Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2017 sorted by title, page: 1

» A Hybrid Approach for Big Data Outlier Detection from Electric Power SCADA System
Abstract:
SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) databases have three main features that identify them as big data systems: volume, variety and velocity. SCADAs are extremely important for the safety and security operation of modern power system and provide essential online information about the power system state to system operators. A current research challenge is to efficiently process this big data, which involves real-time measurements of hundreds of thousands of heterogeneous electrical power system physical measurements. Among the foreseen automation tasks, outlier detection is one of the most important data mining techniques for power systems. However, like others data mining techniques, traditional outlier detection fails when dealing with problems in which the volume and dimensionality of data are as high as the ones observed in a SCADA. This work aims at circumventing these restrictions by presenting a methodology for dealing with SCADA big data that consists of a pre-processing algorithm and hybrid approach outlier detectors. The hybrid approach is assessed using real data from a Brazilian utility company. The results show that the proposed methodology is capable of identifying outliers correlated with important events that affect the system.
Autors: Wesin Alves;Daniel Martins;Ubiratan Bezerra;Aldebaro Klautau;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 57 - 64
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Logic Block Architecture in FPGA for Holistic Efficiency
Abstract:
This brief presents a hybrid design of a configurable logic block (CLB) composed of look-up tables (LUTs) and universal logic gates (ULGs). A ULG is designed to realize holistic efficiency compared with the corresponding LUT. Previous designs with ULGs are either based on pure ULG or LUT-ULG complementary architecture, which incur a longer delay or double the area compared to the LUT-based design. In contrast, we propose a hybrid CLB that contains a mixture of LUTs and ULGs to address the generality problem as well as to achieve the holistic benefits including the area, performance, and power. To exploit the advantage of ULGs thoroughly while not causing negative side effects, the ratio of LUTs and ULGs in one CLB is explored by experiments. Experimental results show that, compared to pure LUT design, our proposed architecture design can save up to 17.1% logic power as well as 11.2% delay improvement and 10.4% logic area reduction. Compared to the state-of-the-art design, our proposed design has 3.8% improvement in power delay product and 17.1% improvement in area cost.
Autors: Tao Luo;Hao Liang;Wei Zhang;Bingsheng He;Douglas Maskell;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 71 - 75
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Time Borrowing Technique to Improve the Performance of Digital Circuits in the Presence of Variations
Abstract:
Dynamic flip-flop conversion (DFFC) is a time borrowing method for improving the performance of digital circuits. Existing types of DFFC [11], [12] suffer from successive critical and critical feedback paths that are frequently seen in digital circuits. Moreover, they are unable to increase the performance of the designs with short sequential depth. In this paper, we introduce a hybrid technique which utilizes DFFC together with a dynamic clock stretching mechanism. Our technique is able to mitigate the problems of successive critical and critical feedback path structures even in the presence of process variations. The results show that our hybrid technique is able to increase the performance of some ITC'99 and ISCAS'89 benchmarks by 24.4% on average while DFFC Type C increases the performance only by 8.4% on average. Furthermore, we have shown that our hybrid technique is able to tolerate process variations, 18% power supply variation, and 100 °C temperature variations, 27.3%, 16.4%, and 13.3% better than the state-of-the-art methods on average, respectively.
Autors: Mehrnaz Ahmadi;Bijan Alizadeh;Behjat Forouzandeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 100 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Laplacian-Based Approach for Finding Near Globally Optimal Solutions to OPF Problems
Abstract:
A semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation globally solves many optimal power flow (OPF) problems. For other OPF problems where the SDP relaxation only provides a lower bound on the objective value rather than the globally optimal decision variables, recent literature has proposed a penalization approach to find feasible points that are often nearly globally optimal. A disadvantage of this penalization approach is the need to specify penalty parameters. This paper presents an alternative approach that algorithmically determines a penalization appropriate for many OPF problems. The proposed approach constrains the generation cost to be close to the lower bound from the SDP relaxation. The objective function is specified using iteratively determined weights for a Laplacian matrix. This approach yields feasible points to the OPF problem that are guaranteed to have objective values near the global optimum due to the constraint on generation cost. The proposed approach is demonstrated on both small OPF problems and a variety of large test cases representing portions of European power systems.
Autors: Daniel K. Molzahn;Cédric Josz;Ian A. Hiskens;Patrick Panciatici;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 305 - 315
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Liquid Level Sensor Based on a Race-Track Helical Plastic Optical Fiber
Abstract:
A multi-point liquid level sensor was proposed in this letter, which is based on a plastic optical fiber with a race-track helical structure. The principle of liquid sensing is based on higher modes leak out and regenerate repeatedly in the bend and straight sections, respectively. Therefore, propagation loss was introduced in the bend sections of the fiber submerged under the liquid. The liquid level shift can be detected by observing alterations in the propagation loss changes. The sensor features compactness and independence from the refractive index of the liquid. The level measurement resolution is flexible and expected to reach the same order of magnitude as the diameter.
Autors: Ning Jing;Chuanxin Teng;Jie Zheng;Guanjun Wang;Yuanyuan Chen;Zhibin Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 158 - 160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Look at What's New: Reviewing the Second Edition of API 547
Abstract:
This article will review many of the changes in the second edition of the American Petroleum Institute (API) 547 specification, General-Purpose Form-Wound Squirrel Cage Induction Motors-185 kW (250 hp) Through 2,240 kW (3,000 hp) [1]. The first edition of this standard [2] was released in 2005 to provide a set of requirements for general-purpose motors based on the key criteria of API Standard 541, fourth edition, applicable to 375-kW (500-hp) and larger motors [3]. The scope of API 547 is limited to a range of motor sizes and configurations that fit a majority of general-purpose severe duty applications that are common in petrochemical applications. API 541 has recently been updated to its fifth edition [4], and the second edition of API 547 has followed suit with revisions to the scope and criteria, various clarifications, data sheet changes, and an expanded data sheet guide.
Autors: Tim Rahill;Barry Wood;Mark Chisholm;Joel Ocmand;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 70 - 80
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Complexity Sensing Algorithm for Wideband Sparse Spectra
Abstract:
Compressed sensing-based wideband spectrum sensing approaches have gotten much attention owning to their advantage of relieving the pressure on high signal acquisition costs. Most of these approaches need to recover the signal or power spectrum, which require high computational complexity. This letter proposes a novel wideband sensing algorithm with no recovery (NoR) of spectral, where the location of occupied subband is identified via a maximum inner product method, thus reducing computational complexity significantly. Compared with the existing spectral recovery algorithms, NoR algorithm maintains an excellent sensing performance with several orders of magnitude lower computational complexity.
Autors: Shiyu Ren;Zhimin Zeng;Caili Guo;Xuekang Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 92 - 95
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Complexity Sub-Optimal Approach to Dynamic Spectrum Allocation for White Space Devices With Heterogeneous Bandwidth Requirements
Abstract:
This letter considers the decision-making method of dynamic spectrum allocation by a spectrum manager in a centralized white space cognitive radio communication network with various available frequency fragments and heterogeneous bandwidth requests. To achieve low complexity practical solution to this problem, we propose a hybrid sub-optimal dynamic programming-based algorithm. The performance of the proposed solution is compared with the optimal one and other alternative solutions. The numeric results show that the proposed solution achieves spectrum efficiency close to the optimal one and the complexity is considerably reduced to as compared with that of the optimal solution .
Autors: Zhong Huang;Yugang Ma;Yueyue Li;Guangjun Wen;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 188 - 191
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Power Inductorless Wideband LNA With Gm Enhancement and Noise Cancellation
Abstract:
This letter presents the design of an inductorless low power differential low-noise amplifier (LNA) in 65 nm Low Power (LP) CMOS technology for multi-standard radio applications between 100MHz and 4.3 GHz. Based on the combination of common-gate (CG) and common-source (CS) with shunt feedback (SFB) topologies, the LNA utilizes a cross-coupled push-pull structure to realize boosting and partial noise cancelling under low power consumption. A cascode transistor is used to alleviate the Miller effect and also constructs a current steering structure to increase the bandwidth and gain. These techniques result in a good overall performance tradeoff after sizing and biasing optimization under the power constraint. A prototype has been implemented and it exhibits a voltage gain of 21.2 dB, an NF of 2.8-4 dB over the frequency range of 100 MHz to 4.3 GHz. It consumes 2 mW from 1.2 V supply and occupies an active area of 0.05 mm2.
Autors: Zhijian Pan;Chuan Qin;Zuochang Ye;Yan Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 58 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Profile Dual-Polarized Wideband Omnidirectional Antenna Based on AMC Reflector
Abstract:
A low-profile dual-polarized wideband omnidirectional antenna with artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) reflector is proposed. The proposed antenna is operated in the long term evolution band (1.7–2.7 GHz), and has a compact size of 200 mm mm 30.6 mm (about height at 2.7 GHz). The antenna structure consists of a horizontally polarized circular loop antenna, a vertically polarized low-profile monopole antenna, and an AMC reflector. By carefully designing the reflection characteristics of the AMC reflector, the profile height of the proposed antenna is significantly reduced as compared with those of antennas backed by conventional perfect electric conductor (PEC) ground planes. Simulated and measured results show that the proposed antenna is able to achieve over 45% impedance bandwidth (VSWR <1.8) with stable radiation patterns in the band of 1.7–2.7 GHz. Owing to the attractive wide bandwidth, low-profile configuration, and ease of fabrication, the proposed antenna is suitable for microbase station systems, especially for indoor ceiling antenna networking applications.
Autors: Jianlin Wu;Shiwen Yang;Yikai Chen;Shiwei Qu;Zaiping Nie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 368 - 374
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Order Model for Offshore Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Aerodynamics
Abstract:
Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are an attractive economical solution for a deep offshore floating application with their inherent desirable design characteristics. A low-order model is described in this paper that can be utilized for the aerodynamic modeling of these turbines. The cascade model is employed and has been coupled with a dynamic stall model to account for unsteady aerodynamic effects. To provide enhanced numerical efficiency and stability, an iterative time-advancement scheme with an adaptive under-relaxation has been integrated into the developed model. The model's predictive accuracy has been assessed against applicable experimental data in simulating a VAWT's aerodynamics at high Reynolds numbers. A quantitative comparative study shows that the model produced an average normalized root mean square error of 0.106 and 0.288 for the VAWT's normal and tangential force coefficients, respectively. It has been established also that the model's computational requirement is reasonably low and suitable for the industrial design of offshore floating VAWTs.
Autors: Brian Hand;Andrew Cashman;Ger Kelly;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 512 - 520
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Storage Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain Method
Abstract:
In this letter, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method with a low memory scheme for the solution of Maxwell’s equations has been proposed. By expressing curl vector basis functions in terms of barycentric coordinates, the matrices in the DGTD method including mass and flux matrices can be rewritten into the summation of a few universal matrices. With the use of the proposed scheme, the computer memory storage requirement of the DGTD method is greatly reduced with the increases of the order of spatial basis functions and the number of meshing elements, albeit a slightly increase of computational time. Numerical results including the slotted waveguide and Vivaldi antenna array are given to illustrate good computational performance.
Autors: Cheng-Yi Tian;Yan Shi;Chang-Hong Liang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 1 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Machine-Learning-Driven Sky Model
Abstract:
Sky illumination is responsible for much of the lighting in a virtual environment. A machine-learning-based approach can compactly represent sky illumination from both existing analytic sky models and from captured environment maps. The proposed approach can approximate the captured lighting at a significantly reduced memory cost and enable smooth transitions of sky lighting to be created from a small set of environment maps captured at discrete times of day. The author's results demonstrate accuracy close to the ground truth for both analytical and capture-based methods. The approach has a low runtime overhead, so it can be used as a generic approach for both offline and real-time applications.
Autors: Pýnar Satýlmýs;Thomas Bashford-Rogers;Alan Chalmers;Kurt Debattista;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 80 - 91
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A make-or-break year for artificial hearts [Top Tech 2017]
Abstract:
The human heart is a marvel of engineering. Inside the chest of the average adult, that hard-working muscle beats about 100,000 times per day, pumping blood through arteries that branch up toward the brain and twine down to the toes.
Autors: Eliza Strickland;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 30 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Meander Line UHF RFID Reader Antenna for Near-field Applications
Abstract:
A novel ultrahigh frequency radio frequency identification reader antenna based on electromagnetic coupling between two open-ended microstrip (MS) meander lines for near-field applications is investigated in this paper. The corresponding currents flowing along the two MS meander lines are reversed in phase with approximately identical amplitudes. Meander-line units are introduced to achieve a uniform distribution of strong magnetic and electric fields. The performance of an antenna prototype comprised of six pairs of meander lines is analyzed. The proposed antenna simultaneously exhibits a uniform magnetic field distribution with a reading region of 480 mm mm mm and a uniform linear electric field distribution with a reading region of 480 mm mm mm. The proposed antenna exhibits a low far-field gain, and has a bandwidth from 914 to 929 MHz. Both simulated and measured results have shown a good performance of the antenna.
Autors: Yuan Yao;Caixia Cui;Junsheng Yu;Xiaodong Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 82 - 91
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A MEMS-Assisted Temperature Sensor With 20- $mu text{K}$ Resolution, Conversion Rate of 200 S/s, and FOM of 0.04 pJK2
Abstract:
This paper presents a dual-microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator-based temperature sensor. In this sensor, the readout circuit estimates the temperature by measuring the frequency ratio of the two clocks generated by separate resonators with different temperature coefficients. The circuit is realized in a 0.18- CMOS process and achieves a resolution of 20 over a bandwidth of 100 Hz while consuming 19 mW of power, leading to a resolution FOM of 0.04 pJK2. It enables us to implement a MEMS-based programmable oscillator with an Allan deviation of <1 over 1 s averaging time, and a frequency stability of <±0.1 parts per million in the temperature range from −45 °C to 105 °C. Such oscillators are key building blocks in telecom, datacom, and precision timekeeping applications.
Autors: Meisam Heidarpour Roshan;Samira Zaliasl;Kimo Joo;Kamran Souri;Rajkumar Palwai;Lijun Will Chen;Amanpreet Singh;Sudhakar Pamarti;Nicholas J. Miller;Joseph C. Doll;Carl Arft;Sassan Tabatabaei;Carl Sechen;Aaron Partridge;Vinod Menon;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 52, issue:1, pages: 185 - 197
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Optimizing the Base Position of Mobile Painting Manipulators
Abstract:
This paper presents an algorithm to optimize the base position of a mobile manipulator to meet the requirements of local painting tasks. Considering the physical limits and singularity of the manipulator, the feasible base positions are first discretely calculated with the given poses of the end effector by inverse kinematics. Then, the joint-level performance criteria are proposed with respect to the requirements of the painting process. The weight coefficients are also determined by the critic method to balance the contribution of every criterion. Thus, the globally near-optimal base position is selected by sorting all feasible positions according to the evaluation criteria. The experimental results show that the planning result is well executed and has an acceptable computation time, thus demonstrating that the algorithm is both practical and effective compared with previous methods.
Autors: Shunan Ren;Ying Xie;Xiangdong Yang;Jing Xu;Guolei Wang;Ken Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 370 - 375
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method of Observing Acoustic Scattering and Absorption By Fish Schools Using Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
Abstract:
A method for observing acoustic scattering due to reflection/refraction by a fish aggregation and absorption caused by sound propagation through a fish aggregation using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) is presented in this paper, and the merits and challenges of the method are discussed. Results from an experiment conducted off Cape Hatteras, NC, USA, in May 2012 are used to illustrate this experimental technique. Results from the oceanographic and acoustic data collected are presented along with discussions on directions for future research and how to further improve this technique.
Autors: Arthur E. Newhall;Ying-Tsong Lin;Thomas M. Grothues;James F. Lynch;Glen G. Gawarkiewicz;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 42, issue:1, pages: 29 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment
Abstract:
This paper discusses the methods for the assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology is valuable in the continuing process of method optimization and guided development of new imaging methods. It includes a three phased study plan covering from initial prototype development to clinical assessment. Recommendations to the clinical assessment protocol, software, and statistical analysis are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer to properly reveal the clinical value. This paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging.
Autors: Martin Christian Hemmsen;Theis Lange;Andreas Hjelm Brandt;Michael Bachmann Nielsen;Jørgen Arendt Jensen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 206 - 217
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Miniature Electrical Impedance Tomography Sensor and 3-D Image Reconstruction for Cell Imaging
Abstract:
Real-time quantitative imaging is becoming highly desirable to study nondestructively the biological behavior of 3-D cell culture systems. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of quantitative imaging/monitoring of 3-D cell culture processes via electrical impedance tomography (EIT), which is capable of generating conductivity images in a non-destructive manner with high temporal resolution. To this end, a planar miniature EIT sensor amenable to standard cell culture format is designed, and a 3-D forward model for the sensor is developed for 3-D imaging. Furthermore, a novel 3-D-Laplacian and sparsity joint regularization algorithm is proposed for enhanced 3-D image reconstruction. Simulation phantoms with spheres at various vertical and horizontal positions were imaged for 3-D performance evaluation. In addition, experiments on human breast cancer cell spheroid and a triangular breast cancer cell pellet were carried out for experimental verification. The results have shown that the stable measurement on high conductive cell culture medium and the significant improvement of image quality based on the proposed regularization method are achieved. It demonstrates the feasibility of using the miniature EIT sensor and 3-D image reconstruction algorithm to visualize 3-D cell cultures, such as spheroids or artificial tissues and organs. The established work would expedite real-time quantitative imaging of 3-D cell culture for assessment of cellular dynamics.
Autors: Yunjie Yang;Jiabin Jia;Stewart Smith;Nadira Jamil;Wesam Gamal;Pierre-Olivier Bagnaninchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 514 - 523
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modified Bayesian Filter for Randomly Delayed Measurements
Abstract:
The traditional Bayesian approximation framework for filtering in discrete time systems assumes that the measurement is available at every time instant. But in practice, the measurements could be randomly delayed. In the literature, the problem has been examined and solution is provided by restricting the maximum number of delay to one or two time steps. This technical note develops an approach to deal with the filtering problems with an arbitrary number of delays in measurement. Pursuing this objective, traditional Bayesian approximation to nonlinear filtering problem is modified by reformulating the expressions of mean and covariances which appear during the measurement update. We use the cubature quadrature rule to evaluate the multivariate integral expressions for the mean vector and the covariance matrix which appear in the developed filtering algorithm. We compare the new algorithm which accounts for delay with the existing CQKF heuristics on two different examples and demonstrate how accounting for a random delay improves the filtering performance.
Autors: Abhinoy Kumar Singh;Paresh Date;Shovan Bhaumik;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 62, issue:1, pages: 419 - 424
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Monolithically BST-Integrated $K_{a}$ -Band Beamsteerable Reflectarray Antenna
Abstract:
A beamsteering reflectarray operating at -band is presented in this paper. Continuous beamsteering is achieved through the use of barium strontium titanate (BST) technology. BST is monolithically integrated into each unit cell using clean room fabrication techniques. With the application of dc bias voltage, an integrated tunable capacitor is realized. The unit cell design utilized in this reflectarray is analyzed and multiple biasing schemes are assessed. The reflectarray is designed to scan in the -plane only, and is evaluated using full-wave simulations and measurements. An appropriate feeding structure is designed and fabricated using a fused filament deposition 3-D printer, with micrometer stages used to make fine adjustments for final alignment. Overall a gain of 8.3 dBi, with a 1-dB bandwidth of 2% and continuous beamscanning from 0° to 25° at 32 GHz is demonstrated.
Autors: Kalyan K. Karnati;Michael E. Trampler;Xun Gong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 159 - 166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Leader Multi-Follower Stackelberg Game for Resource Management in LTE Unlicensed
Abstract:
It is known that the capacity of the cellular network can be significantly improved when cellular operators are allowed to access the unlicensed spectrum. Nevertheless, when multiple operators serve their user equipments (UEs) in the same unlicensed spectrum, the inter-operator interference management becomes a challenging task. In this paper, we develop a multi-operator multi-UE Stackelberg game to analyze the interaction between multiple operators and the UEs subscribed to the services of the operators in unlicensed spectrum. In this game, to avoid intolerable interference to the Wi-Fi access point (WAP), each operator sets an interference penalty price for each UE that causes interference to the WAP, and the UEs can choose their sub-bands and determine the optimal transmit power in the chosen sub-bands of the unlicensed spectrum. Accordingly, the operators can predict the possible actions of the UEs and hence set the optimal prices to maximize its revenue earned from UEs. Furthermore, we consider two possible scenarios for the interaction of operators in the unlicensed spectrum. In the first scenario, referred to as the non-cooperative scenario, the operators cannot coordinate with each other in the unlicensed spectrum. A sub-gradient approach is applied for each operator to decide its best-response action based on the possible behaviors of others. In the second scenario, referred to as the cooperative scenario, all operators can coordinate with each other to serve UEs and control the UEs’ interference in the unlicensed spectrum. Simulation results have been presented to verify the performance improvement that can be achieved by our proposed schemes.
Autors: Huaqing Zhang;Yong Xiao;Lin X. Cai;Dusit Niyato;Lingyang Song;Zhu Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 348 - 361
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Service Oriented Multiple Access Scheme for M2M Support in Future LTE
Abstract:
We propose a novel multiple access technique to overcome the shortcomings of the current proposals for the future releases of LTE. We provide a unified radio access system that efficiently and flexibly integrates both traditional cellular services and M2M connections arising from IoT applications. The proposed solution, referred to as MOMA, is based on establishing separate classes of users using relevant criteria that go beyond the simple handheld-IoT device split; service-dependent hierarchical spreading of the data signals; and a mix of multiuser and single-user detection schemes at the receiver. Signal spreading in MOMA allows densely connected devices with different QoS profiles to be handled, and at the same time its flexible receiver structure allows the receiver computational resources to be allocated to the connections that need them most. This yields scalable and efficient use of the available radio resources and better service integration. While providing significant advantages for key future communications scenarios, MOMA can be incorporated into LTE with a limited impact on the protocol structure and the signaling overhead.
Autors: Nassar Ksairi;Stefano Tomasin;Merouane Debbah;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 218 - 224
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multiharmonic Absorption Circuit Using Quasi-Multilayered Striplines for RF Power Amplifiers
Abstract:
A multiharmonic absorption circuit utilizing the quasi-multilayered striplines is presented. The circuit consists of a multiharmonic reflection filter, a broadband bandpass filter, and a termination. The novel quasi-multilayered striplines, which consist of alumina substrates stacked using solder balls, provide flexibility in the filter structure and realize low insertion loss at the fundamental frequency. The measured results of the fabricated filter exhibit an insertion loss of less than 0.47 dB at the fundamental operation frequency in C-band, as well as high absorption of the second, third, and fourth harmonics, thus outperforming existing solutions. In addition, the device is compact, with a size of only , where is the free space wavelength at C-band.
Autors: Yasuo Morimoto;Takeshi Yuasa;Tetsu Owada;Yukihiro Tahara;Hiroaki Miyashita;Moriyasu Miyazaki;Mohammad Memarian;Tatsuo Itoh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 109 - 118
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multisensor Navigation System Based on an Adaptive Fault-Tolerant GOF Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper describes an adaptive fault-tolerant multisensor integrated navigation system. The proposed system uses a decentralized filtering architecture to fuse inertial navigation system (INS), GNSS, and sensor subsystems. In order to improve system accuracy, the global optimal filtering (GOF) algorithm is implemented. The GNSS and subsystems are separately integrated with the INS to obtain the local prediction and local estimation based on the GNSS/INS and / INS combinations. The GOF algorithm is then applied to fuse the local and global information to generate the optimal state estimation of the GNSS/Locata/INS navigation system. The adaptive fault-tolerant algorithm is based on the innovation covariance discrepancy, which mainly adapts to the changes in sensor measurement statistical properties and mitigates the adverse influence caused by these changes. It is found that the GOF algorithm does improve the accuracy of the navigation solution compared with conventional filtering. To evaluate the fault-tolerant ability of the proposed system, a series of GNSS failures is simulated. The results show that the proposed system can mitigate the effect of the failures, which verify the higher reliability and fault-tolerant capability of the proposed system.
Autors: Wei Jiang;Yong Li;Chris Rizos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 103 - 113
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multitude of RFID Tags: A Broadband Design for Stackable Applications
Abstract:
RFID technology has been a part of our lives for a number years. However, research and development are ongoing to produce novel, improved tags for higher ranges working at lower power as well as to differentiate between tags in logistic applications for conventional chip-based RFIDs. Because of such improvements in already existing infrastructures and close-proximity scenarios, the second ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) RFID student design competition was held in May in San Francisco during the 2016 IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) International Microwave Symposium (IMS2016).
Autors: Patrick Soboll;Volker Wienstroer;Rainer Kronberger;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 107 - 111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Natural Interface for Remote Operation of Underwater Robots
Abstract:
Human-machine interfaces play a crucial role in intervention robotic systems operated in hazardous environments, such as deep sea conditions. This article introduces a user interface abstraction layer to enhance reconfigurability. It also describes a VR-based interface that utilizes immersive technologies to reduce user faults and mental fatigue. The goal is to show the user only the most relevant information about the current mission.
Autors: Juan C. García;Bruno Patrão;Luís Almeida;Javier Pérez;Paulo Menezes;Jorge Dias;Pedro J. Sanz;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 34 - 43
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Networking Revolution Powered by Signal Processing [Special Reports]
Abstract:
Autors: John Edwards;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 9 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Approach to Reduce the Nonlinear Characteristics of a Stressed Power System by Using the Normal Form Technique in the Control Design of the Excitation System
Abstract:
In this paper, a new approach is presented to reduce the nonlinear characteristics of a stressed power system and improve the transient stability of the system by reducing its second-order modal interaction through retuning some parameters of the generator excitation system. In order to determine the second-order modal interaction of the system, a new index on nonlinearity is developed using the normal form theory. Using the proposed index of nonlinearity, a sensitivity function is formed to indicate the most effective excitation system parameters in the nonlinear behavior of the system. These dominant parameters are tuned to reduce the second-order modal interaction of the system and to reduce the index on nonlinearity. The efficiency of the proposed method is initially validated using a four-machine two-area test system. The IEEE 39-Bus New England test system is then used to investigate the performance of the proposed method for a more realistic system. Simulation results show that a proper tuning of the excitation controller can reduce the second-order modal interaction of the system and can even improve the transient stability margin of the network.
Autors: Hadi Lomei;Mohsen Assili;Danny Sutanto;Kashem M. Muttaqi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 492 - 500
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Conservative High-Order Modified FDTD(2,4) Scheme
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new 3-D conservative FDTD(2, 4) scheme exhibiting properties close to the 2-D-M24 scheme. This scheme is designed to retain a 2-D stencil in the field update equations and has high-phase accuracy at low-grid resolutions. Moreover, an accurate Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy condition has been validated for this scheme. Some experiments are conducted to assess the higher accuracy of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Nicolas Bui;Christophe Guiffaut;Alain Reineix;Philippe Pouliguen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 269 - 277
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Data Transmission Strategy in Mobile D2D Networks—Deterministic, Greedy, or Planned Opportunistic Routing?
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the problem of delay-constrained data transmission in mobile opportunistic device-to-device networks. In contrast to the deterministic or greedy single-copy single-path (SCSP) and multicopy multipath (MCMP) routing schemes that have been discussed in the literature, we develop a planned opportunistic routing scheme that aims to determine the optimal single-copy multipath (SCMP) transmission strategy that satisfies the delay requirement and, at the same time, minimizes communication cost. We first address the unicast by formulating the optimization problem and developing a distributed routing algorithm under practical network settings. Then, we explore optimal multicast strategies based on the SCMP transmissions. We implement the proposed algorithms on Android tablets and carry out extensive experiments, each with 25 nodes, for a period of two weeks. Moreover, we extract the algorithm codes from our prototype and run simulations based on the Haggle trace to study performance trends under various network settings. The experimental and simulation results show that the proposed protocols achieve significant performance gain in comparison with their counterparts based on SCSP and MCMP transmissions.
Autors: Yanyan Han;Hongyi Wu;Zhipeng Yang;Deshi Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 594 - 609
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Displaying Technology for Information Hiding Using Temporally Brightness Modulated Pattern
Abstract:
We propose a new display system technology that can hide secret information behind a displayed image, while simultaneously satisfying both high invisibility and readability requirements. The hidden information is a kind of binary image including characters, and various kinds of patterns, i.e., quadratic residue (QR) codes. This technique uses a temporally bright modulated invisible pattern in a moving image, or video. Frame images over some periods are summed up when read out, enhancing the contrast of the invisible pattern to make it visible. We also propose a new method to solve an issue that occurs due to asynchronous operations of the display and video camera, which is a technique that was achieved by using time-shift sampling. The hidden binary image could be read out according to experiments that we conducted to confirm the results. Moreover, the patterns used in this technique were decidedly invisible when laid behind the main images, which suggested the proposed technique was highly feasible in practical applications according to this confirmation.
Autors: Hiroshi Unno;Ronnaporn Yamkum;Chutharat Bunporn;Kazutake Uehira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 596 - 601
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Dynamic-Bias Measurement Setup for Nonlinear Transistor Model Identification
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a new dynamic-bias measurement setup and its application to the extraction of a nonlinear model for microwave field-effect transistors. The dynamic-bias technique has been recently proposed and relies on the use of low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) vector-calibrated measurements acquired, for instance, by means of a large-signal network analyzer. In this paper, we propose a new and alternative technique to perform the dynamic-bias measurements, based on relatively low-cost instrumentation commonly available in microwave laboratories. The new acquisition system is composed of a four-channel vector LF receiver (e.g., an oscilloscope) and a one-channel HF scalar receiver (e.g., a spectrum analyzer), which replace the eight-channel vector receiver. Moreover, the proposed architecture greatly simplifies the measurement setup and the calibration procedure. As a case study, a 0.25- GaN HEMT is considered. Dynamic-bias measurements, carried out by means of the proposed measurement setup, are used for the identification of a nonlinear model of this device. Finally, the model is fully validated through comparison with time-domain harmonic load–pull measurements carried out at 5 GHz.
Autors: Valeria Vadalà;Antonio Raffo;Gustavo Avolio;Mauro Marchetti;Dominique M. M.-P. Schreurs;Giorgio Vannini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 218 - 228
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Feature Selection Technique for Load and Price Forecast of Electrical Power Systems
Abstract:
Load and price forecasts are necessary for optimal operation planning in competitive electricity markets. However, most of the load and price forecast methods suffer from lack of an efficient feature selection technique with the ability of modeling the nonlinearities and interacting features of the forecast processes. In this paper, a new feature selection method is presented. An important contribution of the proposed method is modeling interaction in addition to relevancy and redundancy, based on information-theoretic criteria, for feature selection. Another main contribution of the paper is proposing a hybrid filter-wrapper approach. The filter part selects a minimum subset of the most informative features by considering relevancy, redundancy, and interaction of the candidate inputs in a coordinated manner. The wrapper part fine-tunes the settings of the composite filter.
Autors: Oveis Abedinia;Nima Amjady;Hamidreza Zareipour;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 62 - 74
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation and Multiplexing Schema Using an F-P Laser Light Source
Abstract:
While the interrogation and multiplexing are important to the application of fiber Bragg grating (FBG), the issues of high cost, complexity, and instability existing in demodulation system have been obstacles to the further development of grating. To overcome these issues, a new FBG interrogation and multiplexing approach has been proposed through taking advantage of a Fabry–Perot (F-P) laser light source. The proposed multiplexing schema is realized by the multi-longitudinal modes of the F-P laser together with four broad bandwidth FBGs, and the sharp peak of each mode from laser can be used for the signal demodulation. In our demonstration experiments of temperature sensing by using an FBG, the results show that the temperature resolution based on our proposed schema reaches 0.02 °C with the effective dynamic measurement range of 24 °C. The range has also been experimentally demonstrated to be extended dynamically. The interrogation and multiplexing system based on F-P laser will well satisfy the demand for the dynamic range, such as biological and medical system.
Autors: Lulu Li;Min Li;Wenjun Shi;Haifei Lu;Xiaoyan Wen;Xiaodong Chang;Yiming Zeng;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 243 - 246
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Method for Automatic Vehicle License Plate Detection
Abstract:
License plate recognition has been widely studied, and the advance in image capture technology helps enhance or create new methods to achieve this objective. In this work is presented a method for real time detection and segmentation of car license plates based on image analyzing and processing techniques. The results show that the computational cost and accuracy rate considering the proposed approach are acceptable to real time applications, with an execution time under 1 second. The proposed method was validated using two datasets (A and B). It was obtained over 92% detection success for dataset A, 88% in digit segmentation for datasets A and B, and 95% digits classification accuracy rate for dataset B.
Autors: Guilherme Lofrano Corneto;Francisco Assis da Silva;Danillo Roberto Pereira;Leandro Luis de Almeida;Almir Olivete Artero;Joao Paulo Papa;Victor Hugo Costa de Albuquerque;Helton Molina Sapia;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 75 - 80
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Modeling Approach for Permanent Magnet Vernier Machine With Modulation Effect Consideration
Abstract:
A dynamic nonlinear equivalent magnetic network (NEMN) method for a fault-tolerant permanent magnet Vernier machine is proposed in this paper. The key of this paper is to develop two models for no-load and on-load conditions, respectively, because the flux distribution under the no-load condition is different from that under the on-load condition owing to the modulation effect. The no-load model is built based on the precise air-gap modeling method, while the on-load model is developed based on the simplified air-gap modeling method. Meanwhile, a new circuit transformation method is provided for the on-load model to solve the difficulty of low convergence speed in the iteration process. Moreover, iron saturation and fringing effect are considered in the proposed NEMN models. Then, it is used to predict the air-gap flux density, cogging torque, back-electromotive force, and inductance. Finally, both the finite-element method and experimental tests are used to confirm the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed models.
Autors: Guohai Liu;Shan Jiang;Wenxiang Zhao;Qian Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 1 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Optical Voltage Sensor Based on Radial Polarization Detection
Abstract:
A new optical voltage sensor based on radial polarization detection is proposed in this paper, and then the linear and direct measurement of an electro-optic (EO) phase delay can be realized. The sensor mainly consists of an EO crystal, a quarter-wave plate, a newly designed radially polarized grating, and an image collecting system. The quarter-wave plate is employed to convert the EO phase delay to a rotation of the polarization plane of a linearly polarized light, and then the grating is to convert it into the rotation of a ring facular, so the EO phase delay can be measured directly by positioning the dark stripe center in the facular. The principle of the sensor is analyzed by Jones matrix. The experimental results show that this new sensor can achieve a good linear measurement of the EO phase delay in the range of 360° with the measurement error less than 0.5%, and has no limits of the half-wave voltage of crystal.
Autors: Qiao Tan;Qifeng Xu;Nan Xie;Chao Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 158 - 164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Run-to-Run Approach for Reducing Contact Bounce in Electromagnetic Switches
Abstract:
Contact bounce is probably the most undesirable phenomenon of electromagnetic switches. It reduces the performance of relays and contactors and is directly related to some of the processes that result in the destruction of the device. In this paper, a complete formulation of the problem is provided and a new strategy inspired by run-to-run control is presented for reducing contact bounce. The method, which makes use of the repetitive functioning of these systems, is highly versatile and may be applied to different switches under diverse operating conditions. In addition, it is able to deal with changes during the service life of the device, such as plastic deformations or the erosion of the contacts. Several experimental results are included to prove the effectiveness of the method.
Autors: Edgar Ramirez-Laboreo;Carlos Sagues;Sergio Llorente;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 535 - 543
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Short-Channel-Effect-Degraded Subthreshold Behavior Model for Double-Fin Multichannel FETs (DFMcFETs)
Abstract:
On the basis of the quasi-three-dimensional scaling equation and minimum bottom-central potential, a new short-channel-effect-degraded subthreshold behavior model for double-Fin multichannel FET (DFMcFET) is presented. It is shown that the deep trench of the DFMcFET is superior to the shallow one in respect of suppressing short-channel effects (SCEs) and reducing the threshold voltage roll-off and subthreshold roll-up. Meanwhile, the wide trench and thin gate oxide are required to resist SCEs and reduce the subthreshold behavior degradation as the channel length is further decreased. In comparison to the counterpart of conventional FinFET, DFMcFET not only provides the more conducting channel, but also enhances the immunity to SCEs due to its shorter scaling length. Besides, both threshold voltage roll-off ΔVTH and subthreshold swing roll-up ΔSS can be well controlled by the scaling theory. The allowable minimum channel length can be uniquely determined according to the criterion of the scaling factor. With its computational efficiency and simple form, the model can be easily used for the circuit application of the DFMcFET.
Autors: Te-Kuang Chiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 16 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Sparse Subspace Clustering Algorithm for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery
Abstract:
Robust techniques such as sparse subspace clustering (SSC) have been recently developed for hyperspectral images (HSIs) based on the assumption that pixels belonging to the same land-cover class approximately lie in the same subspace. In order to account for the spatial information contained in HSIs, SSC models incorporating spatial information have become very popular. However, such models are often based on a local averaging constraint, which does not allow for a detailed exploration of the spatial information, thus limiting their discriminative capability and preventing the spatial homogeneity of the clustering results. To address these relevant issues, in this letter, we develop a new and effective -norm regularized SSC algorithm which adds a four-neighborhood -norm regularizer into the classical SSC model, thus taking full advantage of the spatial-spectral information contained in HSIs. The experimental results confirm the potential of including the spatial information (through the newly added -norm regularization term) in the SSC framework, which leads to a significant improvement in the clustering accuracy of SSC when applied to HSIs.
Autors: Han Zhai;Hongyan Zhang;Liangpei Zhang;Pingxiang Li;Antonio Plaza;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 43 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New ZVT Snubber Cell for PWM-PFC Boost Converter
Abstract:
In this paper, a new zero-voltage transition (ZVT) snubber cell is developed for pulse width modulated (PWM) and power factor corrected (PFC) boost converters operating in continuous conduction mode. A new family of PFC boost converter implemented with this new ZVT snubber cell is proposed. In this new PFC boost converter, the main switch is turned-on perfectly with ZVT and turned-off under zero-voltage switching (ZVS). Besides, the auxiliary switch is turned-on under zero current switching and turned-off under ZVS. The main and all auxiliary diodes are operating under soft switching. During ZVT operation, the switching energies on the snubber inductance are transferred to the output by a transformer, and so the current stresses of the inductance and the auxiliary switch are significantly decreased. Also, this transformer ensures the usage of sufficient capacitors for ZVS turning off of the main and auxiliary switches. The main switch and main diode are not subjected to any additional voltage and current stresses. In this study, a detailed steady-state analysis of the proposed new ZVT-PWM-PFC boost converter is presented and this theoretical analysis is verified by a prototype with 100 kHz and 2 kW.
Autors: Hacı Bodur;Suat Yıldırmaz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 300 - 309
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Nonhuman Primate Brain–Computer Typing Interface
Abstract:
Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) record brain activity and translate the information into useful control signals. They can be used to restore function to people with paralysis by controlling end effectors such as computer cursors and robotic limbs. Communication neural prostheses are BCIs that control user interfaces on computers or mobile devices. Here we demonstrate a communication prosthesis by simulating a typing task with two rhesus macaques implanted with electrode arrays. The monkeys used two of the highest known performing BCI decoders to type out words and sentences when prompted one symbol/letter at a time. On average, monkeys J and L achieved typing rates of 10.0 and 7.2 words per minute (wpm), respectively, copying text from a newspaper article using a velocity-only 2-D BCI decoder with dwell-based symbol selection. With a BCI decoder that also featured a discrete click for key selection, typing rates increased to 12.0 and 7.8 wpm. These represent the highest known achieved communication rates using a BCI. We then quantified the relationship between bitrate and typing rate and found it approximately linear: typing rate in wpm is nearly three times bitrate in bits per second. We also compared the metrics of achieved bitrate and information transfer rate and discuss their applicability to real-world typing scenarios. Although this study cannot model the impact of cognitive load of word and sentence planning, the findings here demonstrate the feasibility of BCIs as communication interfaces and represent an upper bound on the expected achieved typing rate for a given BCI throughput.
Autors: Paul Nuyujukian;Jonathan C. Kao;Stephen I. Ryu;Krishna V. Shenoy;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 105, issue:1, pages: 66 - 72
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Nonvolatile Flip-Flop-Enabled Cryptographic Wireless Authentication Tag With Per-Query Key Update and Power-Glitch Attack Countermeasures
Abstract:
Counterfeiting is a major issue plaguing global supply chains. In order to mitigate this problem, a wireless authentication tag is presented that implements a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator and authenticated encryption modes. The tag uses Keccak, the cryptographic core of SHA3, to update keys before each protocol invocation, limiting side-channel leakage. Power-glitch attacks are mitigated through state backup on ferroelectric capacitor-based nonvolatile flip-flops with a fully integrated energy backup storage, which needs a 2.2 smaller area compared with conventional approaches. The 130 nm CMOS tag harvests wireless power through a 433 MHz inductive link and communicates with a reader by a pulse-based modulation that minimizes the wireless power dead time. The proposed regulating voltage multiplier simultaneously rectifies, boosts, and regulates a >0.55 V ac input to a 1.5 V supply voltage with <1.1% line and load regulation while requiring only one on-chip decoupling capacitor. The bidirectional data telemetry operates at 125 kb/s, while requiring 4% (downlink) and 6.25% (uplink) duty cycles. Full system operation including the tag, reader, and server protocol is demonstrated in the presence of worst-case power interruption events.
Autors: Hyung-Min Lee;Chiraag S. Juvekar;Joyce Kwong;Anantha P. Chandrakasan;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 52, issue:1, pages: 272 - 283
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Note on One Weight and Two Weight Projective $mathbb {Z}_{4}$ -Codes
Abstract:
In this paper, we solve the open problems raised in [8] and present some examples to illustrate the obtained results. Moreover, we work out the diophantine problem by Shi and Wang and then give the sufficient conditions for the nonexistence of two-Lee weight projective codes over with type .
Autors: Minjia Shi;Liangliang Xu;Gang Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 177 - 182
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach to Accurately Determine the $t_{q}$ Parameter of Thyristors
Abstract:
The continued use of high-voltage thyristor devices in industry and their increased use in high-voltage dc transmission systems call for more attention to the properties of these devices. One of the important thyristor parameters is their turn-off time , which can be a limiting factor when applying thyristors at elevated switching frequencies. Hence, the accurate measurement of and its variation versus the operating conditions remains a crucial task for thyristor converters operating at elevated switching frequencies. In this paper, a proper test circuit for measuring this parameter with a high level of accuracy has been designed and built. Owing to the test circuit specificity, the variation effects of several electrical and physical constraints, such as the forward current , the reverse applied voltage , the operating temperature , and the ramp rate of the forward reapplied voltage , on the parameter of thyristors are also studied and analyzed based on the physics of semiconductor devices and associated simulations.
Autors: Hatem Garrab;Atef Jedidi;Hervé Morel;Kamel Besbes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 206 - 216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Architecture to Eliminate Bottlenecks in a Parallel Tiled QRD Algorithm for Future MIMO Systems
Abstract:
QR decomposition (QRD) is one of the performance bottlenecks in a lot of high performance wireless communication algorithms and should have the flexibility property for future multiple-input multiple-output systems. However, the existing QRD architectures only focus on several fixed dimension matrices. The parallel tiled QRD algorithm is a perfect choice to implement QRD for its flexibility and modularity property. The size of the tile is set to 2 2 instead of the traditional 200 200 or more to support flexible antenna configurations in this brief. Using a look-ahead technique and the property of unitary matrix, a novel algorithm based on a modified Gram–Schmidt (MGS) algorithm is proposed for the bottleneck operations (GEQRT and TTQRT) of the parallel tiled QRD algorithm. A corresponding hardware architecture is also designed with the proposed algorithm. The implementation results show that the hardware architecture based on the proposed algorithm achieves a 2.7× reduction in normalized processing latency, compared with the one based on the traditional MGS algorithm.
Autors: Cang Liu;Zuocheng Xing;Luechao Yuan;Chuan Tang;Yang Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 26 - 30
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Control Approach for High-Precision Positioning of a Piezoelectric Tube Scanner
Abstract:
An optimal controller for high-precision spiral positioning of a piezoelectric tube scanner used in an atomic force microscope (AFM) is proposed in this paper. In the proposed control scheme, a second-order vibration compensator is incorporated with the piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS) to suppress the vibration of the PTS at the resonant frequency. An internal model of a reference sinusoidal signal is included with the augmented plant model and an integrator is introduced with a linear quadratic Gaussian controller which reduces the phase error between the input and output sinusoids. The proposed method allows a commercial AFM to scan at high scanning speeds as an alternative to the raster scanning approach. The performance of this controller is assessed with closed-loop frequency response, tracking accuracy, and a set of spiral scanned images. The raster scanned images obtained using the standard AFM PI controller is also presented for comparison with the spiral images. Experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: H. Habibullah;Hemanshu Roy Pota;Ian R. Petersen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 325 - 336
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Data Hiding Algorithm for High Dynamic Range Images
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel data hiding algorithm for high dynamic range (HDR) images encoded by the OpenEXR file format. The proposed algorithm exploits each of three 10-bit mantissa fields as an embedding unit in order to conceal k bits of a secret message using an optimal base which produces the least pixel variation. An aggressive bit encoding and decomposition scheme is recommended, which offers a high probability to convey (k + 1) bits without increasing the pixel variation caused by message concealment. In addition, we present a bit inversion embedding strategy to further increase the capacities when the probability of appearance of secret bit “1” is greater than 0.5. Furthermore, we introduce an adaptive data hiding approach for concealing more secret messages in pixels with low luminance, exploiting the features of the human visual system to achieve luminance-aware adaptive data hiding. The stego HDR images produced by our algorithm coincide with the HDR image file format, causing no suspicion from malicious eavesdroppers. The generated stego HDR images and their tone-mapped low dynamic range (LDR) images reveal no perceptual differences when subjected to quantitative testing by visual difference predictor. Our algorithm can resist steganalytic attacks from the HDR and LDR RS and SPAM steganalyzers. We present the first data hiding algorithm for OpenEXR HDR images offering a high embedding rate and producing high visual quality of the stego images. Our algorithm outperforms the current state-of-the-art works.
Autors: Yun-Te Lin;Chung-Ming Wang;Wei-Sung Chen;Fang-Pang Lin;Woei Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 196 - 211
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Ferrite SMDS Spoke-Type BLDC Motor for PV Bore-Well Submersible Water Pumps
Abstract:
Photovoltaic (PV) powered submersible electric water pumps are becoming popular in remote rural areas, due to the nonavailability of grid connectivity. However, the initial cost of a PV system is high. Permanent magnet (PM) brushless dc (BLDC) motors are efficient compared to existing induction motors, which reduce the cost of PV array. However, steep increase in the cost of rare-earth magnets like NdFeB and SmCo makes the use of PM motor uneconomical for PV systems. Thus, the design of PM motors with ferrite magnets is gaining interest. These magnets have low remanence flux density and are brittle. Thus, flux concentration rotor topologies are desirable. The conventional spoke-type (ST) rotor is one such topology. However, flux leakage is one of its prime concerns. To negotiate this, a novel “semi-modular dual-stack” ST BLDC motor along with its parametric aided three-dimensional finite element method analysis is proposed for a PV-based 100 mm deep bore-well submersible water pump. The motor features minimum flux leakage irrespective of rotor bridge width. In addition, a lumped parameter thermal network is modeled for quick estimation of the winding temperature rise. A prototype motor is fabricated to ascertain the results obtained from simulations, and the experimental results are presented.
Autors: S. Sashidhar;B. G. Fernandes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 104 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Grading Biomarker for the Prediction of Conversion From Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease
Abstract:
Objective: Identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects who will progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not only crucial in clinical practice, but also has a significant potential to enrich clinical trials. The purpose of this study is to develop an effective biomarker for an accurate prediction of MCI-to-AD conversion from magnetic resonance images. Methods: We propose a novel grading biomarker for the prediction of MCI-to-AD conversion. First, we comprehensively study the effects of several important factors on the performance in the prediction task including registration accuracy, age correction, feature selection, and the selection of training data. Based on the studies of these factors, a grading biomarker is then calculated for each MCI subject using sparse representation techniques. Finally, the grading biomarker is combined with age and cognitive measures to provide a more accurate prediction of MCI-to-AD conversion. Results: Using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset, the proposed global grading biomarker achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in the range of 79–81% for the prediction of MCI-to-AD conversion within three years in tenfold cross validations. The classification AUC further increases to 84–92% when age and cognitive measures are combined with the proposed grading biomarker. Conclusion: The obtained accuracy of the proposed biomarker benefits from the contributions of different factors: a tradeoff registration level to align images to the template space, the removal of the normal aging effect, selection of discriminative voxels, the calculation of the grading biomarker using AD and normal control groups, and the integration of sparse representation technique and the combination of cognitive measur- s. Significance: The evaluation on the ADNI dataset shows the efficacy of the proposed biomarker and demonstrates a significant contribution in accurate prediction of MCI-to-AD conversion.
Autors: Tong Tong;Qinquan Gao;Ricardo Guerrero;Christian Ledig;Liang Chen;Daniel Rueckert;Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 155 - 165
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel High-Speed Jet Dispenser Driven by Double Piezoelectric Stacks
Abstract:
A novel bi-piezoelectric jet dispenser with a zoom mechanism is proposed to distribute adhesives rapidly. The work frequency of the new jet dispenser can reach 500 Hz. The volume of the minimum dot is about 25 nL, and the volume error among dots is not more than ±10%. The dot size can be controlled by adjusting the driving voltage of the piezoelectric stack, filling pressure, and the opening time of the valve. Subsystem physical models of the jet valve are presented on the basis of the bi-piezoelectric principle and the zoom mechanism, which involves an electromechanical model, dynamic model, and fluid–solid coupling model. Based on these physical models, a coupled mechanical–electrical fluid simulation model is established, which can be simulated. The simulation results of the multiphysics-coupled model are in accordance with the experiment. The coupling model will develop a reliable simulating platform for high-speed fluid jet. The effectiveness of the bi-piezoelectric method and models is confirmed, and it will provide a new technology for microelectronics packaging.
Autors: Can Zhou;Ji-an Duan;Guiling Deng;Junhui Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 412 - 419
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Series Power Quality Controller With Reduced Passive Power Filter
Abstract:
A novel variable reactor is presented in this paper. The principle of the novel variable reactor is simply addressed. The equivalent impedance of primary winding of the transformer will vary with the ratio between the primary and the secondary voltages. For the proposed variable reactor, a novel series power quality controller (SPQC) is developed and its principle is analyzed in detail. The SPQC greatly improves the power utility impedance to harmonics instead of the fundamental and plays the role of isolating the harmonics. Because the novel SPQC is with very high impedance to harmonics, the passive power filter can be reduced. Accordingly, three kinds of reduced single-phase passive power filters are presented. The comparison criterion of reducing passive power filter is described. The SPQC is characterized by perfectly isolating the harmonics, simplified passive power filter design, small rating, and being suitable for two kinds of harmonic sources. The validity of the novel SPQC and excellent filtering characteristic are verified by the experimental results.
Autors: Dayi Li;Kai Yang;Z. Q. Zhu;Yi Qin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 773 - 784
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Steering System for a Space-Saving 4WS4WD Electric Vehicle: Design, Modeling, and Road Tests
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a steering system for a space-saving four-wheel steering and four-wheel drive (4WS4WD) electric vehicle (EV) with higher maneuverability and flexibility. The proposed system consists of three main parts, namely, an improved two-front-wheel steering (2FWS) mechanism, an omnidirectional independent steering (OIS) mechanism integrated with steer-by-wire, and a control strategy for the space-saving steering system of an EV. First, the 2FWS mechanism of the proposed 4WS4WD EV is designed to control the front wheels via the redesigned steering system when the vehicle is traveling at high speeds. Second, a retrofitted OIS mechanism is proposed to achieve an angle range of , which is a solid basis for zero radius turning (ZRT) and lateral parking (LP) motion. The driver can control the OIS to turn the four wheels independently, which is assisted by steer-by-wire technologies. Finally, the control strategy for the space-saving steering system of the EV is redefined for the integrated 2FWS and OIS, which can easily handle the EV for high-speed driving or high-maneuverability turning, such as ZRT and LP motion. This system was field tested on a homemade 4WS4WD EV, and the final system simulation and performance evaluation demonstrated the validity of the proposed steering system for the space-saving 4WS4WD EV.
Autors: Zutao Zhang;Xingtian Zhang;Hongye Pan;Waleed Salman;Yagubov Rasim;Xinglong Liu;Chunbai Wang;Yan Yang;Xiaopei Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 114 - 127
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Structure for Single-Switch Nonisolated Transformerless Buck–Boost DC–DC Converter
Abstract:
A novel transformerless buck–boost dc–dc converter is proposed in this paper. The presented converter voltage gain is higher than that of the conventional boost, buck–boost, CUK, SEPIC, and ZETA converters, and high voltage can be obtained with a suitable duty cycle. In this converter, only one power switch is utilized. The voltage stress across the power switch is low. Hence, the low on-state resistance of the power switch can be selected to decrease conduction loss of the switch and improve efficiency. The presented converter has simple structure, therefore, the control of the proposed converter will be easy. The principle of operation and the mathematical analyses of the proposed converter are explained. The validity of the presented converter is verified by the experimental results.
Autors: Mohammad Reza Banaei;Hossein Ajdar Faeghi Bonab;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 198 - 205
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Wire-Wrap Slow-Wave Structure for Terahertz Backward Wave Oscillator Applications
Abstract:
An innovative wire-wrap structure was applied as the slow-wave circuit for a backward wave oscillator (BWO) operating in terahertz (THz) band. The construction of the device features a periodic fine copper wire, a rectangular ridged waveguide, and a rectangular cavity in the upper cover plate. Based on the novel structure, the performance of the device presented by dispersion characteristic, coupling impedance, and S-parameters was analyzed and optimized in the design process. The electron beam parameters with an outer diameter of 0.26 mm have relatively low accelerating voltage around 1.2 kV and beam current of 0.05 A (the current density is 94 A/cm). Under such conditions, numerical simulation results predict that the novel oscillator is capable of achieving the output peak power in excess of 154 mW and a tunable 3-dB bandwidth over 24 GHz in the range from 324 to 348 GHz. In addition, the machining and assembling methods of wire-wrap structure are another original invention for the physical processing of THz BWO.
Autors: Changpeng Xu;Yong Yin;Liangjie Bi;Zhang Zhang;Zhiwei Chang;Abdur Rauf;Safi Ullah;Bin Wang;Lin Meng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 293 - 299
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Numerical Methodology for the Analysis of Switched-Capacitor Filters Taking Into Account Non-Ideal Effects of Switches and Amplifiers
Abstract:
This paper presents an efficient numerical methodology to obtain the frequency response of switched-capacitor filters based on the circuits' differential equations. This methodology uses a non-hierarchical approach in which the non-ideal effects of the transistors (in the switches and in the amplifier) are taken into consideration, allowing the accurate computation of the frequency response, even in the case of incomplete settling in the SC branches. The accuracy is demonstrated by comparing the results obtained using the proposed methodology with those obtained using transient electrical simulation results for three different SC circuits: a first order SC passive filter, a second order SC lowpass filter, and a second order SC bandpass filter, showing that the results are in good agreement with the more time consuming electrical simulation of the circuits.
Autors: Hugo Serra;Rui Santos-Tavares;Nuno Paulino;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 61 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Parallel Contour Integral Method for Eigenvalue Analysis of Power Systems
Abstract:
A parallelized numerical contour integral based method is proposed for counting interior eigenvalues in a given region on the complex plane. The proposed method is derived from descriptor system of power system linearized model and complex analysis theory, based on which the computation of eigenvalue number is converted to a set of matrix trace problems. The contour integral results are able to be utilized to detect missing target eigenvalues in partial eigenvalue methods and provide an approximate eigenvalue distribution along the integral curve. Efficient evaluation of integral function is implemented by exploiting the sparsity of descriptor systems. An adaptive integral point collocation strategy is proposed for numerically evaluating contour integral with moderate number of discretized points. As the computation of integral function is decoupled at each integral point, the proposed method features well parallel computing capability.
Autors: Yongjie Li;Guangchao Geng;Quanyuan Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 624 - 632
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Patient-Centric Sensory System for In-Home Rehabilitation
Abstract:
This paper presents a patient-centric rehabilitation practice monitoring sensory system, which operates based on monitoring rotational joints’ angle. At each joint, an inertial and a magnetometer sensors are simultaneously used to accurately measure a desired angle. Benefiting from a modified complementary filter to combine the results of both sensors, the root mean square errors of less than 1.6 and 1.7 degrees were calculated, respectively, for the static and dynamic evaluation tests. The outcome results show that the errors associated with both the static and dynamic evaluation are in turn ~ 22% and ~ 4.5% lower. To ensure the correctness of practices, the deviation of the measurement results (joint angle) from a known reference over time is considered as a qualification measure. Also, the obtained qualification measure is compared with the overall level of adenosine triphosphate generated in muscles, which is accounted for fatigue. The qualification measure can enable the developed system to calculate to the optimum velocity of specific movements.
Autors: Reza Abbasi-Kesbi;Alireza Nikfarjam;Hamidreza Memarzadeh-Tehran;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 524 - 533
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Planar Dual-Polarized Microstrip 1-D-Beamforming Antenna Array for the 24-GHz Band
Abstract:
A planar linearly dual-polarized mm-wave antenna array is designed, fabricated, and investigated in detail. The requirements are two orthogonal polarizations with good purity and suitability of the array column for 1-D beamforming applications. Since single-layer fabrication without using vertical interconnection accesses is another important requirement, the chosen radiating elements are square microstrip patches, fed at two orthogonal edges. The array feeding is designed in series microstrip line fashion, providing a highly compact structure. In that way, 1-D beamforming agility is gained, when multiple array columns are arranged side by side and the individual columns are fed with appropriate phases. The sidelobe level of the array columns is decreased by implementing an amplitude taper within the series array, following the Dolph–Chebychev distribution. A fast scattering parameter calculation procedure is presented to achieve an efficient simulation and design process. The simulated and measured antenna properties are very stable over a bandwidth of 500 MHz around the center frequency proving that such a challenging dual-polarized design can be successfully implemented at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies with just one metallization layer on a grounded substrate. The design parameters and the design procedure are demonstrated in a step by step manner to give sufficient insight into the process together with the possibility of reusing the antenna array itself, as well as the underlying concepts.
Autors: Gerhard F. Hamberger;Stefan Trummer;Uwe Siart;Thomas F. Eibert;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 142 - 149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Planar Integrated Folded Reflectarray Antenna With Circular Polarization
Abstract:
This communication presents the complete design of a circularly polarized (CP) folded reflectarray (FRA) antenna with an integrated planar structure for the first time in the open literature. To achieve circularly polarized, a printed meander-line polarizer is designed and integrated with the linearly polarized (LP) FRA. To achieve a low-profile planar structure, an integrated planar array is designed as the feed source instead of a horn. Thus, the whole antenna, including the feed source, LPFRA, and meander-line polarizer, can be fully integrated and fabricated using low-cost printed circuit board technology. To validate the concept, a right-handed CPFRA operating in C-band is designed, fabricated, and measured. The broadside axial ratio (AR) of the proposed CPFRA is lower than 1 dB over a bandwidth from 5.22 to 5.46 GHz. In addition, the maximum gain of 22.8 dBic is obtained at 5.38 GHz with the antenna efficiency of 27%. The antenna is promising for applications in satellite communication due to advantages of low profile, easy fabrication, low cost, and high gain.
Autors: Chong Zhang;Yongfeng Wang;Fuguo Zhu;Gao Wei;Jianzhou Li;Changying Wu;Steven Gao;Haitao Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 385 - 390
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A PMU Placement Scheme Considering Realistic Costs and Modern Trends in Relaying
Abstract:
Synchrophasor deployment costs have evolved over time. The cost of upgrading a substation, which is much larger than the cost of an individual device, has emerged as the primary constituent of the total expenditure. Given these circumstances, the optimal phasor measurement unit placement formulation needs to consider not only the number of devices that must be placed at the substations, but also the number of substations that must be upgraded to support those devices. This paper presents an integer linear programming methodology for such a placement scheme while considering realistic costs and practical constraints. The IEEE 30 bus system is used to illustrate the proposed concept, while the IEEE 118, IEEE 300, and Polish 2383 bus systems are used to show the performance of the method under different test environments.
Autors: Anamitra Pal;Anil Kumar S. Vullikanti;S. S. Ravi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 552 - 561
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Polarization Parametric Method of Sensing the Scattering Signals From a Submicrometer Particle
Abstract:
In this letter, we report a new far-field polarization microscopic technique for detecting the scattering signals from a submicron particle. A diamond-like carbon submicrometer particle is imaged in terms of its scattered field intensity and polarization parameters involving the Stokes parameters. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed technique is able to resolve fine information from the anisotropic edge scattering of scatterers and also to quantitatively measure the scattered field spectra with an effective spatial range significantly extending beyond the conventional microscopy.
Autors: Kaleem Ullah;Xuefeng Liu;Xiong Jichuan;Jingjing Hao;Bin Xu;Zhao Jun;Weiping Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 19 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Practical Feasibility Study of a Novel Strategy for the Gaussian Half-Duplex Relay Channel
Abstract:
This paper presents a practical feasibility study of a novel two-phase three-part-message strategy for half-duplex relaying, which features superposition coding and interference-aware cancellation decoding. Aiming to analyze the performance of the proposed scheme in the non-asymptotic regime, this paper evaluates the spectral efficiency with finite block-length and discrete constellation signaling and compares it with the theoretical performance of Gaussian codes with asymptotically large block-lengths. The performance evaluation is carried out on an LTE simulation test bench. During each transmission phase, the modulation and coding scheme is adapted to the channel link qualities to enhance the overall spectral efficiency. A single-antenna source and relay, and a multi-antenna destination are assumed. The static Gaussian and two frequency selective channel models are considered for the proposed scheme. A spectral efficiency comparison with a baseline scheme (non-cooperative two-hop transmission, i.e., the source-destination link is absent) and with the point-to-point transmission strategy (no relay) is presented. The results confirm that physical-layer cooperation and multi-antennas are critical for performance enhancement in heterogeneous networks. Moreover, they show that physical layer cooperation advantages are within practical reach with existing LTE coded-modulation and interference-mitigation techniques, which are prevalent in modern user-equipment.
Autors: Robin Rajan Thomas;Martina Cardone;Raymond Knopp;Daniela Tuninetti;Bodhaswar T. Maharaj;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 101 - 116
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Probabilistic Distance-Based Modeling and Analysis for Cellular Networks With Underlaying Device-to-Device Communications
Abstract:
Device-to-device (D2D) communications in cellular networks are promising technologies for improving network performance. However, they may cause severe intra/inter-cell interference that can considerably degrade the performance of cellular users, and vice versa. Therefore, interference analysis has been one of the most important research topics in such a system. Focusing on an uplink resource reusing scenario, this paper presents a framework based on a probabilistic distance and path-loss model to obtain the distributions of signal, interference, and further Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR), based on which, the performance metrics that are functions of SINR can be analyzed, such as outage probability and capacity. Different from the previous work, this proposed framework: 1) obtains interference and SINR distributions for both cellular and D2D communications, through which insights into their performance metrics and mutual influence are provided and 2) has no limitations on cell shapes, except that they are approximated by polygons or circles. The framework can also be applied to a downlink reusing scenario. Our results indicate that the developed framework is helpful for network planners to effectively tune the network parameters, and thus to achieve the optimum system performance for both cellular and D2D communications.
Autors: Fei Tong;Ying Wan;Lei Zheng;Jianping Pan;Lin Cai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 451 - 463
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Proposed Method for Establishing Partial Discharge Acceptance Limits on API 541 and 546 Sacrificial Test Coils
Abstract:
Recent revisions to API standards have identified offline partial discharge analysis as an appropriate factory acceptance test (FAT) to evaluate the quality of certain new medium voltage motor and generator stator windings. As a starting point, API 541 recommends a partial discharge (PD) level of 100 pC (pico-Coulombs) for sacrificial stator coils measured with an IEC 60270 compliant instrument. The recommended PD level is subject to discussion between the purchaser and the manufacturer until more data are available. This paper provides PD data from sacrificial coils and stator windings to support discussions on PD acceptance criteria. Three instruments were used for PD tests on resin-rich, press-cured sacrificial coils in laboratory conditions controlled to minimize noise, and in the typical environment of a FAT. These coils were then tested daily for a week, with identical measurement conditions of noise, time of day, operator, and instrument. Also, included are examples of offline PD data from two complete stator windings. The first was a new winding, tested in the factory on two different days. The second was an aged winding tested using the same methods but in different locations. Instrument selection, testing location, elapsed time between measurements and insulation system construction can influence offline PD measurements. The current evidence suggests that statistical distributions drawn from similar test conditions are more applicable than specific PD limits.
Autors: Saeed Ul Haq;Meredith K. W. Stranges;Barry Wood;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 718 - 722
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A PSFB-Based Integrated PEV Onboard Charger With Extended ZVS Range and Zero Duty Cycle Loss
Abstract:
A conventional phase-shift full-bridge (PSFB) converter suffers from easy failure of zero-voltage switching (ZVS) in the lagging leg under light load conditions. This poses a significant challenge to the optimal design of PSFB-based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) onboard chargers. In this paper, a self-reconfigured integrated onboard charger architecture is proposed for PEVs to cope with this design challenge. In this architecture, the PSFB converter is adopted as the main topology to charge the high-voltage battery pack, while the half-bridge LLC resonant converter is employed to charge the low-voltage auxiliary battery. Under light-charging mode, the half-bridge LLC converter is reconfigured to be paralleled with the PSFB topology to guarantee the ZVS of the lagging leg mosfets. Moreover, a capacitor–diode–diode snubber is added to resolve the duty cycle loss issue of the PSFB converter and to reduce the circulating current. Practical design considerations are presented for both the PSFB and the half-bridge LLC converters. Frequency modulation and the phase-shift modulation provide two degrees of freedom to regulate the output voltage/current of both converters. The proposed charger architecture maintains low cost and high efficiency in this specific application. A 390 V input, 420 V/2.4 A, 14 V/21 A outputs, 1.3 kW rated converter prototype is designed, analyzed, and tested to verify the proof of concept.
Autors: Haoyu Wang;Ming Shang;Alireza Khaligh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 585 - 595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A QoS Aware Resource Allocation Strategy for Mobile Graphics Rendering With Cloud Support
Abstract:
With the rapid development of cloud technology, many services have been transferred from local computers to the cloud-based platform, which decreases the amount of computation done on the former. The local computer could thus be developed in the direction of portability and power saving. Graphics processing, apart from providing user interfaces featuring diversified special effects, is also significant in terms of application programs and play interactions. It is exactly on the basis of the concept of graphics processing that Cloud-support Rendering is developed, which is aimed to improve the graphics efficiency in mobile devices, via the graphics processing units on the cloud-based platform. The cloud-based platform and the mobile devices are usually connected by the Internet; however, as remote rendering might call for greater network bandwidth, its efficiency will be compromised if the network bandwidth is not stable. Given this limitation, this research sets out to propose a QoS aware resource allocation strategy for mobile 3D graphics rendering, which is a hybrid rendering technology combining the client-side graphics processing capabilities with the graphics processing units on the cloud-based platform. When network bandwidth is not stable, the technology is able to assess the current network bandwidth, and dynamically configure the rendered frames on the client side and cloud-based platforms. Even when the client side could not access the network, it would still be possible to carry out the drawing through the graphics processing units on the local computer. Three applications are tested in this research: technology can increase the frame rate by an average 44.99% when the bandwidth is 10% greater than the minimum limit, by an average 44.57% when the bandwidth is less than the minimum limit, by an average 30.86% when the bandwidth is 10% less than the minimum limit, and by an average 33.74% when the bandwidth is not stable.
Autors: Chin-Feng Lai;Ren-Hung Hwang;Han-Chieh Chao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 110 - 124
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Quality-of-Content-Based Joint Source and Channel Coding for Human Detections in a Mobile Surveillance Cloud
Abstract:
More than 70% of consumer mobile Internet traffic will be mobile video transmissions by 2019. The development of wireless video transmission technologies has been boosted by the rapidly increasing demand of video streaming applications. Although more and more videos are delivered for video analysis (e.g., object detection/tracking and action recognition), most existing wireless video transmission schemes are developed to optimize human perception quality and are suboptimal for video analysis. In mobile surveillance networks, a cloud server collects videos from multiple moving cameras and detects suspicious persons in all camera views. Camera mobility in smartphones or dash cameras implies that video is to be uploaded through bandwidth-limited and error-prone wireless networks, which may cause quality degradation of the decoded videos and jeopardize the performance of video analyses. In this paper, we propose an effective rate-allocation scheme for multiple moving cameras in order to improve human detection (content) performance. Therefore, the optimization criterion of the proposed rate-allocation scheme is driven by quality of content (QoC). Both video source coding and application layer forward error correction coding rates are jointly optimized. Moreover, the proposed rate-allocation problem is formulated as a convex optimization problem and can be efficiently solved by standard solvers. Many simulations using High Efficiency Video Coding standard compression of video sequences and the deformable part model object detector are carried, and results demonstrate the effectiveness and favorable performance of our proposed QoC-driven scheme under different pedestrian densities and wireless conditions.
Autors: Xiang Chen;Jenq-Neng Hwang;De Meng;Kuan-Hui Lee;Ricardo L. de Queiroz;Fu-Ming Yeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 19 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Random Trajectory Approach for the Development of Nonstationary Channel Models Capturing Different Scales of Fading
Abstract:
This paper introduces a new approach to developing stochastic nonstationary channel models, the randomness of which originates from a random trajectory of the mobile station (MS) rather than from the scattering area. The new approach is employed by utilizing a random trajectory model based on the primitives of Brownian fields (BFs), whereas the position of scatterers can be generated from an arbitrarily 2-D distribution function. The employed trajectory model generates random paths along which the MS travels from a given starting point to a fixed predefined destination point. To capture the path loss, the gain of each multipath component is modeled by a negative power law applied to the traveling distance of the corresponding plane wave, whereas the randomness of the path traveled results in large-scale fading. It is shown that the local received power is well approximated by a Gaussian process in logarithmic scale, even for a very limited number of scatterers. It is also shown that the envelope of the complex channel gain follows closely a Suzuki process, indicating that the proposed channel model superimposes small-scale fading and large-scale fading. The local power delay profile (PDP) and the local Doppler power spectral density (PSD) of the channel model are also derived and analyzed.
Autors: Alireza Borhani;Gordon L. Stüber;Matthias Pätzold;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 2 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Rapid Vibration Reduction Method for Macro–Micro Composite Precision Positioning Stage
Abstract:
A macro–micro composite precision positioning stage is mainly used in microelectronics manufacturing to achieve high velocity, high precision, and large-stroke positioning. The positioning accuracy and working efficiency of the stage are influenced by the inertial vibration caused by motion with high acceleration. This paper proposes an active vibration reduction (AVR) method employing a piezoelectric device for a designed macro–micro motion stage. The design model of the stage is established and its dynamic models are explored. The feasibility of the piezoelectric device as a vibration damper for the designed positioning stage is demonstrated through theoretical analyses, including natural frequency analysis and inertial vibration energy analysis. Furthermore, an optimal design of the stage with the AVR mechanism is established and then verified experimentally. The performance of the AVR method is examined and characterized through investigation of the differences in inertial vibration energy with and without the AVR, and the performance of the proposed method in terms of the vibration amplitude and positioning time is measured at different accelerations, velocities, and strokes. The theoretical and experimental analyses indicate the effectiveness of the proposed vibration reduction method, and this method could be employed in several applications that require vibration reduction.
Autors: Lanyu Zhang;Jian Gao;Xin Chen;Hui Tang;Yun Chen;Yunbo He;Zhijun Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 401 - 411
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Refreshing Take on Efficiency and Linearity [Book/Software Reviews]
Abstract:
This book follows the line of thinking that believes that there will always be a future for efficiency and linearity. The title may confuse readers at first because it does not use the typical buzzwords of envelope tracking, outphasing, or class-S. The author has a broader strategy in mind, and that is to back up a bit and give readers one book that looks at all the issues involved, as a power amplifier (PA) incorporates a dynamic power supply. There are several refreshing aspects of this book. It is not a literature review but a ground-up look at linear, envelope-tracking, and outphasing amplifiers. This consistency of approach and derivation from the fundamentals gives readers a rare perspective. Also, this book is full of practical insights. Many texts walk the reader through equations and derivations, but this book adds in many insights. There was an obvious effort on the part of the author to put a lot of thought and work went into producing this work. This book is highly recommended for students involved in high-efficiency PA design. And while it does not contain problems for students, I believe it will be a very useful text for educators because of the consistency of viewpoint and fundamental approach.
Autors: Alfy Riddle;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 112 - 125
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Resistance Drift Compensation Scheme to Reduce MLC PCM Raw BER by Over $100times $ for Storage Class Memory Applications
Abstract:
For multilevel cell (MLC) phase change memory (PCM), resistance drift (R-drift) phenomenon causes cell resistance to increase with time, even at room temperature. As a result, the fixed-threshold-retention (FTR) raw-bit-error-rate (RBER) surpasses practical ECC correction ability within hours after being programmed. This study proposes a resistance drift compensation (RDC) scheme to mitigate R-drift issue. The proposed RDC scheme realizes PCM drift compensation and features RDC pulse to suppress ECC decoding failure. The proposed approach was validated using a 90-nm 128M cells PCM chip and an FPGA-based memory controller verification system. The MLC PCM FTR RBER has been suppressed by over , thereby bringing it within ECC capability. The effectiveness of the RDC scheme was verified up to cycles.
Autors: Win-San Khwa;Meng-Fan Chang;Jau-Yi Wu;Ming-Hsiu Lee;Tzu-Hsiang Su;Keng-Hao Yang;Tien-Fu Chen;Tien-Yen Wang;Hsiang-Pang Li;Matthew Brightsky;Sangbum Kim;Hsiang-Lan Lung;Chung Lam;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 52, issue:1, pages: 218 - 228
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reverse Converter and Sign Detectors for an Extended RNS Five-Moduli Set
Abstract:
This paper deals with the extended five moduli set where is a positive odd integer and is nonnegative integer such that . The paper proposes an efficient residue-to-binary converter along with a converter-based sign detector for this extended set. The paper also presents a residue-to-residue transformer that transforms the same five-moduli set to the three-moduli set . Such a transformer enables the five-moduli set to utilize components that are (or will be) designed for the three-moduli set such as sign detectors.
Autors: Ahmad Hiasat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 111 - 121
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Roadmap to the Programmable World: Software Challenges in the IoT Era
Abstract:
The Internet of Things (IoT) represents the next significant step in the evolution of the Internet and software development. Although most IoT research focuses on data acquisition, analytics, and visualization, a subtler but equally important transition is underway. Hardware advances are making it possible to embed fully fledged virtual machines and dynamic language runtimes virtually everywhere, leading to a Programmable World in which all our everyday things are connected and programmable dynamically. The emergence of millions of remotely programmable devices in our surroundings will pose significant software development challenges. A roadmap from today's cloud-centric, data-centric IoT systems to the Programmable World highlights the technical challenges that deserve to be part of developer education and deserve deeper investigation beyond those IoT topics that receive the most attention today.
Autors: Antero Taivalsaari;Tommi Mikkonen;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 72 - 80
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Segment-Based Storage and Transcoding Trade-off Strategy for Multi-version VoD Systems in the Cloud
Abstract:
Multi-version video-on-demand (VoD) providers either store multiple versions of the same video or transcode video to multiple versions in real time to offer multiple-bitrate streaming services to heterogeneous clients. However, this could incur tremendous storage cost or transcoding computation cost. There have been some works regarding trading off between transcoding and storing whole videos, but they did not take into account video segmentation and internal popularity. As a result, they were not cost-efficient. This paper introduces video segmentation and proposes a segment-based storage and transcoding trade-off strategy for multi-version VoD systems in the cloud. First, we split each video into multiple segments depending on the video internal popularity. Second, we describe the transcoding relationships among versions using a transcoding weighted graph, which can be used to calculate the version-aware transcoding cost from one version to another. Third, we take the video segmentation, version-aware transcoding weighted graph, and video internal popularity into account to propose a storage and transcoding trade-off strategy, which stores multiple versions of popular segments and transcodes unpopular segments. We then formulate it as an optimization problem and present a heuristic divide-and-conquer algorithm to get an approximate optimal solution. Finally, we conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the solution; the results show that it can significantly lower the storage and transcoding cost of multi-version VoD systems.
Autors: Hui Zhao;Qinghua Zheng;Weizhan Zhang;Biao Du;Haifei Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 149 - 159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Semi-NMF-PCA Unified Framework for Data Clustering
Abstract:
In this work, we propose a novel way to consider the clustering and the reduction of the dimension simultaneously. Indeed, our approach takes advantage of the mutual reinforcement between data reduction and clustering tasks. The use of a low-dimensional representation can be of help in providing simpler and more interpretable solutions. We show that by doing so, our model is able to better approximate the relaxed continuous dimension reduction solution by the true discrete clustering solution. Experiment results show that our method gives better results in terms of clustering than the state-of-the-art algorithms devoted to similar tasks for data sets with different proprieties.
Autors: Kais Allab;Lazhar Labiod;Mohamed Nadif;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 2 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Sensitivity Enhanced Microdisplacement Sensing Method Improved Using Slow Light in Fiber Bragg Grating
Abstract:
Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have been widely used in all industrial fields due to their advantages of small size, corrosion resistance, strong antijamming capability, and easy to reuse. Traditional FBG sensors can measure microdisplacement, but low sensitivity and resolution limit its applications in the field of precision measurement. There are sidelobes near the FBG bandgap whose transmittivity changes with wavelength, and the transmitted light has a huge group delay time due to the light here transmitting back and forth numerous times. This paper proposes and demonstrates a sensitivity enhanced microdisplacement sensor using slow light in FBGs through numerical simulations and experiments. A theoretical model of gratings is established by the coupled mode theory and transfer matrix method, and the mechanism of slow light generated in FBG is studied theoretically and also by numerical simulation analysis. This paper determined the set structure parameters of FBG by studying the slow light characteristics of different types of gratings with different structure parameters and influences of structure parameters on the FBG slow light characteristics. A microdisplacement sensing system is designed and built, and finally a sensitivity of 15.0786 mW/mm and a resolution of 66 nm are reached in the range of 0–60 , which is 13 times more than the traditional grating sensing with light intensity demodulation.
Autors: Qi Wang;Mengjuan Guo;Yong Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 122 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Displacement and Temperature Based on the Fabry-Pérot Effect of a Fiber Bragg Grating
Abstract:
A temperature-insensitive sensor for micro displacement measurement is proposed based on a novel packaging of an FBG. In this paper, an apodized fiber Bragg grating (FBG) was glued at the specific position on the inner surface of a thin-walled ring. When the ring is deformed, the FBG could be split into two segments of FBGs in the two identical but oppositely directed chirp gradients. In this way, an effective Fabry–Pérot cavity could be induced into the FBG and the resonant peaks could be observed in the reflection spectrum of the FBG. The wavelength separation of the resonant peaks changes linearly with the change of displacement, while it is insensitive to temperature variation. The sensitivity of the wavelength separation versus displacement could be achieved as high as 117 pm mm−1 in the present experiment. Further improvement would be obtained by decreasing the radius or increasing the thickness of the ring. In addition, the ambient temperature could be obtained through a simple calculation, results in a temperature sensitivity of 28.67 pm °C−1. Owing to its compact and temperature independent advantages, the novel displacement sensor has potential application prospect in displacement and pressure measurements, especially in civil engineering structures as the long gauge sensor.
Autors: Sicong Tao;Xiaopeng Dong;Bowen Lai;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 261 - 266
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A SiC-Based High-Efficiency Isolated Onboard PEV Charger With Ultrawide DC-Link Voltage Range
Abstract:
In LLC-based onboard battery charging architectures used in plug-in electric vehicles (PEV), the dc link voltage can be actively regulated to follow the battery pack voltage so that the LLC converter can operate in proximity of resonant frequency and achieve high efficiencies over the wide range of battery pack voltage. However, conventional boost-type power factor correction (PFC) converters are unable to provide ultrawide dc link voltages since their output voltages should always be larger than their input voltages. This paper proposes a Silicon Carbide (SiC)-based onboard PEV charger using single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC) PFC converter followed by an isolated LLC resonant converter. With the proposed charger architecture, the SEPIC PFC converter is able to provide an ultrawide range for dc link voltage, and consequently enhance the efficiency of the LLC stage by ensuring operation in proximity of resonant frequency. A 1-kW SiC-based prototype is designed to validate the proposed idea. The experimental result shows that the SEPIC PFC converter achieves unity power factor, 2.72% total harmonic distortion, and 95.3% peak conversion efficiency. The LLC converter achieves 97.1% peak efficiency and always demonstrates a very high efficiency across the ultrawide dc-link voltage range. The overall efficiency of the charger is 88.5% to 93.5% from 20% of the rated load to full load.
Autors: Chuan Shi;Haoyu Wang;Serkan Dusmez;Alireza Khaligh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 501 - 511
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Simple Method for Porosity Estimation at Nanoscale
Abstract:
Porous nanostructures have important applications in developing high-surface-area catalysts, sensors, and filters. It is difficult to accurately calculate porosity of nanomaterials using usual methods. Here, using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) topography, we introduce an interestingly simple method for calculating porosity of nanosized materials in three-dimensions based on the length correlation and average surface height difference. Computer simulations were used along with experimental results to test the validity of our proposed method. The porosity of the TiO2-nanowire-deposited silicon substrates was experimentally estimated from AFM-measured topography images. The corresponding computer simulations were carried out only for one crystallographic direction of the surface of the sample, for the surface is isotropic—there is no preferred direction at the surface—and we expect that simulations along an arbitrarily chosen cross section of the surface provide us with a full description of the entire surface. The results of the simulations were found to be in line with the results obtained by our proposed method from experimental data.
Autors: Saeideh Ramezani Sani;Meghdad Saeedian;Abdollah Mortezaali;G. R. Jafari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 126 - 129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Social-Aware Framework for Efficient Information Dissemination in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:
In wireless ad hoc networks, each node participates in routing by forwarding data to other nodes without a pre-existing infrastructure. Particularly, with the wide adoption of smart devices, the concept of smartphone ad hoc networks (SPANs) has evolved to enable alternate means for information sharing. Using unlicensed frequency spectrum and short-range wireless technologies, a SPAN enables a new paradigm of applications and thus is seen as an attractive component in future wireless networks. In a SPAN, smartphones form local peer-to-peer networks to cooperate and share information efficiently. Recent studies have shown that if the users’ social relations are considered while designing cooperation schemes and protocols in SPANs, the cooperation initialization and content dissemination can be notably improved to increase the overall network efficiency and communications reliability. In this article, we present a social-aware framework for optimizing SPANs by exploiting two layers: users’ relationships in the online social network layer and users’ offline connections and interactions in the physical wireless network layer. The online content popularity distribution is also studied as a result of the users’ online interaction profiles. In the end, we integrate both online and offline layers, and discuss possible applications to further enhance the network performance.
Autors: Yanru Zhang;Lingyang Song;Chunxiao Jiang;Nguyen H. Tran;Zaher Dawy;Zhu Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 174 - 179
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Speedy Preparation of Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9-Δ Buffer Layer for YBa 2Cu3O7-δ Coated Conductors
Abstract:
Economic, efficient, and energy-saving preparation techniques were the key factors for the application of superconducting coated conductors. To shorten the preparation time and decrease the preparation cost, a speedy route of chemical solution deposition method was developed to prepare Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9-Δ (CSO) layer on yttria stabilized zirconia single crystal substrate. The CSO buffer layer was successfully obtained by the speedy route with the c-axis oriented structure and the smooth dense surface. The total time for the preparing CSO buffer layer could be shortened to around 70 mins. The thickness of CSO buffer layer was 150 nm. The YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) superconducting layer was grown on the CSO buffer layer with the superconducting transition temperature of 90.2 K and the critical current density of 1.83 MA cm−2 (77 K, self-field). Hence, the speedy chemical solution deposition route could provide a low cost and efficient technology to prepare YBCO coated conductors.
Autors: Xiaolei Zhu;Hong Zhang;Yong Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Survey of Diet Monitoring Technology
Abstract:
This article surveys techniques for evaluating eating habits for wellness applications, emphasizing sensor-based approaches such as audio signal processing, inertial sensing, image processing, and gesture recognition. The focus is on noninvasive technologies that could be developed into real-time wearable devices, rather than techniques whose use is limited to laboratory settings. The authors present the results of an online survey in which respondents rate and describe their impressions of various approaches.
Autors: Haik Kalantarian;Nabil Alshurafa;Majid Sarrafzadeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 57 - 65
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Survey of Heterogeneous Information Network Analysis
Abstract:
Most real systems consist of a large number of interacting, multi-typed components, while most contemporary researches model them as homogeneous information networks, without distinguishing different types of objects and links in the networks. Recently, more and more researchers begin to consider these interconnected, multi-typed data as heterogeneous information networks, and develop structural analysis approaches by leveraging the rich semantic meaning of structural types of objects and links in the networks. Compared to widely studied homogeneous information network, the heterogeneous information network contains richer structure and semantic information, which provides plenty of opportunities as well as a lot of challenges for data mining. In this paper, we provide a survey of heterogeneous information network analysis. We will introduce basic concepts of heterogeneous information network analysis, examine its developments on different data mining tasks, discuss some advanced topics, and point out some future research directions.
Autors: Chuan Shi;Yitong Li;Jiawei Zhang;Yizhou Sun;Philip S. Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 17 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Survey of Techniques for Architecting and Managing GPU Register File
Abstract:
To support their massively-multithreaded architecture, GPUs use very large register file (RF) which has a capacity higher than even L1 and L2 caches. In total contrast, traditional CPUs use tiny RF and much larger caches to optimize latency. Due to these differences, along with the crucial impact of RF in determining GPU performance, novel and intelligent techniques are required for managing GPU RF. In this paper, we survey the techniques for designing and managing GPU RF. We discuss techniques related to performance, energy and reliability aspects of RF. To emphasize the similarities and differences between the techniques, we classify them along several parameters. The aim of this paper is to synthesize the state-of-art developments in RF management and also stimulate further research in this area.
Autors: Sparsh Mittal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 16 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Survey on Activity Detection and Classification Using Wearable Sensors
Abstract:
Activity detection and classification are very important for autonomous monitoring of humans for applications, including assistive living, rehabilitation, and surveillance. Wearable sensors have found wide-spread use in recent years due to their ever-decreasing cost, ease of deployment and use, and ability to provide continuous monitoring as opposed to sensors installed at fixed locations. Since many smart phones are now equipped with a variety of sensors, such as accelerometer, gyroscope, and camera, it has become more feasible to develop activity monitoring algorithms employing one or more of these sensors with increased accessibility. We provide a complete and comprehensive survey on activity classification with wearable sensors, covering a variety of sensing modalities, including accelerometer, gyroscope, pressure sensors, and camera- and depth-based systems. We discuss differences in activity types tackled by this breadth of sensing modalities. For example, accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer systems have a history of addressing whole body motion or global type activities, whereas camera systems provide the context necessary to classify local interactions, or interactions of individuals with objects. We also found that these single sensing modalities laid the foundation for hybrid works that tackle a mix of global and local interaction-type activities. In addition to the type of sensors and type of activities classified, we provide details on each wearable system that include on-body sensor location, employed learning approach, and extent of experimental setup. We further discuss where the processing is performed, i.e., local versus remote processing, for different systems. This is one of the first surveys to provide such breadth of coverage across different wearable sensor systems for activity classification.
Autors: Maria Cornacchia;Koray Ozcan;Yu Zheng;Senem Velipasalar;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 386 - 403
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Survey on Context Learning
Abstract:
Learning semantics based on context information has been researched in many research areas for decades. Context information can not only be directly used as the input data, but also sometimes used as auxiliary knowledge to improve existing models. This survey aims at providing a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on context learning. We summarize and group the existing literature into four categories, Explicit Analysis, Implicit Analysis, Neural Network Models, and Composite Models, based on the underlying techniques adopted by them. For each category, we talk about the basic idea and techniques, and also introduce how context information is utilized as the model input or incorporated into the model to enhance the performance or extend the domain of application as auxiliary knowledge. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each model from both the technical and practical point of view.
Autors: Guangxu Xun;Xiaowei Jia;Vishrawas Gopalakrishnan;Aidong Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 38 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Switchable Iris Bandpass Filter Using RF MEMS Switchable Planar Resonators
Abstract:
A concept of using planar circuit resonance to disable 3D cavity resonance inside a rectangular waveguide filter is demonstrated. Switchable RF MEMS planar resonators are introduced inside the resonant cavities of a high Q-factor iris bandpass filter to turn the filter ON and OFF. The measurement confirms that this high Q-factor filter with insertion loss better than 0.1 dB can be converted to a bandstop filter with an isolation better than 30 dB for the same frequency and bandwidth.
Autors: K. Y. Chan;R. Ramer;R. R. Mansour;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 34 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Tensor Decomposition-Based Approach for Detecting Dynamic Network States From EEG
Abstract:
Functional connectivity (FC), defined as the statistical dependency between distinct brain regions, has been an important tool in understanding cognitive brain processes. Most of the current works in FC have focused on the assumption of temporally stationary networks. However, recent empirical work indicates that FC is dynamic due to cognitive functions. Goal: The purpose of this paper is to understand the dynamics of FC for understanding the formation and dissolution of networks of the brain. Method: In this paper, we introduce a two-step approach to characterize the dynamics of functional connectivity networks (FCNs) by first identifying change points at which the network connectivity across subjects shows significant changes and then summarizing the FCNs between consecutive change points. The proposed approach is based on a tensor representation of FCNs across time and subjects yielding a four-mode tensor. The change points are identified using a subspace distance measure on low-rank approximations to the tensor at each time point. The network summarization is then obtained through tensor-matrix projections across the subject and time modes. Results: The proposed framework is applied to electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected during a cognitive control task. The detected change-points are consistent with a priori known ERN interval. The results show significant connectivities in medial-frontal regions which are consistent with widely observed ERN amplitude measures. Conclusion: The tensor-based method outperforms conventional matrix-based methods such as singular value decomposition in terms of both change-point detection and state summarization. Significance: The proposed tensor-based method captures the topological structure of FCNs which provides more accurate change-point-detection and state summarization.
Autors: Arash Golibagh Mahyari;David M. Zoltowski;Edward M. Bernat;Selin Aviyente;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 225 - 237
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Tileable CMOS X-Ray Line Detector Using Time-Delay-Integration With Pseudomultisampling for Large-Sized Dental X-Ray Imaging Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a low-power and low-noise tileable CMOS X-ray line detector with time-delay-integration (TDI) for large-sized dental X-ray imaging systems. The proposed X-ray line detector with TDI adopts pseudomultisampling (PMS) using shifted clocks for the single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to reduce the required clock cycles for the ADC. The reduced clock cycle decreases the dynamic power and power fluctuation to ensure power stability for large-sized X-ray detectors. The TDI X-ray line detector with PMS was fabricated using 0.18- CMOS image sensor process technology with a stitching process, which has an image format of 1010 86 and a pixel size of . The X-ray line detectors are tiled with and arrays to enlarge the active areas for dental panoramic and cephalometric X-ray imaging systems, respectively. The measurement results show the random noise of 0.43 LSB and a dynamic range of 78.5 dB, when the number of TDI stages is 86 and the number of PMS steps is 4. The dynamic current and power consumption per ADC are reduced from 157.4 and to and 74.16 , respectively, when PMS is adopted for TDI.
Autors: Yun-Rae Jo;Seong-Kwan Hong;Oh-Kyong Kwon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 211 - 216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Tunable Dynamic Range Digital Single Photon Avalanche Diode
Abstract:
We characterize a digital, tunable dynamic range, single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) pixel fabricated in a standard 0.5 , 2-poly, 3-metal CMOS process. The principal sensor used in the pixel is based on the perimeter gated SPAD. The perimeter gate enhances device performance through prevention of premature breakdown, with the added advantage of a tunable dynamic range. Experimental measurements of the signal-to-noise ratio over the visible spectral range show the perimeter gate improves the dynamic range at a small expense of the sensitivity.
Autors: Mohammad Habib Ullah Habib;Nicole Mcfarlane;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 38, issue:1, pages: 60 - 63
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Two-Dimensional Beam-Steering Method to Simultaneously Consider Doppler Centroid and Ground Observation in GEOSAR
Abstract:
Due to Earth’s rotation and an elliptical satellite orbit, large Doppler centroids along satellite orbit inevitably occur in geosynchronous Earth orbit synthetic aperture radar (GEOSAR). Nonzero Doppler centroid causes a large range migration, which complicates the data acquisition and design of imaging algorithms. Thus, beam steering is used to decrease the centroid. At the same time, the ground observation of interest is prerequisite for applications. Thus, a unique two-dimensional (2-D) beam-steering method to simultaneously consider the reduction of Doppler centroid and ground observation for the GEOSAR is studied. The minimum-Doppler plane is proposed to minimize the centroid and to guarantee the beams that illuminate the area of interest. Subsequently, to achieve required ground coverage, beam directions determined by the minimum-Doppler plane are slightly adjusted. The method has been validated through the simulation of two types of orbits.
Autors: Jianlai Chen;Guang-Cai Sun;Mengdao Xing;Jun Yang;Zhenyu Li;Guobin Jing;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 161 - 167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Two-Step Prediction ADC Architecture for Integrated Low Power Image Sensors
Abstract:
This paper presents a two-step prediction method for the design of low-power column-parallel analog-to-digital converters (ADC) in CMOS image sensors. The proposed prediction method takes advantage of the spatial likelihood of natural scenes, which shows strong correlations between neighboring pixels in the image. Based on this property, the proposed method predicts the MSBs of the selected pixel using quantization results of the neighboring pixels in the previous row, which enables a significant power reduction of the A/D conversions. The simulation results show that up to 20∼30% power saving can be achieved for most natural scenes. A 384 256-pixel prototype chip was fabricated using a 0.35 CMOS technology with a pixel footprint of . The fill factor is 49%. 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADCs are used in the column-parallel ADC array.
Autors: Hang Yu;Wei Tang;Menghan Guo;Shoushun Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 50 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Unifying Order-Theoretic Framework for Superposition Coding: Polymatroidal Structure and Optimality in the Multiple-Access Channel With General Message Sets
Abstract:
Two different random coding techniques, both referred to as superposition coding in the literature, have been widely used to obtain inner bounds for the capacity regions of various communication networks. In one, auxiliary codewords are generated independently, and in the other, they are generated in a dependent manner. Using the multiple-access channel with general message sets as a case study, we place the two techniques under a common, order-theoretic framework. The key attribute of this framework is that it explicitly accounts for the acyclic direction and transitivity of the possible auxiliary codeword dependencies, leading to three significant discoveries. First, with respect to a fixed coding distribution, the set of rates achievable by superposition coding with dependent auxiliary codeword generation forms a polymatroid, thereby generalizing the same previously known result for superposition coding with independent auxiliary codewords. Second, we obtain a large class of superposition coding schemes by intermingling dependent and independent auxiliary codeword generation, and demonstrate that the constituent polyhedral achievable rate regions are also polymatroids in each case. The third discovery is that, in the multiple-access channel with general message sets, each associated superposition coding inner bound attains the capacity region. These results demonstrate a tradeoff between the complexity of dependencies in auxiliary codeword generation and that of the function that maps them into transmitted codewords.
Autors: Henry P. Romero;Mahesh K. Varanasi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 21 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A USV-Based Automated Launch and Recovery System for AUVs
Abstract:
In this paper, a concept design for automated launch and recovery (L&R) of a small autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) from an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) is described and its feasibility is assessed through modeling and simulation. The design is being implemented on a selected catamaran USV for deployment of a REMUS 100 AUV. The concept for launch involves lowering the AUV into the water from the center of the USV while the latter is in motion. Recovery and retrieval involves aligning the two vehicles together through acoustic positioning, lowering of a thin line with an outrigger-type depressor wing from a winch on the USV, latching of the line by the AUV using a custom pincer-type onboard mechanism, and subsequent reeling of the line for vehicle retrieval. The USV being considered can operate effectively in low to moderate sea states. The length of the recovery line can be adjusted to facilitate AUV recovery from deeper locations beneath the USV in higher sea state. The L&R process is modeled in OrcaFlex to assess its feasibility and to conduct a parametric study in support of developing optimal operations of the launch and recovery system (LARS). The resulting system is being implemented on a USV.
Autors: Edoardo I. Sarda;Manhar R. Dhanak;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 42, issue:1, pages: 37 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Wide-Area Damping Controller Considering Network Input and Output Delays and Packet Drop
Abstract:
This paper presents the development of a novel synchrophasor measurement-based wide-area centralized damping controller to improve the stability of a power system in presence of time-varying delay and packet dropout in the communication network. Two different strategies have been adopted to deal with the input and the output delays. In the first strategy, the system output delay has been compensated by predicting the dynamics of the signals. In the second strategy, a wide-area controller, based on delay-range-dependent stability criteria, has been designed for the time-varying delays in the input signals. The network induced delays and the maximum amount of the consecutive packet dropout are assumed to be bounded. The controller parameters are optimally obtained using a trace minimization of certain matrix variables by formulating Linear Matrix Inequalities problem. The system has been identified by applying Prediction-Error-Minimization methodology, and proposing a new type of probing test input-signal. A new methodology has been proposed to obtain the feedback channel latency in real time. The proposed methodology has been simulated on New England 39-bus test system and also validated on a hardware testbed consisting of physical Phasor Measurement Units connected, in feedback loop, to a Real-Time Digital Simulator.
Autors: Bibhu Prasad Padhy;Suresh Chandra Srivastava;Nishchal K. Verma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 166 - 176
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accurate and Stable Run-Time Power Modeling for Mobile and Embedded CPUs
Abstract:
Modern mobile and embedded devices are required to be increasingly energy-efficient while running more sophisticated tasks, causing the CPU design to become more complex and employ more energy-saving techniques. This has created a greater need for fast and accurate power estimation frameworks for both run-time CPU energy management and design-space exploration. We present a statistically rigorous and novel methodology for building accurate run-time power models using performance monitoring counters (PMCs) for mobile and embedded devices, and demonstrate how our models make more efficient use of limited training data and better adapt to unseen scenarios by uniquely considering stability. Our robust model formulation reduces multicollinearity, allows separation of static and dynamic power, and allows a reduction in experiment time while sacrificing only 0.6% accuracy. We present a statistically detailed evaluation of our model, highlighting and addressing the problem of heteroscedasticity in power modeling. We present software implementing our methodology and build power models for ARM Cortex-A7 and Cortex-A15 CPUs, with 3.8% and 2.8% average error, respectively. We model the behavior of the nonideal CPU voltage regulator under dynamic CPU activity to improve modeling accuracy by up to 5.5% in situations where the voltage cannot be measured. To address the lack of research utilizing PMC data from real mobile devices, we also present our data acquisition method and experimental platform software. We support this paper with online resources including software tools, documentation, raw data and further results.
Autors: Matthew J. Walker;Stephan Diestelhorst;Andreas Hansson;Anup K. Das;Sheng Yang;Bashir M. Al-Hashimi;Geoff V. Merrett;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 106 - 119
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accurate Cervical Cell Segmentation from Overlapping Clumps in Pap Smear Images
Abstract:
Accurate segmentation of cervical cells in Pap smear images is an important step in automatic pre-cancer identification in the uterine cervix. One of the major segmentation challenges is overlapping of cytoplasm, which has not been well-addressed in previous studies. To tackle the overlapping issue, this paper proposes a learning-based method with robust shape priors to segment individual cell in Pap smear images to support automatic monitoring of changes in cells, which is a vital prerequisite of early detection of cervical cancer. We define this splitting problem as a discrete labeling task for multiple cells with a suitable cost function. The labeling results are then fed into our dynamic multi-template deformation model for further boundary refinement. Multi-scale deep convolutional networks are adopted to learn the diverse cell appearance features. We also incorporated high-level shape information to guide segmentation where cell boundary might be weak or lost due to cell overlapping. An evaluation carried out using two different datasets demonstrates the superiority of our proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods in terms of segmentation accuracy.
Autors: Youyi Song;Ee-Leng Tan;Xudong Jiang;Jie-Zhi Cheng;Dong Ni;Siping Chen;Baiying Lei;Tianfu Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 288 - 300
Publisher: IEEE
 

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