant magnetoimpedance (GMI)-based magnetometers exhibit significant low-frequency excess noise, proportional to noise. As it represents a serious limitation to the ultimate sensing performances of high sensitivity magnetometers, possible sources of this noise are under investigation. Low-frequency magnetization fluctuations have been proposed as the noise source in the case of classical GMI-based sensors. Here, we apply this model to off-diagonal GMI-based magnetometers. This requires the inclusion of magnetization fluctuation noise sources, in addition to white noise sources from electronic conditioning in the GMI effect equations. A pessimistic scenario is presented, predicting the upper limit of low-frequency excess noise from material characteristics. The equivalent magnetic noise level is then computed from the sensitivity of each term of the sensing element impedance matrix to the magnetization angle at the static working point (for both axial and circumferential static magnetic field) and to conditioning circuitry. Based on this, it appears that magnetization fluctuations similarly affect all modes of operation of the two-port network sensing element, inducing identical impedance fluctuations. It also appears that this noise depends only upon the static equilibrium condition. This condition is governed by the effective anisotropy of the magnetic wire and by both axial and circumferential static components of the working point.
Autors: B. Dufay;E. Portalier;S. Saez;C. Dolabdjian;D. Seddaoui;A. Yelon;D. Ménard;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low Store Power High-Speed High-Density Nonvolatile SRAM Design With Spin Hall Effect-Driven Magnetic Tunnel Junctions
Abstract:
As static power caused by leakage currents has become a critical challenge for the CMOS technology power-gating techniques, which employ nonvolatile data retention circuits, e.g., nonvolatile static random-access memory (NV-SRAM) are expected to efficiently solve this challenge. One of the key features of NV-SRAM is to utilize nonvolatile devices, such as resistive RAM, phase change memory, and magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), to store the runtime data when system is in the standby power-off state. Among them, MTJ-based NV-SRAM is widely considered as the most potential candidate in high-speed, low-power, and high-reliability applications, thanks to the advantageous features of the MTJ devices, such as fast data store/restore operation, low critical writing current density, and high endurance. In this paper, we propose a novel NV-SRAM design with spin Hall effect (SHE)-driven MTJ devices. In specific, two embodiments are designed based on the magnetic anisotropy property (i.e., in-plane or perpendicular) of the MTJ device. Using our previously developed SHE-MTJ model and a CMOS design kit, circuit operation and performance of the proposed NV-SRAM designs were demonstrated at the 40-nm technology node. Simulation results show that our proposed NV-SRAM design achieves performance improvement in terms of power, delay, and area, compared with conventional designs.
Autors: Wang Kang;Weifeng Lv;Youguang Zhang;Weisheng Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 148 - 154
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low Temperature Fabrication of Chalcogenide Microsphere Resonators for Thermal Sensing
Abstract:
We report microsphere resonators fabricated with a gallium germanium antimony sulfide (2S2G) chalcogenide glass and demonstrate whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in the wavelength range of 1.65–. Typical quality factors ( factors) measured with 2S2G microspheres fabricated in our lab are approximately . Compared with other chalcogenide glasses used in microsphere resonators, this 2S2G glass has a lower melting temperature and a higher characteristic temperature, and therefore, the fabrication temperature in the sphere-forming process can be reduced and the crystallization problem can be mitigated. We also demonstrate apparent shifts of resonant peaks in the measured WGMs as the environmental temperature varies, implying that these 2S2G microspheres can be used as compact temperature sensors. The thermal sensitivity measured with a 108.52--diameter 2S2G microsphere is 28 pm/°C.
Autors: Zhengsheng Yang;Yuehao Wu;Xingdi Zhang;Wei Zhang;Peipeng Xu;Shixun Dai;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 66 - 69
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Complexity Adaptive Sonar Imaging
Abstract:
We have studied the low-complexity adaptive (LCA) beamformer in active sonar imaging. LCA can be viewed as either a simplification of the minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamformer, or as an adaptive extension to the delay-and-sum (DAS) beamformer. While both LCA and MVDR attempt to minimize the power of noise and interference in the image, MVDR achieves this by computing optimal array weights from the spatial statistics of the wavefield, while LCA selects the best performing weights out of a predefined set. To build confidence in the LCA method, we show that a robust MVDR implementation typically creates weight sets with shapes spanning between a rectangular and Hamming window function. We let LCA select from a set of Kaiser windows with responses in this span, and add some steered variations of each. We limit the steering to roughly half the −-dB width of the window's amplitude response. Using experimental data from the Kongsberg Maritime HISAS1030 sonar we find that LCA and MVDR produce nearly identical images of large scenes, both being superior to DAS. On point targets LCA is able to double the resolution compared to DAS, or provide half that of MVDR. This performance is achieved with a total of six windows: the rectangular window and the Kaiser window with , in an unsteered version, and versions that are left and right steered to the steering limit. Slightly smoother images are produced if the window count is increased to 15, but past this we observe minimal difference. Finally, we show that LCA works just as well if Kaiser windows are substituted with trigonometric ones. All our observations and experiences point to LCA being very easy to understand and manage. It simply works, and is surprisingly insensitive to the exact type of window function, stee- ing amount, or number of windows. It can be efficiently implemented on parallel hardware, and handles any scene without the need for parameter adjustments.
Autors: Jo Inge Buskenes;Roy Edgar Hansen;Andreas Austeng;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 42, issue:1, pages: 87 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Complexity Belief-Propagation Decoding via Dynamic Silent-Variable-Node-Free Scheduling
Abstract:
This letter presents a low-complexity scheduling scheme, referred to as the dynamic silent-variable-node-free scheduling (D-SVNFS) scheme, for the sequential belief propagation decoding of LDPC code. The D-SVNFS regulates the dynamic propagation of message updates based on the check-to-variable message residuals. To determine the next message update, it computes the on-demand message residuals and selects the largest one associated with the last updated variable and check nodes. In addition, the D-SVNFS attempts to propagate more message updates toward the erroneous variable nodes, trying to correct them with higher priority. It is shown that the proposed scheduling reduces the BP decoding complexity by up to 70% compared with prior-art SVNF scheme, without affecting the error-rate performance, at medium to high signal-to-noise ratio over the BI-AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels.
Autors: Chaudhry Adnan Aslam;Yong Liang Guan;Kui Cai;Guojun Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 28 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Cost CWDM Transceiver Module by Spatial Power Combination and Division for Multimode Fiber Links
Abstract:
A cost-effective coarse wavelength division multiplexing optical sub-assembly (OSA) for short-distance optical interconnection is proposed and fabricated. Filter-free transmitter multiplexing is demonstrated by a spatial power combination of multiple-wavelength laser outputs into a fiber. As a result, the OSA is constructed with a reduced burden in optical alignment and packaging owing to the small number of optical elements and large alignment tolerance. Data transmission with a bit rate of 6 Gb/s is achieved through a 100-m-long multimode fiber. No significant degradation of eye patterns is observed during the transmission, and a bit error rate below is attained with the proposed module.
Autors: Hee Dae Kim;Il Kim;Hyun-Sik Lee;Jeong-Beom Yoon;Hyun-Kuk Shin;Sang-Wan Ryu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 39 - 42
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Cost Narrowed Dielectric Microstrip Line— A Three-Layer Dielectric Waveguide Using PCB Technology for Millimeter-Wave Applications
Abstract:
We investigated a dielectric transmission line consisting of three dielectric substrate layers for millimeter-wave (mmW) applications. This line is referred to as a narrowed dielectric microstrip line (N-DML). The effective dielectric constant method is used to analyze the propagation characteristics of the N-DML. The result of the analysis of the normalized phase constant is consistent with the simulation. For demonstration, two -band N-DML prototypes of different lengths with transitions to rectangular waveguides were designed, fabricated, and measured. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results is observed. In particular, due to its nonmetal structure, the N-DML shows a low average attenuation constant of only 0.52 dB/cm over 220–280 GHz in the experiment. Due to its good performance, ease of fabrication, low loss, and low cost, the N-DML is a suitable candidate for various mmW applications.
Autors: Hao-Tian Zhu;Quan Xue;Shao-Wei Liao;Stella W. Pang;Leung Chiu;Qing-Yuan Tang;Xing-Hai Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 119 - 127
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Frequency Common-Mode Voltage Control for Systems Interconnected With Power Converters
Abstract:
In this paper, an active common-mode (CM) duty cycle injection method is proposed to control the dc and low-frequency CM voltage in grounded systems interconnected by power converters. Specifically, a 380-V dc nanogrid and a single-phase ac distribution system interfaced with a transformerless ac–dc converter is considered. In such architecture, the ac and dc CM quantities are coupled through the ground; while the high-frequency noise is filtered by passive components, the dc and low-frequency CM voltage need be controlled to generate symmetric dc-bus voltages and effectively mitigate the ground leakage current. Using a two-stage bidirectional ac–dc converter as an example, the operating range of the proposed method is identified under different ac and dc voltages and alternative grounding schemes. Further, a CM equivalent circuit is derived and experimentally validated, and used to design the controller of the proposed control system. Experiments with resistive and constant power loads in rectification and regeneration modes are used to validate the performance and stability of the control method. As a result, the dc-bus voltages are rendered symmetric with respect to ground, and the leakage current is suppressed. Finally, the control method is generalized to three-phase ac–dc converters for larger power systems.
Autors: Fang Chen;Rolando Burgos;Dushan Boroyevich;Xuning Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 873 - 882
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Frequency Noise Characteristics in SONOS Flash Memory With Vertically Stacked Nanowire FETs
Abstract:
Low-frequency (LF) noise in a vertically stacked nanowire (VS-NW) memory device, which is based on the silicon–oxide–nitride–oxide–silicon (SONOS) configuration is characterized in two different operational modes, an inversion-mode and a junctionless-mode (JM). The LF noise showed 1/–shape behavior regardless of the operational mode and followed the carrier number fluctuation model. With regard to the device-to-device variation and quality degradation of the LF noise after iterative program/erase operations, the five-story JM SONOS memory showed comparatively high immunity arising from its inherent bulk conduction and no-junction feature. Despite the harsh fabrication condition used to construct five-story VS-NW, even the five-story JM SONOS memory exhibited LF noise characteristics comparable to those of one-story JM SONOS memory. Thus, the five-story JM SONOS memory is attractive due to its high-performance capabilities and good scalability.
Autors: Tewook Bang;Byung-Hyun Lee;Choong-Ki Kim;Dae-Chul Ahn;Seung-Bae Jeon;Min-Ho Kang;Jae-Sub Oh;Yang-Kyu Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 40 - 43
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Loss MMICs Viable Transmission Media for GaN-on-Low Resistivity Silicon Technology
Abstract:
In this work a novel ultra-low loss transmission media for RF GaN-on-low-resistivity silicon (LR-Si) substrates (cm) has been successfully demonstrated. The developed shielded-microstrip lines achieve comparable performance to those on semi-insulating (SI) GaAs substrates with transmission loss of 0.9 dB/mm for frequencies up to 67 GHz. Line performance was further enhanced by additional elevation of the shielded-microstrip lines using air-bridge technology above a layer of benzocyclobutene (BCB) on shielded metalized ground planes. Transmission loss of 0.6 dB/mm for frequencies up to 67 GHz was obtained as a result of the extra elevation. Structure parameters were designed and optimized based on EM simulation for best performance. The work shows that the RF energy coupled into the substrate was eliminated, indicating the suitability of III-V-on-LR Si technology for millimeter-wave applications.
Autors: A. Eblabla;B. Benakaprasad;X. Li;D. J. Wallis;I. Guiney;K. Elgaid;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 10 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Noise Single-Frequency 1.5- $mu$ m Fiber Laser With a Complex Optical-Feedback Loop
Abstract:
A low-noise narrow-linewidth distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) single frequency 1.5- fiber laser with a complex optical-feedback loop (COFL) is demonstrated. The COFL is used to reduce the relative intensity noise (RIN) and narrow the linewidth, which is composed of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), an unpumped Er80 fiber and a sagnac loop mirror. The COFL combines the nonlinear amplification effect of saturated optical amplifiers, the standing-wave saturation effects of saturable absorber (SA), and the self-injection locking technology at the same time. The effects of self-injection locking give a sufficient proof, which the RIN is reduced and the resonance peak shifts to lower frequency. The RIN of low frequency is greatly reduced by the EDFA. In addition, the SA narrows the linewidth. After the COFL suppression, the RIN of relaxation oscillation is reduced by 24.5 dB from 80.3 dB/Hz at 219 kHz to 104.8 dB/Hz at 87 kHz. Furthermore, the linewidth narrows from 7.47 kHz to 720 Hz. Even after two-stage fiber amplification, the RIN does not increase significantly, and a spectral linewidth well below 1.8 kHz is also achieved at the output power of 11.1 W.
Autors: Qian Zhang;Yubin Hou;Shuxian Qi;Pu Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 193 - 196
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-PAPR Spatial Modulation for SC-FDMA
Abstract:
Although spatial modulation (SM) presents an attractive multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) technique, it increases peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) on all transmit antennas when applied directly to single-carrier frequency-division multiple access (SC-FDMA). Therefore, we propose an SM modification, which is called low-PAPR SM (LPSM), to preserve the low PAPR level of SC-FDMA and to achieve the benefits of SM. In addition, as the optimal maximum-likelihood detection (MLD) receiver has a very high computational complexity when applied to SC-FDMA system, we observed suboptimal receivers for SC-FDMA with LPSM. In addition to low-complexity linear receivers, we proposed and analyzed two receivers: near-MLD and improved minimum mean square error (iMMSE) receivers. The near-MLD receiver achieves performance very near to MLD with significantly lower complexity, whereas the iMMSE receiver presents a tradeoff between MLD and linear receivers in terms of performance and complexity.
Autors: Darko Sinanović;Gordan Šišul;Borivoj Modlic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 443 - 454
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Profile Dual-Band Filtering Patch Antenna and Its Application to LTE MIMO System
Abstract:
This paper presents a low-profile dual-band filtering antenna element and its application to long-term evolution (LTE) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system for wireless customer premise equipments (CPEs). The proposed element consists of two separate U-shaped patches operating at different frequencies and a multistub microstrip feed line. For size miniaturization, the smaller U-shaped patch is embedded in the larger one. In addition, the multistub feed line can generate two controllable resonant modes as well as two nulls in realized gain at the boresight direction. Since the modes of the patches and multistub feed line can be controlled individually, the two operating bands can be tuned to desired frequencies. Also, the radiation nulls in boresight gain can be controlled, high roll-off rate and out-of-band radiation rejection levels are thus obtained. For demonstration, a low profile ( dual-band filtering antenna element operating at 1.9 and 2.6 GHz for TD-LTE applications (B39- and B38-bands) is implemented. Dual-band bandpass responses and four radiation nulls are observed in the experiment. Measured in-band gains are 6.7 and 7.3 dBi, whereas out-of-band gains are less than −10 dBi. Based on this element, a four-element MIMO antenna is further designed for LTE CPEs, where low profile and high integration of multiple components are required. A low mutual coupling of less than −19.2 dB and the low envelope correlation coefficients of better than 0.2 are obtained with a small edge-to-edge spacing of .
Autors: Xiu Yin Zhang;Yao Zhang;Yong-Mei Pan;Wen Duan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 103 - 113
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Resistive High-Work-Function Gate Electrode for Transparent a-IGZO TFTs
Abstract:
Highly transparent and low-resistive multilayered gate electrodes, MoO3/indium–tin oxide (ITO)/Ag/ZnS (MIAZ) playing as the high-work-function layer, the nonreactive interface layer, the lateral conduction layer, and the index-matching layer, respectively, have been investigated for the application to the transparent oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). The transmittance of the optimized MIAZ electrode is 92.46% and the sheet resistance is . The top gate InGaZnO TFT with this gate electrode shows the mobility of 11.57 cm2/() and positive of 0.210 V compared with that with single ITO gate electrode of which is −0.086 V.
Autors: Woo Jae Jang;Myung Keun Lee;Jinhan Yoo;Eungtaek Kim;Dae Young Yang;Junhong Park;Jeong Woo Park;Sang-Hee Ko Park;Kyung Cheol Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 164 - 169
Publisher: IEEE
 
» LP-W- $ell _{infty }$ -SVD Algorithm for Direction-of-Arrival Estimation
Abstract:
This paper presents an effective direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation method based on a new computation method of the -norm for a complex matrix. Making use of the new computation method of the -norm, the DOA estimation problem can be efficiently formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem. Thus, the proposed method can effectively give the DOA estimation by finding the sparse coefficients which are obtained by solving the LP problem. Except for the first singular value decomposition of the data matrix, the proposed method is effectively implemented in the light of the LP theory based on real-valued computation. It avoids solving the complicated second-order cone programming problem. Furthermore, it can primely suppress spurious peaks in DOA estimation. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the presented approach.
Autors: Fulai Liu;Ruiyan Du;Yajian Cheng;Zhenxing Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 428 - 433
Publisher: IEEE
 
» LTE/LTE-A Random Access for Massive Machine-Type Communications in Smart Cities
Abstract:
Massive MTC over cellular networks is expected to be an integral part of wireless smart city applications. The LTE/LTE-A technology is a major candidate for provisioning of MTC applications. However, due to the diverse characteristics of payload size, transmission periodicity, power efficiency, and QoS requirement, MTC poses huge challenges to LTE/LTE-A technologies. In particular, efficient management of massive random access is one of the most critical challenges. In the case of massive random access attempts, the probability of preamble collision drastically increases, and thus the performance of LTE/LTE-A random access degrades sharply. In this context, this article reviews the current state-of-the-art proposals to control massive random access of MTC devices in LTE/LTE-A networks. The proposals are compared in terms of five major metrics: access delay, access success rate, power efficiency, QoS guarantee, and the effect on HTC. To this end, we propose a novel collision resolution random access model for massive MTC over LTE/LTE-A. Our proposed model basically resolves the preamble collisions instead of avoidance and targets the management of massive and bursty access attempts. Simulations of our proposed model show huge improvements in random access success rate compared to the standard slotted-Aloha- based models. The new model can also coexist with existing LTE/LTE-A MAC protocol and ensure high reliability and time-efficient network access.
Autors: Md Shipon Ali;Ekram Hossain;Dong In Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 76 - 83
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Luminescence of Polymethyl Methacrylate Excited by a Runaway Electron Beam and by a KrCl Excilamp
Abstract:
This paper reports an experimental study of luminescence excited in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by a runaway electron beam and by a KrCl excilamp with a wavelength of 222 nm. It is shown that the major contributor to the luminescence of PMMA in both cases is a luminescence band with a maximum intensity at ~490 nm. Based on experiments with the excilamp, it is supposed that Cherenkov radiation with a wavelength shorter than 300 nm is bound to increase the intensity of this band. The luminescence intensity at ~490 nm varies proportionally with the number of beam electrons, allowing the use of this radiation to determine the number of high-energy electrons in electron beams. In PMMA with high absorption at 300–400 nm, one more luminescence band with a maximum intensity at ~400 nm is observed. It is confirmed that in gas diodes at a pressure of 760 torr, the intensity of Cherenkov radiation against the background of luminescence is low and undetectable.
Autors: Victor F. Tarasenko;Evgenii Kh. Baksht;Alexander G. Burachenko;Dmitry V. Beloplotov;Andrey V. Kozyrev;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 76 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Lyapunov Function and Sliding Mode Control Approach for the Solar-PV Grid Interface System
Abstract:
This paper deals with control of a solar-photovoltaic (PV) power-generating system interfaced with the grid. A sliding mode control approach is used for achieving maximum power tracking control of a solar-PV array. The Lyapunov function-based control approach is designed and modeled for the dc–ac inverter to serve the functions of an active power injection to the grid, balanced grid currents at unity power factor and load currents harmonics compensation. The proposed approaches eliminate the need of adjustment of system parameters under changing loads and generation scenario. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategies is established using its stability analyses. The performance of the solar-PV power-generating system with the proposed control algorithms is demonstrated using simulation and experimental studies under various operating conditions.
Autors: Miloud Rezkallah;Shailendra Kumar Sharma;Ambrish Chandra;Bhim Singh;Daniel R. Rousse;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 785 - 795
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magnetic Properties and Defects of Fe-Ni-Based Magnetic Microwires
Abstract:
We studied the magnetic properties and domain wall (DW) dynamics of Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2 and Fe77.5Si7.5B15 microwires. Both samples present a rectangular hysteresis loop and fast magnetization switching. The linear region of dependence of the DW velocity on the magnetic field in Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2 sample is considerably shorter. Consequently, we studied the structure of Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2 sample using X-ray diffraction and atom probe tomography. The results obtained using the atom probe tomography supports the formation of B-enriched precipitates in the interfacial layer and in the metallic nucleus after annealing.
Autors: V. Zhukova;O. A. Korchuganova;A. A. Aleev;V. V. Tcherdyntsev;M. Churyukanova;E. V. Medvedeva;S. Seils;J. Wagner;M. Ipatov;A. Talaat;J. M. Blanco;S. D. Kaloshkin;A. Aronin;G. Abrosimova;A. Zhukov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magneto-Gyro Wearable Sensor Algorithm for Trunk Sway Estimation During Walking and Running Gait
Abstract:
Trunk sway is a critical gait parameter associated with walking stability and joint loading. This paper introduces a novel algorithm to estimate trunk sway based on magnetometer and gyroscope sensor fusion. An initial experiment was performed to determine the optimal placement of the wearable sensor device on the back and a second experiment was performed to characterize the accuracy of the algorithm. Ten human subjects walked, fast walked, and ran on a treadmill with normal, slightly increased or significantly increased trunk sway. Subjects wore a single magneto-inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a standard set of reflective motion-capture markers on their back. Magneto-gyro algorithm trunk sway estimations were compared with estimations from other common wearable sensor algorithms and errors were determined via comparison with trunk sway measured from motion capture. Overall, the magneto-gyro algorithm was the most accurate (RMSE = 1.7 ± 0.7°) followed by algorithms based on a single three-axis magnetometer (RMSE = 2.5 ± 1.8°), IMU gradient descent (RMSE = 2.9 ± 3.4°), a single three-axis gyroscope (RMSE = 3.2 ± 2.4°), magneto-IMU Kalman filter (RMSE = 8.5 ± 5.5°), and a single accelerometer (RMSE = 16.7 ± 11.2°). Optimal placement of a wearable sensor for estimating trunk sway was along the spine between the – vertebrae. The presented algorithm based on magnetometer and gyroscope sensor fusion could enable more precise trunk sensing for clinical gait appl cations outside the laboratory.
Autors: Peter B. Shull;Junkai Xu;Bo Yu;Xiangyang Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 480 - 486
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Making Sense of the Internet of Things
Abstract:
Welcome to this inaugural department focused on the Internet of Things! Learn how IoT got started, what's ahead, and how IoT News can help you stay on top of emerging developments in this growing field as it moves beyond its visionary promises.
Autors: Florian Michahelles;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 5 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Making Wireless Body Area Networks Robust Under Cross-Technology Interference
Abstract:
Wireless body area networks (BANs) demand high-quality service. However, as BANs will be widely deployed in densely populated areas, they inevitably face RF cross-technology interference (CTI) from non-protocol-compliant wireless devices operating in the same spectrum range. The main challenges to defending against such a strong CTI come from the scarcity of spectrum resources, the uncertainty of the CTI sources and BAN channel status, and the stringent hardware constraints. In this paper, we first experimentally characterize the adverse effect on BAN reliability caused by the non-protocol-compliant CTI. Then, we formulate a joint routing and power control (JRPC) problem, which aims at minimizing energy consumption under strong CTI while satisfying node reachability and delay constraints. We reformulate our problem into a mixed integer linear programing problem and then derive the optimal results through IBM’s CPLEX. A practical protocol, including a heuristic JRPC algorithm, is then proposed, in which we address the challenge of fast link-quality measurement by proposing a passive link-quality estimation and prediction method. Through experiments and simulations, we show that our protocol can assure the robustness of BAN even when the CTI sources are in very close vicinity, using a small amount of energy on commercial-off-the-shelf sensor devices.
Autors: Yantian Hou;Ming Li;Shucheng Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 429 - 440
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Margin-Based Framework for Online Contingency Selection in Unbalanced Networks
Abstract:
A framework for performing fast online contingency selection in unbalanced power systems is presented in this paper. Selection methods are typically based on the principle of identifying the effect of contingencies on multiple normalized performance indices and ranking them using the results. Presently used performance indices are highly nonlinear and they are known to mask the effects of single contingencies leading to misclassifications. In this paper, we propose two new methods, one relying on margin-based performance indices and another based on state sensitivity. New performance indices are proposed based on margins of 1) circuit loading, 2) bus voltages, and 3) reactive power. In addition, a state sensitivity method is proposed which estimates a system's post contingency operating state via a single iteration of the quadratized power flow model and provides estimates of post contingency line loading, bus voltages, and reactive power levels. Numerical experiments on a three phase version of the IEEE Reliability Test System show that the proposed performance indices yield more accurate results, at a computational cost comparable to a single power flow iteration. The state sensitivity method is more accurate in identifying critical contingencies but its computational cost is higher. The method has been also demonstrated in the larger PEGASE systems.
Autors: Evangelos Polymeneas;A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 30 - 38
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Massive Multiple Access Based on Superposition Raptor Codes for Cellular M2M Communications
Abstract:
Machine-to-machine (M2M) wireless systems aim to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machine-type communication (MTC) devices without any human intervention. Given the exponential growth of MTC traffic, it is of utmost importance to ensure that future wireless standards are capable of handling this traffic. In this paper, we focus on the design of a very efficient massive access strategy for highly dense cellular networks with M2M communications. Several MTC devices are allowed to simultaneously transmit in the same resource block by incorporating Raptor codes and a simple modulation scheme. This significantly reduces the access delay and improves the achievable system throughput. A simple yet efficient random access strategy is proposed to not only detect the selected preambles, but also estimate the number of devices which have chosen them. No device identification is needed in the random access phase which significantly reduces the signaling overhead. The proposed scheme is analyzed and the maximum number of MTC devices that can be supported in a resource block is characterized as a function of the message length, number of available resources, and the number of preambles. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively support a massive number of MTC devices for a limited number of available resources, when the message size is small.
Autors: Mahyar Shirvanimoghaddam;Mischa Dohler;Sarah J. Johnson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 307 - 319
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Matching Misaligned Two-Resolution Metrology Data
Abstract:
Multiresolution metrology devices coexist in today’s manufacturing environment, producing coordinate measurements complementing each other. Typically, the high-resolution (HR) device produces a scarce but accurate data set, whereas the low-resolution (LR) one produces a dense but less accurate data set. Research has shown that combining the two data sets of different resolutions makes better predictions of the geometric features of a manufactured part. A challenge, however, is how to effectively match each HR data point to an LR counterpart that measures approximately the same physical location. A solution to this matching problem appears a prerequisite to a good final prediction. We solved this problem by formulating it as a quadratic integer program, aiming at minimizing the maximum interpoint distance difference among all potential correspondences. Due to the combinatorial nature of the optimization model, solving it to optimality is computationally prohibitive even for a small problem size. We therefore propose a two-stage matching framework capable of solving real-life-sized problems within a reasonable amount of time. This two-stage framework consists of downsampling the full-size problem, solving the downsampled problem to optimality, extending the solution of the downsampled problem to the full-size problem, and refining the solution using iterative local search. Numerical experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms two popular point set registration alternatives, the iterative closest point and coherent point drift methods, using different performance metrics. The numerical results also show that our approach scales much better as the instance size increases, and is robust to the changes in initial misalignment between the two data sets.
Autors: Yaping Wang;Erick Moreno-Centeno;Yu Ding;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 222 - 237
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mathematical Modeling Based on Exergy Analysis for a Bagasse Boiler
Abstract:
In the methodology proposed for this work an exergy analysis of a modern bagasse boiler, which operates as the main equipment of a cogeneration plant of 34 MW of a sugar mill north of the department of Valle del Cauca (Colombia) is performed. In this analysis the boiler is divided into seven blocks or functional units, which have their own operating conditions linked to the performance of the steam generator. Second Law balances can estimate the irreversibility in each of the defined blocks and, when added together these, total losses and exergy efficiency in the steam generator are obtained. The mathematical model developed allows, among other things, collating the values of temperatures of combustion gases through each heat exchange equipment from the actual data boiler. In addition, together with exergy analysis, the model allows a parallel with energy analysis. In this model, an important relationship with continuous boiler blowdown found. This is directly related to the quality of feed water and boiler operation, if these values come out of defined control, a considerable loss of efficiency occurs.
Autors: Ducardo Leon Molina;Juan Ricardo Vidal;Felix Gonzalez;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 65 - 74
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Maximum a Posterior and Perceptually Motivated Reconstruction Algorithm: A Generic Framework
Abstract:
Most of the existing image reconstruction algorithms are application specific, and have generalization issues due to the need for parameter tuning and an unknown level of signal distortion. Addressing these problems, in this paper, we propose an efficient perceptually motivated and maximum a posterior (MAP)-based generic framework for image reconstruction. This can be applied to several image/video processing applications, where there is a necessity to improve reconstruction accuracy and suppress visible artifacts, such as denoising, deinterlacing, interpolation, de-blocking of Jpeg/Jpeg-2000, and demosaicing. The gradient magnitudes are noise insensitive to a moderate levels of noise and we propose to utilize this property for finding pixels with similar edge semantics in the neighborhood when neighboring pixels are noisy. With this view, we incorporate the gradient magnitude similarity based image quality assessment metric with the MAP estimation and, in turn, it can better approximate the variance of the MAP, as compared to nonlinear filters. The proposed generic algorithm (without manually tuning any parameters) is shown to produce a better quality of reconstruction when compared to the state-of-the-art application-specific algorithms, for most of the image processing applications.
Autors: Vinit Jakhetiya;Weisi Lin;Sunil P. Jaiswal;Sharath Chandra Guntuku;Oscar C. Au;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 93 - 106
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Maximum Torque-per-Amp Control for Traction IM Drives: Theory and Experimental Results
Abstract:
A novel maximum torque per Ampere (MTPA) controller for the induction motor (IM) drives is presented. It is shown to be highly suited to applications that do not demand an extremely fast dynamic response, for example, electric vehicle drives. The proposed MTPA field oriented controller guarantees asymptotic torque (speed) tracking of smooth reference trajectories and maximizes the torque per Ampere ratio when the developed torque is constant or slow varying. An output-feedback linearizing concept is employed for the design of torque and flux subsystems to compensate for the torque-dependent flux variations required to satisfy the MTPA condition. As a first step, a linear approximation of the IM magnetic system is considered. Then, based on a standard saturated IM model, the nonlinear MTPA relationship for the rotor flux are derived as a function of the desired torque, and a modified torque–flux controller for the saturated machine is developed. The static and dynamic flux reference calculation methods to achieve simultaneously an asymptotic field orientation, a torque–flux decoupling, and an MTPA optimization in a steady state, is proposed. The method guarantees a singularity free operation and can be used as means to improve stator current transients. Experimental tests prove the accuracy of the control over a full torque range and show successful compensation of the magnetizing inductance variations caused by saturation. The proposed MTPA control algorithm also demonstrates a decoupling of the torque (speed) and flux dynamics to ensure asymptotic torque tracking. In addition, a higher torque per Ampere ratio is achieved together with an improved efficiency of electromechanical energy conversion.
Autors: Serhiy Bozhko;Serhii Dymko;Serhii Kovbasa;Sergei M. Peresada;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 181 - 193
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Measurement of Core Losses in Electrical Steel in the Saturation Region under DC Bias Conditions
Abstract:
This paper presents a method to measure and determine core losses in electrical steel for high flux densities under dc bias conditions for electric machine applications. Test conditions require ac flux on top of dc flux, which can saturate the system. It is desirable to have a test system that would generate high flux densities without increasing the size of the ac power supply. We propose an innovative core tester that can handle the power requirements of the magnetic circuit formed by the test specimen. The dc and ac operating requirements of the magnetic circuits are separated and individual components are combined in such a way that a dc bias is provided from the slowly varying high-power component and the ac field is supplied by the low-power high-bandwidth component. The proposed topology consists of ac and dc blocker filters that provide separate pathways for the ac and dc currents. Circuit simulations and experimental test results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.
Autors: Burak Tekgun;Yilmaz Sozer;Igor Tsukerman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 88 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes
Abstract:
Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Nevine Demitri;Abdelhak M. Zoubir;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 28 - 39
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Measuring the Orbital Angular Momentum State of Light by Coordinate Transformation
Abstract:
We present a method to measure the orbital angular momentum (OAM) state of light by coordinate transformation. The input OAM mode with annular shape is uniaxially compressed into a linear-shaped light, so that the upper and lower portions of OAM mode overlap to produce an interference pattern, showing easily recognizable fringes both in the near field and far field. The far-field measurement is more suitable for detecting large OAM but with the cost of additional diffractive element. The incident light can illuminate any position of the device, showing good tolerance to adjust the optical path. In a practical application, the proposed scheme can be realized only by one or two elliptical lenses, which provides a convenient and economic method for measurement of OAM state.
Autors: Hailong Zhou;Jianji Dong;Jian Wang;Shimao Li;Xinlun Cai;Siyuan Yu;Xinliang Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 86 - 89
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mechanical Properties Tunability of Three-Dimensional Polymeric Structures in Two-Photon Lithography
Abstract:
Two-photon (2P) lithography shows great potential for the fabrication of three-dimensional (3-D) micro- and nanomechanical elements, for applications ranging from microelectromechanical systems to tissue engineering, by virtue of its high resolution (<100 nm) and biocompatibility of the photosensitive resists. However, there is a considerable lack of quantitative data on mechanical properties of materials for 2P lithography and of structures obtained through this technique. In this paper, we combined static and dynamic mechanical analysis on purpose-designed microstructures (microbending of pillar-like structures and picometer-sensitive laser Doppler vibrometry of drum-like structures) to viably and nondestructively estimate Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and density of materials for 2P lithography. This allowed us to analyze several polymeric photoresists, including acrylates and epoxy-based materials. The experiments reveal that the 2P exposure power is a key parameter to define the stiffness of the realized structures, with hyperelasticity clearly observable for high-power polymerization. In the linear elastic regime, some of the investigated materials are characterized by a quasi-linear dependence of Young's modulus on the used exposure power, a yet unknown behavior that adds a new degree of freedom to engineer complex 3-D micro- and nanomechanical elements.
Autors: Enrico Domenico Lemma;Francesco Rizzi;Tommaso Dattoma;Barbara Spagnolo;Leonardo Sileo;Antonio Qualtieri;Massimo De Vittorio;Ferruccio Pisanello;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 23 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Medium-Term Probabilistic Forecasting of Electricity Prices: A Hybrid Approach
Abstract:
This paper provides a focus upon forecasting electricity prices in the medium term (from a few weeks to several months ahead) in which accurate estimates of tail risks, e.g., at the 1%, 5%, 95%, and 99%, are important. Medium term forecasting and risk analysis are important for operational scheduling, fuel purchasing, trading, and profit management. We extend the research on hybrid forecasting methods, which link detailed fundamental price formation models, using optimization techniques and market equilibrium considerations, with econometric recalibration to the time series data. This paper is innovative in its use of quantile regression to undertake the recalibration and provide accurate risk estimates. It is shown that probabilistic outputs from the fundamental model add value over expected value inputs to the quantile regressions and that if the fundamental model is itself well specified to diurnal variation through the inclusion of relevant explanatory variables such as demand or climatic conditions, then it is not necessary to undertake the quantile regressions separately for each hour of the day. A real application of the proposed methodology is successfully tested on the Spanish electric power system, in which the high penetration of intermittent wind generation creates extreme price risks. The hybrid method outperforms the more conventional fundamental model, making particular use of wind generation data in the quantile recalibrations.
Autors: Antonio Bello;Derek W. Bunn;Javier Reneses;Antonio Muñoz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 334 - 343
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Message From the Incoming Editor-in-Chief
Abstract:
It was a great honor when the Antennas and Propagation Society President Prof. Michael A. Jensen informed me that I was selected by the Administrative Committee (AdCom) of the Antennas and Propagation Society (APS) as the next Editor-in-Chief (EiC) of the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation (TAP), with an official start date of Aug. 1, 2016. I am thankful to everyone that supported my nomination and I will do my best to give my contribution to improve this Transactions.
Autors: Danilo Erricolo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 3 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Metallic Metasurfaces for Light Absorbers
Abstract:
Multi-band light perfect absorption by all-metal resonant structure is of particular interest for applications in a wide variety of technologies. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new strategy for achieving multi-band light absorber based on the metallic sub-wavelength structure, which consists of a hexagonally packed nanoring-nanodisk composite array on an opaque metal substrate. By introducing asymmetry to the nanoring-nanodisk hybrid system, new absorption bands emerge. The optical properties are enabled by strong plasmon resonances of the metallic resonators and their near-field coupling effects. Designing such nanostructures is a promising route for all-metal multi-band light absorption platform, which can be used as absorption filters, photo-thermal therapy, multispectral thermal emitters, and plasmonic biosensors.
Autors: Guolan Fu;Xiaoshan Liu;Zhenping Huang;Jian Chen;Zhengqi Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 47 - 50
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Method for the evaluation and classification of power transformer insulating oil based on physicochemical analyses
Abstract:
Power transformers are strategically important assets in the electric power system, because they enable electricity to be transmitted over long distances, with low power losses and voltage drops. Failures of these devices can cause unscheduled interruptions in the supply of electricity, resulting in major disruptions, impaired image of the companies responsible, including penalties imposed by the regulatory agency, and in worst case scenarios, irreparable breakdown of these assets. In this context, the degradation of the insulation system in a power transformer is one of the main causes of problems, which if not properly investigated and/or monitored, can lead to its forced removal from operation [1].
Autors: Andre Pereira Marques;Nicolas Kemerich de Moura;Yuri Andrade Dias;Cacilda de Jesus Ribeiro;Adson Silva Rocha;Leonardo da Cunha Brito;Claudio Henrique Bezerra Azevedo;Jose Augusto Lopes dos Santos;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 39 - 49
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Method to Determine the Root Cause of Low- $kappa$ SiCOH Dielectric Failure Distributions
Abstract:
Low- SiCOH reliability is a growing concern for integrated circuit reliability. An important consideration for product qualification involves the accurate extrapolation to the low percentile failures based on the results from a group of samples. A method is presented to determine the root cause of failure distributions amongst a group of dielectric samples using voltage ramp data. Samples’ leakage current traces and breakdown voltages are compared with each other. Using this method, it was determined that the dielectric spacing variation dominates across-wafer failure, while variation of local breakdown strength affects in-chip failure.
Autors: Sean P. Ogden;Kong Boon Yeap;Tian Shen;Patrick Justison;Toh-Ming Lu;Joel L. Plawsky;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 119 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Methods and Protocols: Engine for the Next Wave of Biomedical Ultrasound Innovations
Abstract:
At The heart of a vehicle’s operation is the engine. The same metaphoric relation applies between a research innovation and an experimental method. It is safe to say that innovations in biomedical ultrasonics cannot be materialized without foundational advances in experimental methods, tools, and protocols. Indeed, because biomedical ultrasonics naturally spans a diverse research space—thanks to its versatile applicability in both diagnostics and therapeutics—a broad range of investigative methods are correspondingly required to serve a multitude of experimental needs.
Autors: Alfred C. H. Yu;John A. Hossack;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 6 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Methods of Generating Submicrometer Phase-Shift Perfluorocarbon Droplets for Applications in Medical Ultrasonography
Abstract:
Continued advances in the field of ultrasound and ultrasound contrast agents have created new approaches to imaging and medical intervention. Phase-shift perfluorocarbon droplets, which can be vaporized by ultrasound energy to transition from the liquid to the vapor state, are one of the most highly researched alternatives to clinical ultrasound contrast agents (i.e., microbubbles). In this paper, part of a special issue on methods in biomedical ultrasonics, we survey current techniques to prepare ultrasound-activated nanoscale phase-shift perfluorocarbon droplets, including sonication, extrusion, homogenization, microfluidics, and microbubble condensation. We provide example protocols and discuss advantages and limitations of each approach. Finally, we discuss best practice in characterization of this class of contrast agents with respect to size distribution and ultrasound activation.
Autors: Paul S. Sheeran;Naomi Matsuura;Mark A. Borden;Ross Williams;Terry O. Matsunaga;Peter N. Burns;Paul A. Dayton;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 252 - 263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microservices in Practice, Part 1: Reality Check and Service Design
Abstract:
Service-oriented architecture (SOA) and microservices insiders Mike Amundsen, James Lewis, and Nicolai Josuttis share their experiences and predictions with department editors Cesare Pautasso and Olaf Zimmermann.
Autors: Cesare Pautasso;Olaf Zimmermann;Mike Amundsen;James Lewis;Nicolai Josuttis;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 91 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microstrip Filters With Enhanced Stopband Based on Lumped Bisected Pi-Sections With Parasitics
Abstract:
A procedure for improving the stopband response of planar bandpass filters is presented in this letter. The technique is based on the introduction of transmission zeros by using lumped-element bisected-pi sections at the filter input/output. As an example, a 3–pole 10% FBW bandpass filter with Chebyshev response centered at 1 GHz, based on strongly loaded combline microstrip resonators has been designed, manufactured and measured. The proposed solution can be used on any planar topology in order to improve the stopband performance with a negligible additional footprint.
Autors: Sandra Marín;Jorge D. Martínez;Clara I. Valero;Vicente E. Boria;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 19 - 21
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Migrating Unfairness Among Subflows in MPTCP With Network Coding for Wired–Wireless Networks
Abstract:
Recently, two new technologies have been introduced into the transport layer. One is network coding, and the other is multipath transmission control protocol (MPTCP). Network coding is introduced into the transport layer to enhance the performance of transmission control protocol (TCP) in wireless networks. Benefiting from multi-interface devices, MPTCP is proposed to make full use of the network resource. Theoretically, combining these two technologies can utilize resources more adequately. However, network coding and multipath transportation cannot collaborate well with each other because network coding invalidates the load-balancing feature of MPTCP congestion control schemes. In this paper, we first discuss the unfair congestion control issue in MPTCP combined with network coding (MPTCP/NC). Then, a new end-to-end congestion control solution, named Couple+, is presented to deal with the unfairness among subflows. In Couple+, sender tries to slightly slow down sending rate if the reason of packet loss is not decided. After judging of packet loss reason based on the characteristics of packet loss events, the rate will be recovered soon if the loss is caused by wireless error (wireless noise or collision) or be further reduced if the loss is caused by congestion. By simulation, we compare the performances of Couple+ and the previous congestion control scheme of MPTCP. The performance analysis proves that unfairness among subflows indeed exists, and our scheme can balance congestion among coded and noncoded subflows and can stay friendly with TCP flow.
Autors: Kaiping Xue;Jiangping Han;Hong Zhang;Ke Chen;Peilin Hong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 798 - 809
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Millimeter Wave Reflectometry and Imaging for Noninvasive Diagnosis of Skin Burn Injuries
Abstract:
Accurate assessment of the degree of burn in human skin is critically important for burn technicians and physicians when making treatment decisions. Millimeter wave reflectometry and imaging are potential diagnostic tools capable of distinguishing between healthy and burned skin, as the dielectric properties of the latter are significantly different from that of the former. In this paper, the commonly used layered model of human skin is used to simulate the reflection properties of skin with varying degrees of burn, at Ka-band (26.5–40 GHz), to demonstrate the potential for such diagnosis. Measurements of complex reflection coefficient are also conducted on a pigskin with and without medical dressing, which is a close mimic to human skin. Good agreement is obtained, in amplitude and variation trends in the reflection coefficient results, between simulation and measurement results, indicating the potential effectiveness and feasibility of burn degree diagnosis by localized millimeter wave reflectometry and complex reflection coefficient -Norm analysis. Finally, synthetic aperture radar imaging technique is used to examine the efficacy of imaging for burn wound at V-band (50–75 GHz). In addition, the effectiveness of localized and imaging methods for evaluating burns covered by medical dressings is also demonstrated.
Autors: Yuan Gao;Reza Zoughi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 77 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Millimeter-Wave Wireless Communications for IoT-Cloud Supported Autonomous Vehicles: Overview, Design, and Challenges
Abstract:
Autonomous vehicles are a rising technology in the near future to provide a safe and efficient transportation experience. Vehicular communication systems are indispensable components in autonomous vehicles to share road conditions in a wireless manner. With the exponential increase of traffic data, conventional wireless technologies preliminarily show their incompetence because of limited bandwidth. This article explores the capability of millimeter-wave communications for autonomous vehicles. As the next-generation wireless technology, mmWave is advanced in its multi-gigabit transmittability and beamforming technique. Based on these features, we propose the novel design of a vehicular mmWave system combining the advantages of the Internet of Things and cloud computing. This mmWave system supports vehicles sharing multi-gigabit data about the surrounding environment and recognizing objects via the cloud in real time. Therefore, autonomous vehicles are able to determine the optimal driving strategy instantaneously.
Autors: Linghe Kong;Muhammad Khurram Khan;Fan Wu;Guihai Chen;Peng Zeng;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 62 - 68
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MILP Approach for Bilevel Transmission and Reactive Power Planning Considering Wind Curtailment
Abstract:
In this study, two important planning problems in power systems that are transmission expansion and reactive power are formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming taking into account the bilevel structure due to the consideration of market clearing under several load-wind scenarios. The objective of the proposed method is to minimize the installation cost of transmission lines, reactive power sources, and the annual operation costs of conventional generators corresponding to the curtailed wind energy while maintaining the reliable system operation. Lower level problems of the bilevel structure are designated for the market clearing which is formulated by using the linearized optimal power flow equations. In order to obtain mixed-integer linear programming formulation, the so-called lower level problems are represented by using primal-dual formulation. By using the proposed method, power system planners will be able to find economical investment plans by considering the balance between wind power curtailment and the installation of transmission lines and reactive power sources.
Autors: Faruk Ugranli;Engin Karatepe;Arne Hejde Nielsen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 652 - 661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Miniaturized Dual-Band Folded Patch Antenna With Independent Band Control Utilizing an Interdigitated Slot Loading
Abstract:
A compact linearly polarized dual-band patch antenna with low cross-polarization and independent band control is presented. Miniaturization was achieved through a combination of shorting, subsequently folding, and by replacing the standard slot loading with a slot that is featured by a meander line. By replacing the standard straight slot with an interdigitated slot loading, the resonance condition was shifted to the lower operating band, facilitating significant antenna miniaturization and resulting in an element size equal to or smaller than in all three dimensions. The antenna design procedure is outlined and a prototype for WiFi applications was fabricated and measured for impedance matching, radiation pattern, and broadside gain. A simulated parametric analysis was performed on the interdigitated slot geometry to determine how the antenna performance is controlled. Then, based on the parametric analysis, it was further demonstrated that the two operational bands of the antenna element could be independently controlled by changing only the geometrical dimensions of the interdigitated slot, leaving the base of the antenna entirely unaltered. As a result, the lower operating band could be fixed while the upper operating band could be shifted by up to 10%. Lastly, the effect of utilizing a small ground plane, in an effort to achieve a small antenna footprint, is discussed.
Autors: Donovan E. Brocker;Zhi Hao Jiang;Micah D. Gregory;Douglas H. Werner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 380 - 384
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Minimizing Delay in Network Function Virtualization with Shared Pipelines
Abstract:
Pipelines are widely used to increase throughput in multi-core chips by parallelizing packet processing while relying on virtualization. Typically, each packet type is served by a dedicated pipeline with several cores, each implementing a network service. However, with the increase in the number of packet types and their number of required services, there are not enough cores for pipelines. In this paper, we study pipeline sharing, such that a single pipeline can be used to serve several packet types. Pipeline sharing decreases the needed total number of cores, but typically increases pipeline lengths and therefore packet delays. We consider two novel optimization problems of allocating cores between different packet types such that the average or the worst-case delay is minimized. We study the two problems and suggest optimal algorithms that apply under different assumptions on the input. We also present greedy algorithms for the general case. Last, we examine our solutions on synthetic examples as well as on real-life applications and demonstrate that they often achieve close-to-optimal delays.
Autors: Ori Rottenstreich;Isaac Keslassy;Yoram Revah;Aviran Kadosh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 156 - 169
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Minimizing the Error Vector Magnitude With Constrained Cubic Metric and Spectral Sidelobe in NC-OFDM-Based Cognitive Radio Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a minimized error vector magnitude (M-EVM) scheme to simultaneously reduce the cubic metric (CM) and spectral sidelobe in noncontiguous orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (NC-OFDM)-based cognitive radio (CR) systems by modifying the constellations on the secondary user (SU) subcarriers and adding canceling symbols on the primary user (PU) subcarriers. The proposed M-EVM scheme formulates an optimization problem, which minimizes the EVM with constraints of the CM and spectral sidelobe. Furthermore, we propose an iterative approximation algorithm to solve the optimization problem. Simulation results show that the M-EVM scheme offers significant reductions of the CM and spectral sidelobe.
Autors: Chunxing Ni;Tao Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 358 - 363
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Minkowski Sum Method for Planar Arrays Sensitivity Analysis With Uncertain-But-Bounded Excitation Tolerances
Abstract:
The sensitivity of the power pattern generated by a planar array to both amplitude and phase excitation errors is addressed. Under the hypothesis of uncertain, but bounded, tolerances on the element excitations, an innovative approach based on the integration of the interval analysis and the Minkowski sum is proposed to predict tight, reliable, and inclusive pattern bounds. Representative numerical results are reported and discussed to point out the potentialities and the effectiveness of the proposed approach also in comparison with the state-of-the-art interval-based methods.
Autors: Lorenza Tenuti;Nicola Anselmi;Paolo Rocca;Marco Salucci;Andrea Massa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 167 - 177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mitigation of Undesired Operation of Recloser Controls Due to Distribution Line Inrush
Abstract:
Mid-Carolina Electric Cooperative (MCEC) replaced their hydraulic reclosers with solid dielectric reclosers and microprocessor-based recloser controls as part of a program to modernize their distribution system. MCEC was having problems with hydraulic reclosers, including excess maintenance costs and poor repeatability of the time-overcurrent trip characteristic. As part of the replacement, they expected to solve these problems as well as reap the anticipated benefits of adding microprocessor-based relaying, including event reports, sequence of events recording, metering, and communication. What they did not expect to encounter was that, although the settings were the same as those used previously, several of the reclosers tripped on the fast curve due to inrush conditions. Adding the microprocessor-based relays made MCEC aware of this problem, which presumably existed all along. MCEC did not have the capability to detect the problem previously. After this discovery, MCEC engineers gathered event reports to allow them to characterize the inrush. This paper discusses those inrush events and ways to overcome undesired tripping on distribution feeders on inrush conditions using both settings changes and second-harmonic blocking.
Autors: Larry Wright;Lee Ayers;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 80 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MitoGen: A Framework for Generating 3D Synthetic Time-Lapse Sequences of Cell Populations in Fluorescence Microscopy
Abstract:
The proper analysis of biological microscopy images is an important and complex task. Therefore, it requires verification of all steps involved in the process, including image segmentation and tracking algorithms. It is generally better to verify algorithms with computer-generated ground truth datasets, which, compared to manually annotated data, nowadays have reached high quality and can be produced in large quantities even for 3D time-lapse image sequences. Here, we propose a novel framework, called MitoGen, which is capable of generating ground truth datasets with fully 3D time-lapse sequences of synthetic fluorescence-stained cell populations. MitoGen shows biologically justified cell motility, shape and texture changes as well as cell divisions. Standard fluorescence microscopy phenomena such as photobleaching, blur with real point spread function (PSF), and several types of noise, are simulated to obtain realistic images. The MitoGen framework is scalable in both space and time. MitoGen generates visually plausible data that shows good agreement with real data in terms of image descriptors and mean square displacement (MSD) trajectory analysis. Additionally, it is also shown in this paper that four publicly available segmentation and tracking algorithms exhibit similar performance on both real and MitoGen-generated data. The implementation of MitoGen is freely available.
Autors: David Svoboda;Vladimír Ulman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 310 - 321
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mixed-Strategy Learning With Continuous Action Sets
Abstract:
Motivated by the recent applications of game-theoretical learning to the design of distributed control systems, we study a class of control problems that can be formulated as potential games with continuous action sets. We propose an actor-critic reinforcement learning algorithm that adapts mixed strategies over continuous action spaces. To analyze the algorithm, we extend the theory of finite-dimensional two-timescale stochastic approximation to a Banach space setting, and prove that the continuous dynamics of the process converge to equilibrium in the case of potential games. These results combine to give a provably-convergent learning algorithm in which players do not need to keep track of the controls selected by other agents.
Autors: Steven Perkins;Panayotis Mertikopoulos;David S. Leslie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 62, issue:1, pages: 379 - 384
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mobile Cloud-Based Interactive 3D Rendering and Streaming System Over Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
Abstract:
This paper presents an effective mobile cloud-based interactive 3D rendering and streaming system with data-service cost constraints over heterogeneous wireless networks. The proposed system contains software-defined networking (SDN)-enabled adaptive cloud resource management module and context-aware 3D rendering and streaming module to enhance the quality-of-service of interactive 3D rendering and streaming services. The first module is designed to efficiently control the limited cloud resources, such as server computing power and available backbone link bandwidth, and the second module is implemented to pursue an effective tradeoff between 3D rendering quality and compressed image quality. The system is implemented using Mininet network emulator with an OpenDaylight SDN controller, and VirtualGL with an online open-source 3D game, PlaneShift. Finally, the system is examined at a mobile device connected to real long-term evolution and WiFi networks.
Autors: Donghyeok Ho;Hyungnam Kim;Wan Kim;Youngho Park;Kyung-Ah Chang;Hyogun Lee;Hwangjun Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 95 - 109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mobile Sensors Deployment Subject to Location Estimation Error
Abstract:
Voronoi-based mobile sensor deployment algorithms require the knowledge of sensors' locations to guarantee a simple reliable coverage detection, and they miss the mark if the location is inaccurate. However, in practice, it is often too expensive to include a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver in each node, and location information is inaccurate as sensors estimate locations from the messages they receive. We study sensor deployment algorithms in the presence of location estimation error for sensors with nonidentical sensing ranges. We propose a set of Voronoi-based diagrams, which are called guaranteed Voronoi diagrams (VDs), that guarantee single-cell-based coverage hole detection algorithms, provided that upper bounds on localization errors are assumed. Although inaccuracy of location information would appear to deteriorate the total coverage, our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms can exploit this inaccuracy to improve network coverage. Hence, even if the location information is exactly known at each node, assuming some error margins improves the network coverage if guaranteed Voronoi diagrams are used.
Autors: Hamid Mahboubi;Mojtaba Vaezi;Fabrice Labeau;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 668 - 678
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Predictive Control for Shunt Active Filters With Fixed Switching Frequency
Abstract:
This paper presents a modification to the classical Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm and its application to active power filters. The proposed control is able to retain all the advantages of a finite control set MPC while improving the generated waveforms harmonic spectrum. In fact, a modulation algorithm, based on the cost function ratio for different output vectors, is inherently included in the MPC. The cost function-based modulator is introduced and its effectiveness on reducing the current ripple is demonstrated. The presented solution provides an effective and straightforward single loop controller, maintaining an excellent dynamic performance despite the modulated output and it is self-synchronizing with the grid. This promising method is applied to the control of a shunt active filter for harmonic content reduction through a reactive power compensation methodology. Significant results obtained by experimental testing are reported and commented, showing that MPC is a viable control solution for active filtering systems.
Autors: Luca Tarisciotti;Andrea Formentini;Alberto Gaeta;Marco Degano;Pericle Zanchetta;Roberto Rabbeni;Marcello Pucci;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 296 - 304
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Based Software Engineering to Tame the IoT Jungle
Abstract:
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a challenging combination of distribution and heterogeneity. A number of software engineering solutions address those challenges in isolation, but few solutions tackle them in combination, which poses a set of concrete challenges. The ThingML (Internet of Things Modeling Language) approach attempts to address those challenges. This model-driven, generative approach, which was inspired by UML, integrates concepts targeted at the IoT. Over the past six years, it has been continuously evolved and applied to cases in different domains, including a commercial e-health solution.
Autors: Brice Morin;Nicolas Harrand;Franck Fleurey;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 30 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Driven Engineering for Mission-Critical IoT Systems
Abstract:
Mission-critical Internet of Things (MC-IoT) systems involve heterogeneous things from both the digital and physical worlds. They run applications whose failure might cause significant and possibly dramatic consequences, such as interruption of public services, significant business losses, and deterioration of enterprise operations. These applications require not only high availability, reliability, safety, and security but also regulatory compliance, scalability, and serviceability. At the same time, they're exposed to various facets of uncertainty, spanning from software and hardware variability to mission planning and execution in possibly unforeseeable environments. Model-driven engineering can potentially meet these challenges and better enable the adoption of MC-IoT systems.
Autors: Federico Ciccozzi;Ivica Crnkovic;Davide Di Ruscio;Ivano Malavolta;Patrizio Pelliccione;Romina Spalazzese;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 46 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Analysis of SCMA Enhanced D2D and Cellular Hybrid Network
Abstract:
Sparse code multiple access (SCMA) has been recently proposed for the future wireless networks, which allows nonorthogonal spectrum resource sharing and enables system overloading. In this paper, we apply SCMA into device-to-device (D2D) communication and cellular hybrid network, targeted at using the overload feature of SCMA to support massive device connectivity and expand network capacity. Particularly, we develop a stochastic geometry-based framework to model and analyze SCMA, considering underlaid and overlaid modes. Based on the results, we analytically compare SCMA with orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) using area spectral efficiency (ASE) and quantify closed-form ASE gain of SCMA over OFDMA. Notably, it is shown that system ASE can be significantly improved using SCMA and the ASE gain scales linearly with the SCMA codeword dimension. Besides, we endow D2D users with an activated probability to balance cross-tier interference in the underlaid mode and derive the optimal activated probability. Meanwhile, we study resource allocation in the overlaid mode and obtain the optimal codebook allocation rule. It is interestingly found that the optimal SCMA codebook allocation rule is independent of cellular network parameters when cellular users are densely deployed. The results are helpful in the implementation of SCMA in the hybrid system.
Autors: Junyu Liu;Min Sheng;Lei Liu;Yan Shi;Jiandong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 173 - 185
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Analyzing Millimeter Wave Cellular Systems
Abstract:
We provide a comprehensive overview of mathematical models and analytical techniques for millimeter wave (mmWave) cellular systems. The two fundamental physical differences from conventional sub-6-GHz cellular systems are: 1) vulnerability to blocking and 2) the need for significant directionality at the transmitter and/or receiver, which is achieved through the use of large antenna arrays of small individual elements. We overview and compare models for both of these factors, and present a baseline analytical approach based on stochastic geometry that allows the computation of the statistical distributions of the downlink signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and also the per link data rate, which depends on the SINR as well as the average load. There are many implications of the models and analysis: 1) mmWave systems are significantly more noise-limited than at sub-6 GHz for most parameter configurations; 2) initial access is much more difficult in mmWave; 3) self-backhauling is more viable than in sub-6-GHz systems, which makes ultra-dense deployments more viable, but this leads to increasingly interference-limited behavior; and 4) in sharp contrast to sub-6-GHz systems cellular operators can mutually benefit by sharing their spectrum licenses despite the uncontrolled interference that results from doing so. We conclude by outlining several important extensions of the baseline model, many of which are promising avenues for future research.
Autors: Jeffrey G. Andrews;Tianyang Bai;Mandar N. Kulkarni;Ahmed Alkhateeb;Abhishek K. Gupta;Robert W. Heath;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 403 - 430
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Crosstalk Evaluation of 3-D TSV-Based Inductor With Ground TSV Shielding
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a novel through-silicon-via (TSV)-based 3-D inductor structure with ground TSV shielding for better noise performance. In addition, a circuit model is proposed for the inductor, which can reduce the simulation time over finite-element-based 3-D full-wave simulation. Rigorous 3-D full-wave simulation is performed up to 10 GHz to validate the circuit model. The ground TSV-based 3-D inductor is found to be resilient to TSV–TSV crosstalk noise compared with conventional 3-D inductors. The simulation results revealed that more than −33 dB of isolation can be achieved at 2 GHz between the 3-D inductor and the noise probe.
Autors: Saikat Mondal;Sang-Bock Cho;Bruce C. Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 308 - 318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Pre-Treatment of Photon-Starved CT Data for Iterative Reconstruction
Abstract:
An increasing number of X-ray CT procedures are being conducted with drastically reduced dosage, due at least in part to advances in statistical reconstruction methods that can deal more effectively with noise than can traditional techniques. As data become photon-limited, more detailed models are necessary to deal with count rates that drop to the levels of system electronic noise. We present two options for sinogram pre-treatment that can improve the performance of photon-starved measurements, with the intent of following with model-based image reconstruction. Both the local linear minimum mean-squared error (LLMMSE) filter and pointwise Bayesian restoration (PBR) show promise in extracting useful, quantitative information from very low-count data by reducing local bias while maintaining the lower noise variance of statistical methods. Results from clinical data demonstrate the potential of both techniques.
Autors: Zhiqian Chang;Ruoqiao Zhang;Jean-Baptiste Thibault;Debashish Pal;Lin Fu;Ken Sauer;Charles Bouman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 277 - 287
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Endovascular MRI Coil Coupling With Transmit RF Excitation
Abstract:
Objective: To model inductive coupling of endovascular coils with transmit RF excitation for selecting coils for MRI-guided interventions. Methods: Independent and computationally efficient FEM models are developed for the endovascular coil, cable, transmit excitation, and imaging domain. Electromagnetic and circuit solvers are coupled to simulate net B1 + fields and induced currents and voltages. Our models are validated using the Bloch–Siegert B1 + mapping sequence for a series-tuned multimode coil, capable of tracking, wireless visualization, and high-resolution endovascular imaging. Results: Validation shows good agreement at 24-, 28-, and 34-μT background RF excitation within experimental limitations. Quantitative coil performance metrics agree with simulation. A parametric study demonstrates tradeoff in coil performance metrics when varying number of coil turns. Tracking, imaging, and wireless marker multimode coil features and their integration is demonstrated in a pig study. Conclusion: Developed models for the multimode coil were successfully validated. Modeling for geometric optimization and coil selection serves as a precursor to time consuming and expensive experiments. Specific applications demonstrated include parametric optimization, coil selection for a cardiac intervention, and an animal imaging experiment. Significance: Our modular, adaptable, and computationally efficient modeling approach enables rapid comparison, selection, and optimization of inductively coupled coils for MRI-guided interventions.
Autors: Madhav Venkateswaran;Orhan Unal;Samuel Hurley;Alexey Samsonov;Peng Wang;Sean B. Fain;Krishna N. Kurpad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 70 - 77
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Fluctuations in Depth-Integrated Acoustic Intensity Induced by Internal Waves Along a 2-D Track
Abstract:
Accurate spatio-temporal prediction of the acoustic field in the presence of internal waves depends largely on one's ability to accurately prescribe water column properties for the acoustic model. This paper describes a data-based methodology for reconstructing a 2-D water column sound-speed profile (WCSSP) from multiple oceanographic moorings deployed in a line. The methodology gives particular attention to reconstructing the 2-D spatio–temporal evolution of the internal wave field. Acoustic predictions are made from an acoustic propagation model with the reconstructed WCSSP as an input. Measured and modeled depth-integrated acoustic intensities are compared to indirectly evaluate the fidelity of the WCSSP reconstruction. Because of the complicated spatio–temporal evolution of the internal wave field in the experimental region, it was found that reconstructing the WCSSP from multiple moorings is important for accurately predicting temporal fluctuations of the depth-integrated acoustic intensity. The average overlap coefficient of 31 pairs of measured/modeled intensity distributions improved from to as the number of moorings used in the WCSSP reconstruction increased from one to four.
Autors: Jason D. Sagers;Preston S. Wilson;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 42, issue:1, pages: 231 - 241
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling for Fluid Transients in Liquid-Circular Angular Accelerometer
Abstract:
Liquid-circular angular accelerometer is generally designed with the circular tube, the fluid mass, and the porous transducer. With the consideration of the fluid compressibility, a novel theoretical model of the fluidic system of this sensor is developed based on the theory of fluid transients for the first time. Simulation and experiments are conducted to prove the validity of the proposed model and the model manifests satisfactory performance to calculate the natural frequency, the resonances, the bandwidth, and the low-frequency gain of the fluidic system. Moreover, the influences of several structure parameters are analyzed by using the proposed model. The wave speed in the fluid mass affects the bandwidth of the fluidic system grossly, while the radius of the circular tube has effects on both the gain and the bandwidth. Besides, the liquid resistance of the transducer and the cross-sectional area of the circular tube are found to exert analogous influences on the frequency response of the fluidic system.
Autors: Siyuan Cheng;Mengyin Fu;Meiling Wang;Xiang Li;Meifeng Xiao;Tonglei Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 267 - 273
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Carbon Capture Technology Attributes for Unit Commitment in Emission-Constrained Environment
Abstract:
This paper discusses the modeling and analysis of a carbon capture technology-based resource scheduling/unit commitment (UC) methodology in carbon/emission-constrained environment. In carbon markets, the overall generation from conventional/fossil-fueled thermal plants is constrained over the total cost which is the sum of generation, capture cost/emission avoidance cost. Therefore, in this paper, generalized/uniform performance indices affecting the UC schedule are derived. Also, a commitment/scheduling methodology based on capture and fuel cost is devised rather than the existing penalty cost methodology as in the modernized markets everything was dealt in monetary value. Furthermore, the impact of type of resource used, i.e., coal rank is also considered to evaluate the sensitivity of scheduling decisions and financial influence of carbon capture technology. Along with performance indices, correction factors are also proposed to justify the effect of resource/coal rank in the process of optimal generation allocation. The effect of correction factors and type of coal is observed to be predominant at lower capture efficiencies compared to higher capture efficiency. The effectiveness of the proposed method over the penalty method is reflected in reduced generation cost and emission avoidance cost when compared to the penalty-based methodology.
Autors: Srikanth Reddy K;Lokesh Kumar Panwar;B. K. Panigrahi;Rajesh Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 662 - 671
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Size Limitations of Resistive Crossbar Array With Cell Selectors
Abstract:
Due to recent developments in emerging memory technologies, resistive crossbar arrays have gained increasing importance. The size of the crossbar arrays is, however, limited due to challenges brought by the interconnect resistance, sneak path currents, and the physical area of the peripheral circuitry. In this paper, three figures of merit that characterize the limitations of resistive crossbar arrays with selectors are described, such as the driver resistance, voltage degradation across the cell, and read margin. The models, exhibiting good agreement with SPICE, are compared with different biasing schemes during both write and read operations. These models are also used to predict the device requirements of resistive crossbar arrays with selectors and to project parameter values, such as the nonlinearity factor, on-state resistance, and tolerable interconnect resistance per cell for large-scale crossbar arrays.
Autors: Albert Ciprut;Eby G. Friedman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 286 - 293
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling, Design, and Implementation of a Power Conversion System for Small-Scale High-Altitude Wind Power Generating System
Abstract:
This paper presents a compact portable power conversion system (PCS) for small-scale high-altitude wind power (HAWP) generating system. The proposed PCS interfaces the variable voltage and variable frequency ac power to the distribution level grid voltage. The PCS consists of a three-level Vienna rectifier for the generation-side control, a soft-switched half-bridge dc–dc converter for isolation and step down, and a two-level inverter for grid interface. The proposed conversion system uses a smaller number of active semiconductor devices that reduces overall losses, and thereby, increases power density of the converter. The sensorless optimal torque control technique (using frame) with output voltage balance is proposed and implemented for the generation-side maximum power-point tracking control. A modified proportional-resonant-based control method is proposed for grid-side current control. Simulation studies have been carried out using MATLAB and PSIM. A laboratory prototype is developed and tested for a scaled-down model. The experimental results validate the performance of the PCS for interfacing HAWP into the grid/load.
Autors: Jeevan Adhikari;Prasanna I V;Godwin Ponraj;Sanjib Kumar Panda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 283 - 295
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modernizing Substation Automation Systems: Adopting IEC Standard 61850 for Modeling and Communication
Abstract:
There is demand for a substation automation system (SAS) that is simple to integrate and provides high performance and flexibility. The increasing application of intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) with International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 61850 capacities provides interoperability and advanced communications capabilities in substation protection, coordination, control, monitoring, metering, and testing. IEC 61850 is the result of the efforts of IEC Technical Committee 57 (TC57) to produce an open standard for substation modeling and communications. The standard has gained popularity and continues to spread throughout the world. In this article, we explore an IEC 61850 application in a typical SA and introduce a real-world SAS modernization case that highlights the benefit of the IEC 61850 in substation monitoring and operation.
Autors: Xueyang Cheng;Wei-Jen Lee;Xianghua Pan;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 42 - 49
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modularization of Electrical Systems in the Oil and Gas Industry in the North Slope of Alaska
Abstract:
Oil and gas production facility installations in the North Slope of Alaska require a high degree of modularization. This paper will present a modularization concept for a large gas treatment plant intended for installation on the North Slope. This paper discusses design trends and techniques used in the optimization and integration of the electrical design, and the use of 3-D modeling to expedite the design, coordination, and assembly at the fabrication yard and at site.
Autors: Giovanni Parra;Richard Bono;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 645 - 652
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modulation Classification for MIMO-OFDM Signals via Approximate Bayesian Inference
Abstract:
The problem of modulation classification for a multiple-antenna (multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)) system employing orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is investigated under the assumption of unknown frequency-selective fading channels and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The classification problem is formulated as a Bayesian inference task, and solutions are proposed based on Gibbs sampling and mean field variational inference. The proposed methods rely on a selection of the prior distributions that adopts a latent Dirichlet model for the modulation type and on the Bayesian network (BN) formalism. The Gibbs sampling method converges to the optimal Bayesian solution, and using numerical results, its accuracy is seen to improve for small sample sizes when switching to the mean field variational inference technique after a number of iterations. The speed of convergence is shown to improve via annealing and random restarts. While most of the literature on modulation classification assumes that the channels are flat fading, that the number of receive antennas is no less than that of transmit antennas, and that a large number of observed data symbols are available, the proposed methods perform well under more general conditions. Finally, the proposed Bayesian methods are demonstrated to improve over existing non-Bayesian approaches based on independent component analysis (ICA) and on prior Bayesian methods based on the “superconstellation” method.
Autors: Yu Liu;Osvaldo Simeone;Alexander M. Haimovich;Wei Su;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 268 - 281
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modulation Classification via Subspace Detection in MIMO Systems
Abstract:
The problem of efficient modulation classification (MC) in multiple-input multiple-output systems is considered. Per-layer likelihood-based MC is proposed by employing subspace decomposition to partially decouple the transmitted streams. When detecting the modulation type of the stream of interest, a dense constellation is assumed on all remaining streams. The proposed classifier outperforms existing MC schemes at a lower complexity cost, and can be efficiently implemented in the context of joint MC and subspace data detection.
Autors: Hadi Sarieddeen;Mohammad M. Mansour;Ali Chehab;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 64 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modulation Format Recognition for Optical Signals Using Connected Component Analysis
Abstract:
We investigate and characterize the blind modulation format recognition method based on connected component analysis for general-purpose optical receivers. A converted binary graph is generated by projecting a part of the received data in Stokes space onto a 2-D plane. We further characterize three key parameters, namely, the threshold of density filter, the size of averaging filter, and the required number of data points for successful format recognition. In addition, we compare the computation complexity of the proposed method with other format recognition methods in Stokes space. Our results show that there exists a common set of parameters such that the proposed method can recognize a number of common optical modulation formats, proving its good robustness and practicality.
Autors: Tianwai Bo;Jin Tang;Chun-Kit Chan;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 11 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Module-Integrated GMR-Based Current Sensing for Closed-Loop Control of a Motor Drive
Abstract:
Current sensor integration in commercial power semiconductor modules is generally based on shunt resistance methods. The resulting losses and lack of galvanic isolation present opportunities for improvement. This paper describes the integration of submillimeter-sized giant magnetoresistive (GMR) point field detectors (PFDs) into commercial IGBT modules to provide nearly lossless galvanically isolated current-sensing capabilities. The IGBT modules are installed into a three-phase inverter motor drive, and the GMR-based integrated current sensors are used for closed-loop current control in a field-oriented induction motor drive. Finite-element analysis of the module interconnect structures is used to determine detector locations offering the highest possible bandwidth current measurements. Additional PFDs are used to decouple rotating magnetic field disturbances or bias fields from permanent magnets. The same GMR PFDs are also used to provide temperature measurements that are used to decouple the effects of changing temperature.
Autors: Tyler J. Brauhn;Minhao Sheng;Bryan Allison Dow;Hiroyuki Nogawa;Robert D. Lorenz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 222 - 231
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Moment-SOS Approach to Interval Power Flow
Abstract:
Intermittent renewable sources and market-driven operation have brought many uncertainties into modern power systems. Power flow analysis tools are expected to be able to incorporate uncertainties into the solution process. Interval power flow (IPF) analysis which aims at obtaining the upper and lower bounds of power flow solutions under interval uncertainties, thereby emerges as a promising framework to meet such expectation. This paper describes a novel optimization-based method to obtain high-accuracy or even exact global solutions to IPF problems. At first, the IPF problems are formulated as polynomial optimization problems probably with rational objective functions. Then Lasserre’s hierarchy, or moment-SOS approach, is introduced to relax the non-convex problems to convex semidefinite programming (SDP) problems. Correlative sparsity in the polynomial optimization problems is exploited to improve numerical tractability and efficiency. Finally, case studies on IEEE 6-bus, 9-bus and 14-bus systems demonstrate the second-order moment relaxation is capable of obtaining exact global interval solutions on small-scale systems, and numerical results on IEEE 57-bus, 118-bus and 300-bus systems show the proposed method can significantly improve the interval solutions compared with recent Linear Programming (LP) relaxation method on larger systems.
Autors: Chao Duan;Lin Jiang;Wanliang Fang;Jun Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 522 - 530
Publisher: IEEE
 

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