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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2010 sorted by title, page: 0
» "Cramer-Rao lower bound for non-data-aided SNR estimation of linear modulation schemes" [Correction]
Abstract:
Autors: Wu, N.;Wang, H.;Kuang, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 318 - 318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Σ-separability of the far-field beam-pattern due to an arbitrary excitation-function over an elliptical-rim aperture
Abstract:
This study is the first in the phase-mode analysis literature to analytically characterise the far-field azimuth-elevation (ϕη) beam-pattern due to any arbitrary excitation-function on an elliptical-rim aperture. The key findings include: such an arbitrary excitation-function's far-field beam-pattern is not always ϕη separable. Nonetheless, this beam-pattern is Σ-separable in the sense that it is a sum of ϕη separable terms. Moreover, this sum may be approximated (with arbitrarily small truncation-error) as a finite-term summation. A ceiling of this truncation-error is derived.
Autors: Tam, P.K.;Wong, K.T.;
Appeared in: IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 4, issue:1, pages: 128 - 140
Publisher: IEEE
 
»  Note: High temperature pulsed solenoid valve
Abstract:
We have developed a high temperature pulsed solenoid valve with reliable long term operation to at least 400 °C. As in earlier published designs, a needle extension sealing a heated orifice is lifted via solenoid actuation; the solenoid is thermally isolated from the heated orifice region. In this new implementation, superior sealing and reliability were attained by choosing a solenoid that produces considerably larger lifting forces on the magnetically actuated plunger. It is this property that facilitates easily attainable sealing and reliability, albeit with some tradeoff in attainable gas pulse durations. The cost of the solenoid valve employed is quite low and the necessary machining quite simple. Our ultimate level of sealing was attained by making a simple modification to the polished seal at the needle tip. The same sealing tip modification could easily be applied to one of the earlier high T valve designs, which could improve the attainability and tightness of sealing for these implementations.
Autors: Shen, Wei;Sulkes, Mark;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 81, issue:1, pages: 016101 - 016101-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» “SensArray” voltage sensor analysis in an inductively coupled plasma
Abstract:
A commercially manufactured PlasmaVolt sensor wafer was studied in an inductively coupled plasma reactor in an effort to validate sensor measurements. A pure Ar plasma at various powers (25–420 W), for a range of pressures (10–80 mT), and bias voltages (0–250 V) was utilized. A numerical sheath simulation was simultaneously developed in order to interpret experimental results. It was found that PlasmaVolt sensor measurements are proportional to the rf-current through the sheath. Under conditions such that the sheath impedance is dominantly capacitive, sensor measurements follow a scaling law derived from the inhomogeneous sheath model of Lieberman and Lichtenberg, [Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing (Wiley, New York, 2005)]. Under these conditions, sensor measurements are proportional to the square root of the plasma density at the plasma-sheath interface, the one-fourth root of the electron temperature, and the one-fourth root of the rf bias voltage. When the sheath impedance becomes increasingly resistive, the sensor measurements deviate from the scaling law and tend to be directly proportional to the plasma density. The measurements and numerical sheath simulation demonstrate the scaling behavior as a function of changing sheath impedance for various plasma conditions.
Autors: Titus, M. J.;Hsu, C. C.;Graves, D. B.;
Appeared in: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 139 - 146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» (Revised+extended version of paper#8540 presented at Eurosensors XXIII conference; revision 1)
Abstract:
We investigate in this work the formulation of composite resistive pastes based on epoxy resins and graphite for micro-heater manufacturing via thick-film technology. These resistive pastes are designed for screen-printing onto a printed circuit board(PCB) substrate; further coating with expandable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a composite based on an elastomeric matrix and expandable microspheres, results in one-shot thermal actuators allowing pumping and sealing in disposable microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices. The resistive paste must therefore have controlled rheology and resistivity, and exhibit good temperature stability in order to allow high heating power densities. This paper details the formulation and characterisation of suitable epoxy-graphite resistive...
Autors: N., Serra , T., Maeder , P., Lemaire , P., Ryser
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 1-D fast normalized cross-correlation using additions
Abstract:
A new fast algorithm for the computation of the normalized cross correlation (NCC) is presented. For a search window of size M and a template of size N, our fast NCC requires only approximately 3N?(M-N+1) additions/subtractions without multiplications. Numerical results with 100,000 test signals show that the use of the fast NCC instead of the traditional approaches for the determination of the degree of similarity between a test signal and a reference signal (template) brings about a significant improvement in terms of false negative rate, identification rate and computational cost without a significant increase in false positive rate, especially when...
Autors: Jae-Chern, Yoo , Byoung Deog, Choi , Hyoung-Kee, Choi
Appeared in: Digital Signal Processing
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 1.05-GHz CMOS oscillator based on lateral- field-excited piezoelectric AlN contour- mode MEMS resonators
Abstract:
This paper reports on the first demonstration of a 1.05-GHz microelectromechanical (MEMS) oscillator based on lateral-field-excited (LFE) piezoelectric AlN contourmode resonators. The oscillator shows a phase noise level of -81 dBc/Hz at 1-kHz offset frequency and a phase noise floor of -146 dBc/Hz, which satisfies the global system for mobile communications (GSM) requirements for ultra-high frequency (UHF) local oscillators (LO). The circuit was fabricated in the AMI semiconductor (AMIS) 0.5-μm complementary metaloxide- semiconductor (CMOS) process, with the oscillator core consuming only 3.5 mW DC power. The device overall performance has the best figure-of-merit (FoM) when compared with other gigahertz oscillators that are based on film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR), surface acoustic wave (SAW), and CMOS on-chip inductor and capacitor (CMOS LC) technologies. A simple 2-mask process was used to fabricate the LFE AlN resonators operating between 843 MHz and 1.64 GHz with simultaneously high Q (up to 2,200) and kt 2 (up to 1.2%). This process further relaxes manufacturing tolerances and improves yield. All these advantages make these devices suitable for post-CMOS integrated on-chip direct gigahertz frequency synthesis in reconfigurable multiband wireless communications.
Autors: Zuo, Chengjie;Der Spiegel, Jan Van;Piazza, Gianluca;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 57, issue:1, pages: 82 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1.2-V, 10-bit, 60-360 MS/s time-interleaved pipelined analog-to-digital converter in 0.18 μm CMOS with minimised supply headroom
Abstract:
A low-voltage 1.2-V, 10-bit, 60¿360 MS/s six channels time-interleaved reset-opamp pipelined ADC is designed and implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS (VTHN/VTHP = 0.63 V/-0.65 V for mid-supply floating switches). Without using on-chip high-voltage and low-VT options, the proposed ADC employs low-voltage resistivedemultiplexing techniques, low-voltage gain-and-offset compensation, feedback current biasing to reduce the sensitivity of the bias current over process variations and current-mode sub-ADCs with static current sharing for a low-voltage time-interleaved implementation. Speed options of 60-360 MS/s are available with scalable power and they can be obtained by automatic selection of the number of time-interleaved channels. The chip measurement results show that the ADC exhibits a differential non-linearity (DNL)/integral non-linearity (INL) better than 0.9/1.2 LSB and a peak SNDR above 54 dB, for all speed options, while consuming 85 mW at 60 MS/s and 426 mW at 360 MS/s. The active die area is 13.2 mm2.
Autors: Sin, S.-W.;Seng-Pan U.;Martins, R.P.;
Appeared in: IET Circuits, Devices & Systems
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 4, issue:1, pages: 1 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10 GHz high-speed optical interconnection
Abstract:
An AlGaAs/GaAs waveguide is coupled to an InGaAs pin photodetector by a total internal reflector, polyimide process, and a microwave ground-signal-ground coplanar waveguide. This monolithic module achieved 10 GHz 3 dB bandwidth and is suitable for 10 Gbit/s data transmission of optical interconnections.
Autors: Hsu, S.-H.;Chen, Y.-J.;You, H.-Z.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 149 - 150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2 Gb/s 15 pJ/b/chip Inductive-Coupling Programmable Bus for NAND Flash Memory Stacking
Abstract:
An inductive-coupling programmable bus for NAND flash memory access in Solid State Drive (SSD) is presented. Compared to the conventional SSD, this wireless interface using relayed transmission reduces power consumption to 1/2, I/O circuit-layout area to 1/40, and achieves a data rate of 2 Gb/s in 0.18 CMOS process. In addition, since this wireless interface enables one package to contain 64 chips, the number of packages is reduced to 1/8.
Autors: Saito, M.;Sugimori, Y.;Kohama, Y.;Yoshida, Y.;Miura, N.;Ishikuro, H.;Sakurai, T.;Kuroda, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 134 - 141
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2009 Reviewer Appreciation
Abstract:
[No author name available]
Autors: Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 21, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 75-76
Appeared in: Advanced Powder Technology
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 25 Years in a flash [COMMS Cellular 25]
Abstract:
Sir David Brown worked for STC, ICL and Northern Telecom before joining Motorola in 1991 and rising to be its chairman. he¿s been deeply involved throughout the development of the UK¿s cellular networks, as everything from an equipment supplier to a member of Ofcom¿s spectrum advisory board.
Autors: Collins, L.;
Appeared in: Engineering & Technology
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 4, issue:21, pages: 68 - 69
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D CMOS Circuits Based on Low-Loss Vertical Interconnects on Parylene-N
Abstract:
parylene-N is used as a dielectric layer to create ultra low-loss 3-D vertical interconnects and coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines on a CMOS substrate. Insertion loss of 0.013 dB for a 3-D vertical interconnect through a 15- m-thick parylene-N layer and 0.56 dB/mm for a 50- CPW line on the parylene-N layer (compared to 1.85 dB/mm on a standard CMOS substrate) are measured at 40 GHz. L-shaped, U-shaped, and T-junction CPW structures are also fabricated with underpasses that eliminate the discontinuities arisen from the slot-line mode and are characterized up to 40 GHz. A 3-D low-noise amplifier using these post-processed structures on a 0.13- m CMOS technology is also presented along with the investigation of parasitic effects for accurate simulation of such a 3-D circuit. The 3-D circuit implementation reduces the attenuation per unit length of the transmission lines, while preserving the CMOS chip area (in this specific design) by approximately 25%. The 3-D amplifier measures a gain of 13 dB at 2 GHz with 3-dB bandwidth of 500 MHz, noise figure of 3.3 dB, and output 1-dB compression point of 4.6 dBm. Room-temperature processing, simple fabrication, low-loss performance, and compatibility with the CMOS process make this technology a suitable choice for future 3-D CMOS and BiCMOS monolithic microwave integrated circuit applications that currently suffer from high substrate loss and crosstalk.
Autors: Lahiji, R. R.;Sharifi, H.;Katehi, L. P. B.;Mohammadi, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 48 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 30-66 GHz millimetre wave phase shift keying modulator: performance and analysis
Abstract:
An octave bandwidth millimetre wave gallium arsenide (GaAs)MMIC modulator is demonstrated, wherein a novelmethod for directly producing QPSK/OQPSK/BPSK modulation directly frombaseband IQ signals is presented. A key feature of the architecture is the absence of mixers. Expressions detailing the overall modulator error vector magnitude (EVM) performance with regard to its constituent components are derived. The dc power consumption of the circuit is less than 50 mW, and its 1 dB compression point is above 7 dBm. Frequency operation is between 30 and 66 GHz, over which QPSK EVM is below 15%, BPSK EVM <3% and data rates of greater than 500 MB/s are possible.
Autors: Pochiraju, T.S.;Wang, C.;Fusco, V.F.;
Appeared in: IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 4, issue:1, pages: 8 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 40-Gb/s Time-Division-Multiplexed Passive Optical Networks Using Downstream OOK and Upstream OFDM Modulations
Abstract:
In this investigation, we first propose and investigate a 40-Gb/s time-division-multiplexed passive optical network (TDM-PON) using four wavelength-multiplexed signals in both downstream and upstream traffic. Here, each downstream signal uses 10-Gb/s on–off keying (OOK) format encoded by a Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM) in 1.5- band. And each upstream channel utilizes the highly spectral efficient 10-Gb/s orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexing quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM-QAM) generated by directly modulating a 1.3- laser. Based on the proposed scheme, 40-Gb/s data traffic in a TDM-PON can be obtained easily by using four wavelength-multiplexed channels. In addition, the performance of the proposed PON architecture has also been discussed.
Autors: Yeh, C.-H.;Chow, C.-W.;Hsu, C.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 118 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4G in the U.S.A.
Abstract:
Fourth-generation wireless got its official start in the United States one year ago when Clearwire Wireless made Portland, Ore., the first city to be covered by its WiMax wireless "last mile" broadband connection. Twelve months later, the shape of wireless's future is now clearly outlined: WiMax has the early lead but will eventually be overtaken by another technology.
Autors: Cherry, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 47, issue:1, pages: 15 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 50-V Shock Hazard Threshold
Abstract:
For the last few years, much attention has been focused on arc flash hazards by the electrical community; however, statistics indicate that the majority of electrical injuries and fatalities are the result of shock. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace both require electrical conductors and circuits that operate at 50 V or greater to be de-energized before working on or near those conductors or circuits. This requirement is generally interpreted to mean that a shock hazard does not exist below 50 V. The objective of this paper will be to explore the validity of this assumption and to determine whether there may be a more appropriate level at which de-energizing should be considered.
Autors: Roberts, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 102 - 107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60 GHz SoC/SoP radio system for high data-rate transmission
Abstract:
We present the 60 GHz CMOS and system-on-package (SoP) research activities in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology for high data-rate and short-range wireless communication. A low-power single-chip resonant frequency CMOS receiver for 60 GHz mobile terminals consists of four-stage current reuse LNA, resistive mixer, Ka-band low-phase noise VCO, high-suppression frequency doubler, and two-stage current reuse drive amplifiers. The receiver conversion gain and input P1dB are -9.5 dB and -12.5 dBm, respectively, with a size of 2.67 0.75 mm2 and power consumption of 21.9 mW. The integration and communication tests of a transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) radio have been demonstrated at a data rate of 3 Gbps for short-range transmission and with a communication distance of over 3.5 m at 650 Mbps data rate. The design and fabrication of mmW subcircuits, such as low-loss transmission lines and transitions with noble air cavity structures, a high-Q resonator using zigzagged dual-row via posts and a [lambda]/4 short stub, and the monolithic integration of band-pass filter and antennas, have been performed for low-temperature cofired ceramic SoP integration with a size of 37 11 mm2 for the whole Tx or Rx radio. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 667-673, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25024
Autors: K. C. Eun, J.J. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S. J. Cho, H. Y. Kim, I. S. Song, Y. C. Lee, W. I. Chang, I. Y. Oh, K. S. Yoon, S. H. Kang, C. S. Park
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» 60Co gamma irradiation effects on electrical characteristics of Al/Y2O3/n-Si/Al capacitors
Abstract:
Al/Y2O3/n-Si/Al capacitors were irradiated by using a 60Co gamma ray source and a maximum dose up to 8.4kGy. The effect of an annealing treatment performed at 600 or 900C on the yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films was investigated by XRD and Raman Spectroscopy. High frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements as well as quasi-static measurements of the MOS structures were analysed. The annealing improves the crystalline state of the Y2O3 thin film material and decreases the values of the flatband voltage and of the interface trap level density indicating an improvement of the electrical properties of the interface thin film...
Autors: Minh-Tri, Ta , David, Briand , Bertrand, Boudart , Yannick, Guhel
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 77 GHz Stepped Lens With Sectorial Radiation Pattern as Primary Feed of a Lens Based CATR
Abstract:
We describe the design, fabrication and measurements of an axisymmetric dielectric lens, featuring a sectorial radiation pattern at 77 GHz. It will be used as the primary feed of a lens-based compact antenna test range (CATR). Due to symmetry of revolution, the sectorial lens profile can be designed in one dimension by using phase only control. The phase variation is echoed on the lens depth. The resulting stepped lens is simulated using France Telecom Orange Labs SRSRD software (“in-house” software developed for dielectric axisymmetric radiating structures) and measured in an anechoic chamber at 77 GHz. Two lenses were fabricated with different materials: PVC and polyurethane, respectively. Good agreements were obtained between simulations and measurements. Less than 0.2 dB ripple in the central beam are obtained for the polyurethane lens although relatively high secondary lobes occur at 11 . Comparisons between the near field of a CATR illuminated by a small horn providing a uniform amplitude taper and the sectorial lens are conducted using numerical simulations. Results show that on-axis oscillations are reduced from 6 to 1 dB with the sectorial lens.
Autors: Multari, M.;Lanteri, J.;Le Sonn, J. L.;Brochier, L.;Pichot, C.;Migliaccio, C.;Desvilles, J. L.;Feil, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 207 - 211
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 8 Gb 3-D DDR3 DRAM Using Through-Silicon-Via Technology
Abstract:
An 8 Gb 4-stack 3-D DDR3 DRAM with through-Si-via is presented which overcomes the limits of conventional modules. A master-slave architecture is proposed which decreases the standby and active power by 50 and 25%, respectively. It also increases the I/O speed to 1600 Mb/s for 4 rank/module and 2 module/channel case since the master isolates all chip I/O loadings from the channel. Statistical analysis shows that the proposed TSV check and repair scheme can increase the assembly yield up to 98%. By providing extra VDD/VSS edge pads, power noise is reduced to 100 mV even if all 4 ranks are refreshed every clock cycle consecutively.
Autors: Kang, U.;Chung, H.-J.;Heo, S.;Park, D.-H.;Lee, H.;Kim, J. H.;Ahn, S.-H.;Cha, S.-H.;Ahn, J.;Kwon, D.;Lee, J.-W.;Joo, H.-S.;Kim, W.-S.;Jang, D. H.;Kim, N. S.;Choi, J.-H.;Chung, T.-G.;Yoo, J.-H.;Choi, J. S.;Kim, C.;Jun, Y.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 111 - 119
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 9.8 mW CMOS frequency synthesiser for mode-I UWB transceivers
Abstract:
A low-power frequency synthesiser for mode-I UWB transceivers was fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS process. With proper frequency planning and single-sideband mixers, only one phase-locked loop is employed in the synthesiser. To reduce power consumption, low voltage operation circuit structures are used, and hence except for the VCO and dividers, the remaining building blocks can operate with a 0.5 V supply voltage, resulting in power consumption of only 9.8 mW.
Autors: Yang, Y.-C.;Lu, S.-S.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 179 - 180
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Vitro Investigations Into Enhancement of tPA Bioavailability in Whole Blood Clots Using Pulsed–High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Exposures
Abstract:
Investigations were carried out on the manner by which pulsed–high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) enhances the effectiveness of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in whole blood clots, in vitro. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) of the surface of the clots showed that the exposures increased exposed fibrin, as well as the number of openings to more interior regions. These findings were supported by fluorescent antibody labeling of tPA in frozen sections of clots treated post-HIFU. Here, improved accumulation at the surface and penetration of the tPA into the clots were observed in those treated with HIFU. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching was also performed, indicating that the diffusion coefficient increased 6.3-fold for fluorescently labeled dextrans, comparable in size to tPA, in the HIFU-treated clots. Improved understanding of the manner by which pulsed--HIFU exposures can improve the effectiveness of thrombolytics will help optimize the exposures for this application and potentially facilitate translation to the clinic.
Autors: Jones, G.;Hunter, F.;Hancock, H. A.;Kapoor, A.;Stone, M. J.;Wood, B. J.;Xie, J.;Dreher, M. R.;Frenkel $^{ast}$, V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 57, issue:1, pages: 33 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Vivo Evaluation of a Mechanically Oscillating Dual-Mode Applicator for Ultrasound Imaging and Thermal Ablation
Abstract:
Unresectable liver tumors are often treated with interstitial probes that modify tissue temperature, and efficacious treatment relies on image guidance for tissue targeting and assessment. Here, we report the in vivo evaluation of an interstitial applicator with a mechanically oscillating five-element dual-mode transducer. After thoroughly characterizing the transducer, tissue response to high-intensity ultrasound was numerically calculated to select parameters for experimentation in vivo. Using perfused porcine liver, B-mode sector images were formed before and after a 120-s therapy period, and M-mode imaging monitored the therapy axis during therapy. The time-averaged transducer surface intensity was 21 or 27 W/cm . Electroacoustic conversion efficiency was maximally 72 3% and impulse response length was 295 1.0 ns at 6 dB. The depth of thermal damage measured by gross histology ranged from 10 to 25 mm for 13 insertion sites. For six sites, M-mode data exhibited a reduction in gray-scale intensity that was interpreted as the temporal variation of coagulation necrosis. Contrast ratio analysis indicated that the gray-scale intensity dropped by 7.8 3.3 dB, and estimated the final lesion depth to an accuracy of 2.3 2.4 mm. This paper verified that the applicator could induce coagulation necrosis in perfused liver and demonstrated the feasibility of real-time monitoring.
Autors: Owen*, N. R.;Bouchoux, G.;Seket, B.;Murillo-Rincon, A.;Merouche, S.;Birer, A.;Paquet, C.;Delabrousse, E.;Chapelon, J-.Y.;Berriet, R.;Fleury, G.;Lafon, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 57, issue:1, pages: 80 - 92
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Vivo Feasibility of Real-Time Monitoring of Focused Ultrasound Surgery (FUS) Using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)
Abstract:
In this study, the Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) technique is applied to monitor changes in mechanical properties of tissues during thermal therapy in a transgenic breast cancer mouse model in vivo. An HMIFU system, composed of a 4.5-MHz focused ultrasound (FUS) and a 3.3-MHz phased-array imaging transducer, was mechanically moved to image and ablate the entire tumor. The FUS transducer was driven by an amplitude-modulated (AM) signal at 15 Hz. The acoustic intensity ( ) was equal to at the focus. A digital low-pass filter was used to filter out the spectrum of the FUS beam and its harmonics prior to displacement estimation. The resulting axial displacement was estimated using 1-D cross-correlation on the acquired RF signals. Results from two mice with eight lesions formed in each mouse (16 lesions total) showed that the average peak-to-peak displacement amplitude before and after lesion formation was respectively equal to 17.34 1.34 m and 10.98 1.82 m ( ≪ 0.001). Cell death was also confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin histology. HMI displacement can be used to monitor the relative tissue stiffness changes in real time during heating so that the treatment procedure can be performed in a time-efficient manner. The HMIFU system may, therefore, constitute a cost-efficient and reliable alternative for real-time monitoring of thermal ablation.
Autors: Maleke , C.;Konofagou $^*$, E. E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 57, issue:1, pages: 7 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Vivo Gas Body Efficacy for Glomerular Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Diagnostic Ultrasound in Rats
Abstract:
Glomerular capillary hemorrhage (GCH) in rat kidney provided a model for assessing in vivo gas body efficacy in diagnostic or therapeutic applications of ultrasound. Two diagnostic ultrasound machines were utilized: one monitored the harmonic B-mode contrast enhancement of the left kidney and the other exposed the right kidney for GCH production. Definity contrast agent was infused at 1, 2, 5, or 10 L/(kg·min) and infusion durations were 30, 60, 120, or 300 s. Exposure of the right kidney was at a peak rarefactional pressure amplitude of 2.3 MPa at 1.5 MHz. The circulating dose was estimated with a simple model of agent dilution and gas body loss. For 300 s infusion at 5 L/(kg·min), the left kidney image brightness increased to a plateau with an estimated 6.4 1.3 L/kg circulating dose with no GCH in histological sections. Exposure of the right kidney with a 1-s image interval reduced the estimated circulating dose to 1.3 0.3 L/kg and induced 68.4% GCH. Dose and duration increases gave rapidly diminishing treatment effectiveness per gas body. The effective in vivo agent dose in rats can be reduced greatly due to high gas body destruction in the small animal, complicating predictions for similar conditions of human treatment.
Autors: Miller $^{ast}$, D. L.;Dou, C.;Wiggins, R. C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 57, issue:1, pages: 167 - 174
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Vivo Impedance Imaging With Total Variation Regularization
Abstract:
We show that electrical impedance tomography (EIT) image reconstruction algorithms with regularization based on the total variation (TV) functional are suitable for in vivo imaging of physiological data. This reconstruction approach helps to preserve discontinuities in reconstructed profiles, such as step changes in electrical properties at interorgan boundaries, which are typically smoothed by traditional reconstruction algorithms. The use of the TV functional for regularization leads to the minimization of a nondifferentiable objective function in the inverse formulation. This cannot be efficiently solved with traditional optimization techniques such as the Newton method. We explore two implementations methods for regularization with the TV functional: the lagged diffusivity method and the primal dual–interior point method (PD-IPM). First we clarify the implementation details of these algorithms for EIT reconstruction. Next, we analyze the performance of these algorithms on noisy simulated data. Finally, we show reconstructed EIT images of in vivo data for ventilation and gastric emptying studies. In comparison to traditional quadratic regularization, TV regulariza tion shows improved ability to reconstruct sharp contrasts.
Autors: Borsic, A.;Graham, B. M.;Adler, A.;Lionheart, W. R. B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 44 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
 
» elastix: A Toolbox for Intensity-Based Medical Image Registration
Abstract:
Medical image registration is an important task in medical image processing. It refers to the process of aligning data sets, possibly from different modalities (e.g., magnetic resonance and computed tomography), different time points (e.g., follow-up scans), and/or different subjects (in case of population studies). A large number of methods for image registration are described in the literature. Unfortunately, there is not one method that works for all applications. We have therefore developed elastix, a publicly available computer program for intensity-based medical image registration. The software consists of a collection of algorithms that are commonly used to solve medical image registration problems. The modular design of elastix allows the user to quickly configure, test, and compare different registration methods for a specific application. The command-line interface enables automated processing of large numbers of data sets, by means of scripting. The usage of elastix for comparing different registration methods is illustrated with three example experiments, in which individual components of the registration method are varied.
Autors: Klein, S.;Staring, M.;Murphy, K.;Viergever, M. A.;Pluim, J. P. W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 196 - 205
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 640×480 pixel active-matrix Spindt-type field emitter array image sensor with high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor target
Abstract:
A 640×480 pixel field emitter array (FEA) image sensor with a high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP) target was fabricated and tested as a step toward the development of ultrahigh-sensitivity compact image sensors for high-definition television cameras. For this sensor, an active-matrix Spindt-type FEA integrated with scanning circuits and a magnetic electron focusing system were designed, and a 15-μm-thick-HARP target was used. The experimental results revealed that the prototype sensor had enough resolution for its pixel number and high sensitivity due to the electrons emitted from the active-matrix FEA being focused onto the HARP target.
Autors: Nanba, M.;Takiguchi, Y.;Honda, Y.;Hirano, Y.;Watabe, T.;Egami, N.;Miya, K.;Nakamura, K.;Taniguchi, M.;Itoh, S.;Kobayashi, A.;
Appeared in: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 96 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Al2O3/NbAlO/Al2O3 sandwich gate dielectric film on InP
Abstract:
Al2O3/NbAlO/Al2O3 sandwich dielectric films were grown on InP substrate and annealed. X-ray reflectivity measurements suggested that 1.0 nm interfacial layer existed at InP interface, x-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy indicated the films were crystallized. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated the oxidization of InP substrate, and the valence-band offset between the dielectric film and InP interface was calculated to be 3.1 eV. The electrical measurements indicated that the leakage current density was 40 mA/cm2 at gate bias of 1 V, and the equivalent oxide thickness and the dielectric constant were 1.7 and 20 nm, respectively.
Autors: Cheng, Xinhong;Xu, Dapeng;Sun, Qing-Qing;He, Dawei;Wang, Zhongjian;Yu, Yuehui;Zhang, David Wei;Zhao, Qingtai;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 96, issue:2, pages: 022904 - 022904-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GaAs/AlOx micropillar fabrication for small mode volume photon sources
Abstract:
Micropillar devices have shown promise as single photon sources for applications in quantum key distribution as well as single photon metrology and fundamental science. For higher temperature operation (77 K), a high quality factor (Q) cavity and a small modal volume are necessary for enhanced spontaneous emission. Although high Q’s have been demonstrated, achieving small modal volumes is difficult due to the limited index contrast available from the lattice-matched Bragg layers of GaAs and AlGaAs. However, by wet thermal oxidation of AlGaAs or AlAs layers to amorphous aluminum oxide (AlOx), very high index contrast layers can be obtained. This allows for high reflectivity mirrors with fewer Bragg pairs, resulting in reduced mode volume from reduced penetration of the optical mode within the mirror pairs. The authors apply this method in a GaAs/Al0.95Ga0.05As material system and describe a fabrication process for such devices, utilizing a BCl3:Cl2:Ar etch. Photoluminescence measurements of micropillars with three top and five bottom layers are demonstrated. They are measured to have Q’s of 200–400 for approximately 1–3 μm diameters, respectively. These results indicate that high Q devices may be possible while simultaneously reducing the modal volume.
Autors: Choi, John M.;Silverman, Kevin L.;Stevens, Martin J.;Harvey, Todd L.;Mirin, Richard P.;
Appeared in: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 157 - 162
Publisher: IEEE
 
» - and -Band Ultra-Compact Phase Shifters Based on All-Pass Networks
Abstract:
Ultra-compact phase shifters are presented. The proposed phase-shifting circuits utilize the lumped element all-pass networks. The transition frequency of the all-pass network, which determines the size of the circuit, is set to be much higher than the operating frequency. This results in a significantly small chip size of the phase shifter. To verify this methodology, 5-bit phase shifters have been fabricated in the - and -band. The -band phase shifter, with a chip size of 1.87 mm 0.87 mm (1.63 mm ), has achieved an insertion loss of and rms phase-shift error of less than 2.8 in 10% bandwidth. The -band phase shifter, with a chip size of 1.72 mm 0.81 mm (1.37 mm ), has demonstrated an insertion loss of 5.7 dB 0.8 dB and rms phase-shift error of less than 2.3 in 10% bandwidth.
Autors: Hangai, M.;Hieda, M.;Yunoue, N.;Sasaki, Y.;Miyazaki, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 41 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Constrained Shortest Path Problem
Abstract:
Motivated by a real project for a sophisticated automated storage and retrieval system (AS/RS), we study the problem of generating K shortest paths that are required to satisfy a set of constraints. We propose a structural branching procedure that decomposes the problem into at most K|N| subproblems, where |N| is the number of nodes in the network. By using a Network Modification procedure, each subproblem can be transformed into a constrained shortest path problem (CSP). When these constraints satisfy a so called separable property, the subproblem can be further simplified. Based on this branching procedure, we propose a specific algorithm for an application where resource and loopless constraints have to be respected. Numerical results show that our algorithm is very efficient and robust.
Autors: Ning Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 7, issue:1, pages: 15 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Adic Complexity of Binary -Sequences
Abstract:
Although 2 -adic complexity was proposed more than ten years ago, even for m -sequences which are thought of as the most important linear recurring sequences, no theoretical results about their 2-adic complexity has been presented. In this paper, it is shown that for a binary m-sequence, its 2-adic complexity attains the maximum, which implies that no feedback with carry shift registers (FCSRs) with connection integer less than 2 2 n -1 - 1 can generate m-sequences of order n .
Autors: Tian Tian;Wen-Feng Qi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 450 - 454
Publisher: IEEE
 
» and Dwell Time Specifications of Continuous-Time Switched Linear Systems
Abstract:
This technical note deals with continuous-time switched linear systems and addresses the problem of characterizing open-loop switching strategies, based on dwell time specifications, assuring a pre-specified root mean square gain (RMS). As a natural consequence of treating general systems of this particular class in terms of order and number of subsystems, only sufficient conditions are worked out. However, as positive features, they are expressed through linear matrix inequalities (LMI) being thus numerically solvable in polynomial time and allow the treatment of stable switched linear systems which do not admit a common Lyapunov function. The conservativeness of the proposed design method is evaluated by comparison with other results available in the literature by means of two simple illustrative examples.
Autors: Geromel, J. C.;Colaneri, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 207 - 212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Adic Complexity of Binary -Sequences
Abstract:
Although -adic complexity was proposed more than ten years ago, even for -sequences which are thought of as the most important linear recurring sequences, no theoretical results about their -adic complexity has been presented. In this paper, it is shown that for a binary -sequence, its -adic complexity attains the maximum, which implies that no feedback with carry shift registers (FCSRs) with connection integer less than can generate -sequences of order .
Autors: Tian, T.;Qi, W.-F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 450 - 454
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Random Fields in Space and Time
Abstract:
This paper introduces some random functions, which are not homogeneous (stationary) in general, but contain the stationary case as a special case, and whose correlation structures are nonparametric and flexible so that many parametric forms can be specified. The mean square differentiability of such random function is discussed. We also make the comparison of two random functions through their finite-dimensional Laplace transforms.
Autors: Ma, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 378 - 383
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Thin-Film Varistor Based on Metal-Insulator Transition
Abstract:
For electronic applications, we have fabricated thin-film variable resistors (varistors) using metal-insulator transition regarded as the abrupt current jump. The increase of the number of parallel stripe patterns in the varistor leads to the increase in current below a current-jump voltage, which endures a high surge voltage with high current and short rising time. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) experiments show that the varistic coefficient of 500 is larger than 30–80, which is known for commercial ZnO varistors. In overvoltage-protection tests applying high ESD voltages up to 3.3 kV to a varistor, the maximum response voltage is lower than 200 V at an ESD voltage of 1600 V, and the electronic response time is less than 20 ns. This is sufficient to protect a device perfectly.
Autors: Kim, B.-J.;Lee, Y. W.;Choi, S.;Yun, S. J.;Kim, H.-T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 14 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Constrained Shortest Path Problem
Abstract:
Motivated by a real project for a sophisticated automated storage and retrieval system (AS/RS), we study the problem of generating shortest paths that are required to satisfy a set of constraints. We propose a structural branching procedure that decomposes the problem into at most subproblems, where is the number of nodes in the network. By using a Network Modification procedure, each subproblem can be transformed into a constrained shortest path problem (CSP). When these constraints satisfy a so called separable property, the subproblem can be further simplified. Based on this branching procedure, we propose a specific algorithm for an application where resource and loopless constraints have to be respected. Numerical results show that our algorithm is very efficient and robust.
Autors: Shi, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 7, issue:1, pages: 15 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Heterostructured White Light-Emitting Diode: Nanoscale Interface Analysis and Electroluminescence Studies
Abstract:
heterostructured light-emitting diodes have been fabricated by a low-cost ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Nanoscale interface analysis was carried out with scanning transmission electron microscopy. An 8.6-nm-thick amorphous GaAsZnInO was found in the interface. A strong and broad white electroluminescence band centered at 525 nm and a weak near-infrared emission peaked at 815 nm were observed when -GaAs was positively biased. The 815-nm emission is believed to be related to the interface layer, and the 525-nm emission is assigned to the recombination of electrons from conduction band to deep-level holes in the ZnO layer.
Autors: Tan, S. T.;Zhao, J.;Iwan, S.;Sun, X. W.;Tang, X.;Ye, J.;Bosman, M.;Tang, L.;Lo, G.-Q.;Teo, K. L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 57, issue:1, pages: 129 - 133
Publisher: IEEE
 
» - and -Band Ultra-Compact Phase Shifters Based on All-Pass Networks
Abstract:
Ultra-compact phase shifters are presented. The proposed phase-shifting circuits utilize the lumped element all-pass networks. The transition frequency of the all-pass network, which determines the size of the circuit, is set to be much higher than the operating frequency. This results in a significantly small chip size of the phase shifter. To verify this methodology, 5-bit phase shifters have been fabricated in the - and -band. The -band phase shifter, with a chip size of 1.87 mm 0.87 mm (1.63 mm ), has achieved an insertion loss of and rms phase-shift error of less than 2.8 in 10% bandwidth. The -band phase shifter, with a chip size of 1.72 mm 0.81 mm (1.37 mm ), has demonstrated an insertion loss of 5.7 dB 0.8 dB and rms phase-shift error of less than 2.3 in 10% bandwidth.
Autors: Hangai, M.;Hieda, M.;Yunoue, N.;Sasaki, Y.;Miyazaki, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 41 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» and Dwell Time Specifications of Continuous-Time Switched Linear Systems
Abstract:
This technical note deals with continuous-time switched linear systems and addresses the problem of characterizing open-loop switching strategies, based on dwell time specifications, assuring a pre-specified root mean square gain (RMS). As a natural consequence of treating general systems of this particular class in terms of order and number of subsystems, only sufficient conditions are worked out. However, as positive features, they are expressed through linear matrix inequalities (LMI) being thus numerically solvable in polynomial time and allow the treatment of stable switched linear systems which do not admit a common Lyapunov function. The conservativeness of the proposed design method is evaluated by comparison with other results available in the literature by means of two simple illustrative examples.
Autors: Geromel, J. C.;Colaneri, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 207 - 212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1 GHz Digital Channel Multiplexer for Satellite Outdoor Unit
Abstract:
A digital channel multiplexer for satellite outdoor unit running at 1 GHz clock frequency is implemented in 65 nm CMOS mixed oxide dual voltage technology. This multiplexer, based on a 1 GS/s digital signal processor (DSP) approach with 500 MHz input and output bandwidth, embeds two 8 bit 1GS/s analog–digital converters (ADCs) and two 8 bit 1 GS/s digital-analog converter (DACs). It consumes less that 1022 mW at ambient temperature while achieving noise rejection up to 42.5 dB on a single tone, and on modulated satellite channels.
Autors: Busson, P.;Chawla, N.;Bach, J.;Le Tual, S.;Singh, H.;Gupta, V.;Urard, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 84 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1–9 GHz Linear-Wide-Tuning-Range Quadrature Ring Oscillator in 130 nm CMOS for Non-Contact Vital Sign Radar Application
Abstract:
A 1–9 GHz linear-wide-tuning-range quadrature ring oscillator has been designed and fabricated in UMC 0.13 m CMOS process. The chip was wire-bonded on printed circuit board and tested, showing a liner tuning range from 1 GHz to 9 GHz. Comparative study with other differential ring oscillators demonstrates the advantages of this design in low power consumption and linear-tuning. The oscillator was designed as the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) for a non-contact vital sign radar sensor. It can also be used for other applications such as ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse radio and clock recovery in broadband optical communications.
Autors: Li, C.;Lin, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 20, issue:1, pages: 34 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.6 GB/s DDR2 128 Mb Chain FeRAM With Scalable Octal Bitline and Sensing Schemes
Abstract:
An 87.7 1.6 GB/s 128 Mb chain FeRAM with 130 nm 4-metal CMOS process is demonstrated. In addition to small bitline capacitance inherent to chain FeRAM architecture, three new FeRAM scaling techniques—octal bitline architecture, small parasitic capacitance sensing scheme, and dual metal plateline scheme—reduce bitline capacitance from 100 fF to 60 fF. As a result, a cell signal of 220 mV is achieved even with the small cell size of 0.252 . An 800 Mb/s/pin read/write bandwidth at 400 MHz clock is realized by installing SDRAM compatible DDR2 interface, and performance is verified by simulation. The internal power-line bounce noise due to 400 MHz clock operation is suppressed to less than 50 mV by an event-driven current driver, which supplies several hundreds of mA of current within 2 ns response. The precise timing and voltage controls are achieved by using the data stored in a compact FeRAM-fuse, which consists of extra FeRAM memory cells placed in edge of normal array instead of conventional laser fuse links. This configuration minimizes area penalty to 0.2% without cell signal degradation.
Autors: Shiga, H.;Takashima, D.;Shiratake, S.;Hoya, K.;Miyakawa, T.;Ogiwara, R.;Fukuda, R.;Takizawa, R.;Hatsuda, K.;Matsuoka, F.;Nagadomi, Y.;Hashimoto, D.;Nishimura, H.;Hioka, T.;Doumae, S.;Shimizu, S.;Kawano, M.;Taguchi, T.;Watanabe, Y.;Fujii, S.;Ozaki, T.
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 142 - 152
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-MS/s-to-100-kS/s Power-Scalable Fully Differential CBSC 10-Bit Pipelined ADC With Adaptive Biasing
Abstract:
A 10-MS/s-to-100-kS/s power-scalable fully differential comparator-based switched-capacitor (CBSC) 10-bit pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented. To operate over a wide range of sampling rates, an adaptive biasing technique is proposed to enhance both linearity and signal-to-noise-plusdistortion ratio (SNDR) at low sampling rates. This ADC has been fabricated in a 0.18- standard CMOS process. It achieves 62.3-dB spurious-free-dynamic range (SFDR) and 53.3-dB SNDR while being sampled at 10 MS/s and consuming 1.95 mW from a 1.8-V power supply, which obtains a figure of merit of 510 fJ/step. With the utilization of adaptive biasing, the SNDR increases from 53.3 to 56.4 dB at most when decreasing the sampling rate. In addition, its power consumption continuously reduces from 1.95 mW (10 MS/s) to 158.4 (100 kS/s).
Autors: Huang, M.-C.;Liu, S.-I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 57, issue:1, pages: 11 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 14b 150 MS/s 140 mW 2.0 mm2 0.13m CMOS A/D converter for software-defined radio systems
Abstract:
This work proposes a 14 b 150 MS/s CMOS A/D converters (ADC) for software-defined radio systems requiring simultaneously high-resolution, low-power, and small chip area at high speed. The proposed calibration-free ADC employs a wide-band low-noise input sample-and-hold amplifier (SHA) along with a four-stage pipelined architecture optimizing scaling-down factors for the sampling capacitance and the input trans-conductance of amplifiers in each stage to minimize thermal noise effect and power consumption. A signal-insensitive 3-D fully symmetric layout achieves a 14 b level resolution by reducing a capacitor mismatch of three MDACs. The prototype ADC in a 0.13m 1P8M CMOS technology demonstrates a measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity within 0.81LSB and 2.83LSB at 14 b, respectively. The ADC shows a maximum signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio of 64 and 61 dB and a maximum spurious-free dynamic range of 71 and 70 dB at 120 and 150 MS/s, respectively. The ADC with an active die area of 2.0mm2 consumes 140 mW at 150 MS/s and 1.2 V. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autors: Hee-Cheol Choi, Pil-Seon Yoo, Gil-Cho Ahn, Seung-Hoon Lee
Appeared in: International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A 2.4 GHz CMOS diversity receiver having a soft-start regulator for wake-up
Abstract:
An improved diversity receiver having a new regulator for stable power supply in a 0.18 [mu]m CMOS technology is presented. The regulator with soft-start is implemented to eliminate the battery damages at initial power-up. To reduce the external components, two switches for antenna diversity are integrated in front of LNA on the chip. A stacked inductor technique is adopted to reduce the chip area. The simulation and measurement results show that the soft-start time of the regulator can be controlled by a variable resistor from 200 [mu]S to 6.2 mS. The front-end (LNA and mixer) can achieve a voltage gain of 33.5 dB, a noise figure (NF) of 3.8 dB, and 23 dB of the isolation between antennas when consuming 3.9 mW with a 1.8 V power supply. The NF includes the loss of a BALUN, BPF, and switches. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 611-615, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25000
Autors: Yong-iL Kwon, Han-Jin Cho, Hai-Young Lee
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A 201.4 GOPS 496 mW Real-Time Multi-Object Recognition Processor With Bio-Inspired Neural Perception Engine
Abstract:
A 201.4 GOPS real-time multi-object recognition processor is presented with a three-stage pipelined architecture. Visual perception based multi-object recognition algorithm is applied to give multiple attentions to multiple objects in the input image. For human-like multi-object perception, a neural perception engine is proposed with biologically inspired neural networks and fuzzy logic circuits. In the proposed hardware architecture, three recognition tasks (visual perception, descriptor generation, and object decision) are directly mapped to the neural perception engine, 16 SIMD processors including 128 processing elements, and decision processor, respectively, and executed in the pipeline to maximize throughput of the object recognition. For efficient task pipelining, proposed task/power manager balances the execution times of the three stages based on intelligent workload estimations. In addition, a 118.4 GB/s multi-casting network-on-chip is proposed for communication architecture with incorporating overall 21 IP blocks. For low-power object recognition, workload-aware dynamic power management is performed in chip-level. The 49 chip is fabricated in a 0.13 8-metal CMOS process and contains 3.7M gates and 396 KB on-chip SRAM. It achieves 60 frame/sec multi-object recognition up to 10 different objects for VGA (640 480) video input while dissipating 496 mW at 1.2 V. The obtained 8.2 mJ/frame energy efficiency is 3.2 times higher than the state-of-the-art recognition processor.
Autors: Kim, J.-K.;Kim, M.;Lee, S.;Oh, J.;Kim, K.;Yoo, H.-J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 32 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 212 MPixels/s 4096 2160p Multiview Video Encoder Chip for 3D/Quad Full HDTV Applications
Abstract:
Multiview video coding (MVC) plays an important role in a 3-D video system. In addition, the resolution of HDTV is increasing to present more vivid perception for users. To realize real-time processing of dozens of TOPS, VLSI solution is necessary. However, ultra high computational complexity, a large amount of external memory bandwidth and on-chip SRAM size, and complex MVC prediction structures are three main design challenges of implementation of MVC hardware architecture. In this paper, an MVC single-chip encoder is proposed for H.264/AVC Multiview High Profile and High Profile for 3-D and quad full high definition (QFHD) TV applications, respectively. The 4096 ÿ 2160 p multiview video encoder chip is implemented on a 11.46 mm2 die with 90 nm CMOS technology. An eight-stage macroblock pipelined architecture with proposed system scheduling and cache-based prediction core supports real-time processing from one-view 4096 ÿ 2160 p to seven-view 720 p videos. The 212 Mpixels/s throughput is 3.4 to 7.7 times higher than previous work. The 407 Mpixels/W power efficiency is achieved, and 94% on-chip SRAM size and 79% external memory bandwidth are saved by the proposed techniques.
Autors: Li-Fu Ding;Wei-Yin Chen;Pei-Kuei Tsung;Tzu-Der Chuang;Pai-Heng Hsiao;Yu-Han Chen;Hsu-Kuang Chiu;Shao-Yi Chien;Liang-Gee Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 46 - 58
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 212 MPixels/s 4096 2160p Multiview Video Encoder Chip for 3D/Quad Full HDTV Applications
Abstract:
Multiview video coding (MVC) plays an important role in a 3-D video system. In addition, the resolution of HDTV is increasing to present more vivid perception for users. To realize real-time processing of dozens of TOPS, VLSI solution is necessary. However, ultra high computational complexity, a large amount of external memory bandwidth and on-chip SRAM size, and complex MVC prediction structures are three main design challenges of implementation of MVC hardware architecture. In this paper, an MVC single-chip encoder is proposed for H.264/AVC Multiview High Profile and High Profile for 3-D and quad full high definition (QFHD) TV applications, respectively. The 4096 2160p multiview video encoder chip is implemented on a 11.46 die with 90 nm CMOS technology. An eight-stage macroblock pipelined architecture with proposed system scheduling and cache-based prediction core supports real-time processing from one-view 4096 2160p to seven-view 720p videos. The 212 Mpixels/s throughput is 3.4 to 7.7 times higher than previous work. The 407 Mpixels/W power efficiency is achieved, and 94% on-chip SRAM size and 79% external memory bandwidth are saved by the proposed techniques.
Autors: Ding, L.-F.;Chen, W.-Y.;Tsung, P.-K.;Chuang, T.-D.;Hsiao, P.-H.;Chen, Y.-H.;Chiu, H.-K.;Chien, S.-Y.;Chen, L.-G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 46 - 58
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 300 mV 494GOPS/W Reconfigurable Dual-Supply 4-Way SIMD Vector Processing Accelerator in 45 nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper describes a reconfigurable 4-way SIMD engine fabricated in 45 nm high-k/metal-gate CMOS, targeted for on-die acceleration of vector processing in power-constrained mobile microprocessors. The SIMD accelerator is reconfigured to perform 4-way 16b 16b multiplies, 32b 32b multiply, 4-way 16b additions, 2-way 32b additions or 72b addition with single-cycle throughput and wide supply voltage range of operation (1.3 V–230 mV). A reconfigurable 2 2 tile of signed 2's complement 16b multipliers, with conditional carry gating in the 72b sparse tree adder, dual-supplies for voltage hopping, and fine-grained power-gating enables peak energy efficiency of 494GOPS/W (measured at 300 mV, 50 ) with a dense layout occupying 0.081 while achieving: (i) scalable performance up to 2.8 GHz, 278 mW measured at 1.3 V; (ii) fast single-cycle switching between any operating/idle mode; (iii) configuration-dependent power reduction of up to 41% in total power and 6.5 in active leakage power; (iv) 10 standby leakage reduction during idle mode; (v) deep subthreshold operation measured at 230 mV, 8.8 MHz, 87 ; and (vi) compensation for up to 3 performance variation in ultra-low voltage mode.
Autors: Kaul, H.;Anders, M. A.;Mathew, S. K.;Hsu, S. K.;Agarwal, A.;Krishnamurthy, R. K.;Borkar, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 95 - 102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 342 mW Mobile Application Processor With Full-HD Multi-Standard Video Codec and Tile-Based Address-Translation Circuits
Abstract:
A full-HD (1080p30) 500 MHz mobile application processor with an H.264 HP/MPEG-2/MPEG-4 video codec is integrated on a die in 65 nm low-power CMOS. With two parallel pipelines for macroblock processing and tile-based address translation circuits, the processor consumes 342 mW in real-time playback of a full-HD H.264 stream from a 64 b width low-power DDR-SDRAM at an operating frequency of 166 MHz at 1.2 V.
Autors: Iwata, K.;Irita, T.;Mochizuki, S.;Ueda, H.;Ehama, M.;Kimura, M.;Takemura, J.;Matsumoto, K.;Yamamoto, E.;Teranuma, T.;Takakubo, K.;Watanabe, H.;Yoshioka, S.;Hattori, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 59 - 68
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4–17 GHz Darlington Cascode Broadband Medium Power Amplifier in 0.18- m CMOS Technology
Abstract:
This letter presents a broadband medium power amplifier in 0.18- m CMOS technology. The Darlington cascode topology is used to achieve wide bandwidth, flat gain and power frequency response. For wideband matching consideration, an interstage inductor and series peaking RL circuit are adopted. An output high pass matching circuit is used to maintain gain and power flatness at high frequency. The measured results show that the proposed PA demonstrates a gain of 10 dB from 4 to 17 GHz with less than 2-dB ripple, and a saturation output power of 16 to 18 dBm with PAE of better than 10% and power consumption of 306 mW. The chip size is only 0.67 mm .
Autors: Huang, P.-C.;Lin, K.-Y.;Wang, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 20, issue:1, pages: 43 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4.0 GHz 291 Mb Voltage-Scalable SRAM Design in a 32 nm High-k + Metal-Gate CMOS Technology With Integrated Power Management
Abstract:
This paper introduces a high-performance voltage-scalable SRAM design in a 32 nm strain-enhanced high-k + metal-gate logic CMOS technology. The 291 Mb SRAM design features a 0.171 six-transistor bitcell that supports a broad range of operating voltages for low-power and high-frequency embedded applications. The tileable 128 kb SRAM subarray achieves 72% array efficiency with 4.2 bit density, and consumes 5 mW of leakage power at the supply voltage of 1 V. The design provides 4 GHz and 2 GHz of operating frequencies at the supply voltages of 1.0 V and 0.8 V, respectively. The integrated power management scheme features close-loop memory array leakage control, floating bitline, and wordline driver sleep transistor, resulting in a 58% reduction in subarray leakage power consumption.
Autors: Wang, Y.;Bhattacharya, U.;Hamzaoglu, F.;Kolar, P.;Ng, Y.-G.;Wei, L.;Zhang, Y.;Zhang, K.;Bohr, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 103 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 45 nm 8-Core Enterprise Xeon¯ Processor
Abstract:
This paper describes a 2.3 Billion transistors, 8-core, 16-thread, 64-bit Xeon¯ EX processor with a 24 MB shared L3 cache implemented in a 45 nm nine-metal process. Multiple clock and voltage domains are used to reduce power consumption. Long channel devices and cache sleep mode are used to minimize leakage. Core and cache recovery improve manufacturing yields and enable multiple product flavors from the same silicon die. The disabled blocks are both clock and power gated to minimize their power consumption. Idle power is reduced by shutting off the unterminated I/O links and shedding phases in the voltage regulator to improve the power conversion efficiency.
Autors: Rusu, S.;Tam, S.;Muljono, H.;Stinson, J.;Ayers, D.;Chang, J.;Varada, R.;Ratta, M.;Kottapalli, S.;Vora, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 7 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5.2 mW Self-Configured Wearable Body Sensor Network Controller and a 12 W Wirelessly Powered Sensor for a Continuous Health Monitoring System
Abstract:
A self-configured body sensor network controller and a high efficiency wirelessly powered sensor are presented for a wearable, continuous health monitoring system. The sensor chip harvests its power from the surrounding health monitoring band using an Adaptive Threshold Rectifier (ATR) with 54.9% efficiency, and it consumes 12 ¿W to implement an electrocardiogram (ECG) analog front-end and an ADC. The ATR is implemented with a standard CMOS process for low cost. The adhesive bandage type sensor patch is composed of the sensor chip, a Planar-Fashionable Circuit Board (P-FCB) inductor, and a pair of dry P-FCB electrodes. The dry P-FCB electrodes enable long term monitoring without skin irritation. The network controller automatically locates the sensor position, configures the sensor type (self-configuration), wirelessly provides power to the configured sensors, and transacts data with only the selected sensors while dissipating 5.2 mW at a single 1.8 V supply. Both the sensor and the health monitoring band are implemented using P-FCB for enhanced wearability and for lower production cost. The sensor chip and the network controller chip occupy 4.8 mm2 and 15.0 mm2, respectively, including pads, in standard 0.18 ¿m 1P6M CMOS technology.
Autors: Yoo, J.;Long Yan;Seulki Lee;Yongsang Kim;Hoi-Jun Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 178 - 188
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 65-nm High-Frequency Low-Noise CMOS-Based RF SoC Technology
Abstract:
The radio-frequency (RF) performance of a 65-nm RF technology is assessed. The RF CMOS was fabricated with a physical gate length of 60 nm. In addition to the deep-n-well and -guard-ring isolation, a multi-poly-finger layout and fabrication process is optimized to improve the CMOS device RF performance. A superior cutoff frequency of 250 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency of 220 GHz for the n-MOSFETs (NMOS) have been achieved. The minimum noise figures ( 's) are around 0.2 and 0.3 dB at 2.4 and 5.8 GHz, respectively. /n-well accumulation-mode MOS varactors, inductors, and metal–oxide–metal (MOM) capacitors are integrated with CMOS devices in a single chip by a standard logic process without extra masks. The tuning ratio of the varactor can be up to 12 with a peak quality factor of 20. The polysilicon-patterned ground shield and 3.7- -thick Cu metal process are implemented to improve the factor of the inductors. The structure and performance of the MOM and metal–insulator–metal capacitors are benchmarked, and a mesh structure is proposed to reduce the mismatch of the MOM capacitors.
Autors: Yang, D.;Ding, Y.;Huang, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 57, issue:1, pages: 328 - 335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 75 nm 7 Gb/s/pin 1 Gb GDDR5 Graphics Memory Device With Bandwidth Improvement Techniques
Abstract:
Modern graphics subsystems (gaming PCs, midhigh end graphics cards, game consoles) have reached the 2.6–2.8 Gb/s/pin regime with GDDR3/GDDR4, and experimental work has shown per pin rates up to 6 Gb/s/pin on individual test setups. In order to satisfy the continuous demand for even higher data bandwidths and increased memory densities, more advanced design techniques are required. This paper describes a 7 Gb/s/pin 1 Gb GDDR5 DRAM and the circuit design and optimization features employed to achieve these speeds. These features include: an array architecture for fast column access, a command-FIFO designed to take advantage of special training/tracking requirements of the GDDR5 interface, a boosting transmitter to increase read eye height, sampling receivers with pre-amplification and offset control, multiple regulated internal voltage (VINT 1.3 V) domains to control on chip power noise, and a high-speed internal VINT power generator system. The memory device was fabricated in a conventional 75 nm DRAM process and characterized for a 7 Gb/s/pin data transfer rate at 1.5 V Vext.
Autors: Kho, R.;Boursin, D.;Brox, M.;Gregorius, P.;Hoenigschmid, H.;Kho, B.;Kieser, S.;Kehrer, D.;Kuzmenka, M.;Moeller, U.;Petkov, P. V.;Plan, M.;Richter, M.;Russell, I.;Schiller, K.;Schneider, R.;Swaminathan, K.;Weber, B.;Weber, J.;Bormann, I.;Funfrock, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 120 - 133
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 9-pJ/Pulse 1.42-Vpp OOK CMOS UWB Pulse Generator for the 3.1–10.6-GHz FCC Band
Abstract:
This paper presents the design of a fully integrated ultra-wideband (UWB) pulse generator for the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) 3.1–10.6-GHz band. This generator is reserved for medium rate applications and achieves pulses for an on–off keying (OOK) modulation, pulse position modulation, or pulse interval modulation. This UWB transmitter is based on the impulse response filter method, which uses an edge combiner in order to excite an integrated bandpass filter. The circuit has been integrated in an ST-Microelectronics CMOS 0.13- technology with 1.2-V supply voltage and the die size is 0.54 . The pulse generator power consumption is 9 pJ per pulse and achieves a peak to peak magnitude of 1.42 V. The pulse is FCC compliant and the generator can be used with a rate up to 38 with an OOK modulation. Based on the FCC power spectral density limitation, a sizing method is also presented.
Autors: Bourdel, S.;Bachelet, Y.;Gaubert, J.;Vauche, R.;Fourquin, O.;Dehaese, N.;Barthelemy, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 65 - 73
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A battery charger with maximum power point tracking function for low-power photovoltaic system applications
Abstract:
A battery charger with MPPT function for low-power PV system applications is presented in this study. For effective miniaturization, the battery charger is designed with high-frequency operation. Some current-sensing techniques are studied, and their MPPT implementation is compared. A battery charging method is also designed to prolong battery lifetime without the use of battery current sensors. The operation principles and design considerations of the proposed PV charger are analyzed and discussed in detail. A laboratory prototype is implemented and tested to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme. Experimental results show that high MPPT accuracy and conversion efficiency can be simultaneously achieved under high-frequency operation. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autors: Huang-Jen Chiu, Yu-Kang Lo, Ting-Peng Lee, Qing Su Chen, Wen Long Yu, Jian-Xing Lee, Frank Shih, Shann-Chyi Mou
Appeared in: International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Bayesian network to predict the probability of organic farms' exit from the sector: A case study from Marche, Italy
Abstract:
The maintenance of organic farming production schemes is a theme receiving a growing interest now that there are signs of a slowing in organic farming uptake in Italy. The present study develops a model based on a Bayesian network (BN) that is aimed at investigating the factors that affect the exit of a farm from the organic sector and to simulate the probability of maintaining an organic scheme for different farm types. The model is based on a database of organic farms, which has been integrated with qualitative information. Farm-type simulation and sensitivity analysis of most of the relevant variables...
Autors: D., Gambelli , V., Bruschi
Appeared in: Computers and Electronics in Agriculture
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A better model for modern cities [Management Urban Design]
Abstract:
What new or altered forms should towns and cities take? Is there an example of a new, more sustainable model for the complex modern 24-hour city? The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) has committed itself to researching the area, and the VivaCity 2020 project team undertook a massive research programme under the leadership of Professor Rachel Cooper of Lancaster University.
Autors: Altman, W.;
Appeared in: Engineering & Technology
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 4, issue:21, pages: 74 - 75
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A bistable microelectronic circuit for sensing extremely low electric field
Abstract:
Bistable systems are prevalently found in many sensor systems. Recently, we have explored (unidirectionally) coupled overdamped bistable systems that admit self-sustained oscillations when the coupling parameter is swept through the critical points of bifurcations [V. In etal, Phys. Rev. E 68, 045102(R) (2003); A. R. Bulsara etal, Phys. Rev. E 70, 036103 (2004); V. In etal, Phys. Rev. E 72, 045104(R) (2005); Phys Rev. Lett. 91, 244101 (2003); A. Palacios etal, Phys. Rev. E 72, 026211 (2005); V. In etal, Phys. Rev. E 73, 066121 (2006)]. Complex behaviors emerge, in addition, from these (relatively simple) coupled systems when an external signal (ac or dc) is applied uniformly to all the elements in the array. In particular, we have demonstrated this emergent behavior for a coupled system comprised of mean-field hysteretic elements describing a “single-domain” ferromagnetic sample. The results are being used to develop extremely sensitive magnetic sensors capable of resolving field changes as low as 150 pT by observing the changes in the oscillation characteristics of the coupled sensors. In this paper, we explore the underlying dynamics of a coupled bistable system realized by coupling microelectronic circuits, which belong to the same class of dynamics as the aforementioned (ferromagnetic) system, with the nonlinear features and coupling terms modeled by hyperbolic tangent nonlinearities; these nonlinearities stem from the operational transconductance amplifiers used in constructing the microcircuits. The emergent behavior is being applied to develop an extremely sensitive electric-field sensor.
Autors: In, Visarath;Longhini, Patrick;Liu, Norman;Kho, Andy;Neff, Joseph D.;Palacios, Antonio;Bulsara, Adi R.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 107, issue:1, pages: 014506 - 014506-8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Boosting Framework for Visuality-Preserving Distance Metric Learning and Its Application to Medical Image Retrieval
Abstract:
Similarity measurement is a critical component in content-based image retrieval systems, and learning a good distance metric can significantly improve retrieval performance. However, despite extensive study, there are several major shortcomings with the existing approaches for distance metric learning that can significantly affect their application to medical image retrieval. In particular, ldquosimilarityrdquo can mean very different things in image retrieval: resemblance in visual appearance (e.g., two images that look like one another) or similarity in semantic annotation (e.g., two images of tumors that look quite different yet are both malignant). Current approaches for distance metric learning typically address only one goal without consideration of the other. This is problematic for medical image retrieval where the goal is to assist doctors in decision making. In these applications, given a query image, the goal is to retrieve similar images from a reference library whose semantic annotations could provide the medical professional with greater insight into the possible interpretations of the query image. If the system were to retrieve images that did not look like the query, then users would be less likely to trust the system; on the other hand, retrieving images that appear superficially similar to the query but are semantically unrelated is undesirable because that could lead users toward an incorrect diagnosis. Hence, learning a distance metric that preserves both visual resemblance and semantic similarity is important. We emphasize that, although our study is focused on medical image retrieval, the problem addressed in this work is critical to many image retrieval systems. We present a boosting framework for distance metric learning that aims to preserve both visual and semantic similarities. The boosting framework first learns a binary representation using side information, in the form of labeled pairs, and then computes the distance as a weighted Hammi- ng distance using the learned binary representation. A boosting algorithm is presented to efficiently learn the distance function. We evaluate the proposed algorithm on a mammographic image reference library with an interactive search-assisted decision support (ISADS) system and on the medical image data set from ImageCLEF. Our results show that the boosting framework compares favorably to state-of-the-art approaches for distance metric learning in retrieval accuracy, with much lower computational cost. Additional evaluation with the COREL collection shows that our algorithm works well for regular image data sets.
Autors: Liu Yang;Rong Jin;Mummert, L.;Sukthankar, R.;Goode, A.;Bin Zheng;Hoi, S.C.H.;Satyanarayanan, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 30 - 44
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Breath Sensor Using Carbon Nanotubes Operated by Field Effects of Polarization and Ionization
Abstract:
A novel microfabricated breath sensor (MBS) based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) has been presented and tested. It has a simple structure of two nickel beams incorporating with MWNTs. The responses of the MBS to the behavior of the breath dynamic characteristics are consistent with the exhalation pulse of the human-volunteers, e.g. the exhale flow strength and frequency. It has a rapid response and high sensitivity in detecting feeble breath, and no recovery issues such as the adsorption-type sensors are detected. Furthermore, strong anti-interference ability to external air flow and temperature shift is observed. These unique results ensure this MBS...
Autors: Xiaohang, Chen , Yanyan, Wang , Yuhua, Wang , Zhongyu, Hou , Dong, Xu , ...
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A bright and long-pulse illumination for ultrahigh-speed microscopy of living specimens
Abstract:
Ultrahigh-speed microscopy of living specimens requires ultrabright illumination. Moreover, the duration of illumination should be sufficiently long, on the order of at least several tens of milliseconds, in order to investigate the dynamic state of living specimens. However, specimens are exposed to a high risk of damage by the intense illumination. The brightness and pulse duration of illumination have to be continuously controlled for use in the ultrahigh-speed microscopy of living specimens. Commercial or laboratory-made illumination systems do not satisfy the abovementioned requirements. In this paper, the development of a bright and long-pulse illumination system for ultrahigh-speed microscopy of living specimens is presented. A xenon flashlamp with an arc length of 1.5 mm has been used as the light source. The electrical power supply consists of a voltage-regulated circuit, a capacitor bank, and a control circuit including an insulated-gate bipolar transistor as a gating device, which provides a large rectangular current pulse with the duration in the range to the order of several tens of milliseconds. The brightness, pulse duration, and repetition rate can be easily and continuously controlled. The illumination developed in the present study is installed in an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a high-speed camera in order to evaluate the performance as an illumination source. A fluorescent image of the living spermatozoa of a mouse obtained at a frame rate of 8 kHz shows good contrast. Such an image cannot be obtained using a commercial illumination system.
Autors: Nakano, Hitoshi;Yokoi, Sayoko;Yoshida, Shigeru;Yamada, Makoto;Takeuchi, Takeshi;Takehara, Kosei;Etoh, T. Goji;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 81, issue:1, pages: 013705 - 013705-5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband and Miniaturized Common-Mode Filter for Gigahertz Differential Signals Based on Negative-Permittivity Metamaterials
Abstract:
A novel wideband and miniaturized common-mode noise suppression filter is proposed based on the concept of an effective negative-permittivity metamaterial (MM) transmission line (TL). The propagation properties for the odd and even modes in the proposed structure are derived from the TL theory and Bloch theorem. Two- and four-port equivalent-circuit models are developed to explain the common-mode suppression characteristics. The dispersion relation has a good agreement with the full-wave simulation and measurement result. Based on the low-temperature co-fired ceramic fabrication technology, miniaturized common-mode filters with four and eight cells are realized using the concept of the effective negative-permittivity MM. For the four-cell structure, the filter size is with the corresponding real size of . It is found that the common-mode noise can be reduced over 10 dB from 3.8 to 7.1 GHz with the fractional bandwidth of 60% in the frequency domain, and is reduced over 50% for voltage amplitude in the time domain. More importantly, the differential signal integrity, in terms of insertion loss and group delay in the frequency domain and eye diagrams in the time domain, is not degraded within the wide stopband. To our best knowledge, it is the first broadband common-mode filter designed for gigahertz differential signals based on the concept of MM TL with most compact size.
Autors: Tsai, C.-H.;Wu, T.-L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 195 - 202
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) Based Transceiver for an In-Tire-Pressure Monitoring Sensor Node
Abstract:
Attaching a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) on the inner liner of a tire allows sensing of important additional technical parameters, such as vehicle load or tire wearout. The maximum weight of the sensor is limited to 5 grams including package, power supply, and antenna. Robustness is required against extreme levels of acceleration. The node size is limited to about 1 cm to avoid high force-gradients due to device-deformation and finally, a long power supply lifetime must be achieved.
Autors: Flatscher, M.;Dielacher, M.;Herndl, T.;Lentsch, T.;Matischek, R.;Prainsack, J.;Pribyl, W.;Theuss, H.;Weber, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 167 - 177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A cache scheme for femtocell reselection
Abstract:
In a cellular network, femto base stations may be deployed to improve indoor coverage that cannot be accommodated by the macro base stations. However, to switch from the macro-tier to the femto-tier, a user equipment may be required to scan the whole femto radio spectrum, which is an expensive operation. We propose a cache scheme that may significantly speed up the macro-tier to femto-tier switching.
Autors: Hsin-Yi Lee;Yi-Bing Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 27 - 29
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Chip-Stacked Memory for On-Chip SRAM-Rich SoCs and Processors
Abstract:
A dynamic-reconfigurable memory chip is fabricated, by which on-chip memories of an SoC chip can be moved to the memory chip to increase the efficiency of memory usage, and stacked on a logic chip by using three dimensional packaging technology. In the memory chip, many RAM-macros are arrayed and they are connected through two dimensional mesh network interconnects. By using memory-specified network interconnects, area overhead of network interconnects for the memory chip is reduced by 63% and the latency overhead by 43%. Signal lines between the two chips are directly connected by 10- m-pitch inter-chip electrodes, resulting in fast and low-energy inter-chip transmission.
Autors: Saito, H.;Nakajima, M.;Okamoto, T.;Yamada, Y.;Ohuchi, A.;Iguchi, N.;Sakamoto, T.;Yamaguchi, K.;Mizuno, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 45, issue:1, pages: 15 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class-Conditioned Lossless Wavelet-Based Predictive Multispectral Image Compressor
Abstract:
We present a nonlinear lossless compressor designed for multispectral images consisting of few bands and having greater spatial than spectral correlation. Our compressor is based on a 2-D integer wavelet transform that reduces spatial correlation. Different models for the statistical dependences of wavelet detail coefficients are analyzed and tested to perform linear inter/intraband predictions. Band, class, scale, and orientation are used as conditioning contexts to calculate predictions, as well as to encode prediction errors with an adaptive arithmetic coder. A new mechanism is proposed for band ordering, based on wavelet fine detail coefficients. Our compressor CLWP outperforms state-of-the-art lossless compressors. It has random access capability and can be applied to compress volumetric data having similar characteristics.
Autors: Ruedin, A.;Acevedo, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 7, issue:1, pages: 166 - 170
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A closed approximated formed expression for the achievable residual intersymbol interference obtained by blind equalizers
Abstract:
In this paper I propose for the noiseless, real and independent quadrature carrier case a closed approximated formed expression for the achievable residual inter-symbol interference (ISI) that depends on the step-size parameter, equalizer's tap length, input signal statistics and channel power. In addition, a new closed formed approximated expression is proposed for the above mentioned case, that indicates if the chosen blind equalization method leads to perfect equalization performance from the residual ISI point of view. This new approximated expression can be a useful tool for equalization performance comparison between blind equalizers. Since the channel power is measurable or can...
Autors: Monika, Pinchas
Appeared in: Signal Processing
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A compact U-shaped defected ground structure microstrip low-pass filter with wideband rejection
Abstract:
A compact triple U-shaped slots etched on the microstrip ground are used to implement a novel low-pass filter.A rectangular open stub and a radius stub are used to produce transmission zeros and thus result in wide stopband. Good low-pass performance and wide stopband characteristics can be achieved by this new structure. One prototype is fabricated to demonstrate the validity of the design strategies. The simulated and measured results indicate that the insertion loss is less than 0.25 dB and the return loss is less than -16.7 dB in the whole passband. In addition, significant improvement on rejection band can be observed; the stopband bandwidth better than -25 dB is about 105% (from 2.6 to 8.4 GHz). 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 497-499, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.24960
Autors: Kuan Deng, Wenjie Feng, Wenquan Che
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A compact ultra-wide stopband, low insertion loss, and sharp cutoff low-pass filter
Abstract:
A novel compact microstrip low-pass filter (LPF) with ultra-wide stopband, low insertion loss, and sharp cutoff is introduced in this letter. The LPF is composed of a stepped-impedance hairpin resonator, a square split-ring resonator, defected ground structure (DGS), and a pair of coupled DGSs with compensated microstrip lines. Measured results show that the 10-dB stopband is up to 19.62 GHz, passband loss is below 0.5 dB, and the selectivity of the filter is more than 180 dB/GHz, but its occupied area is only 20 35 mm2. It can be widely used for higher harmonics suppression for wideband microwave applications. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 568-570, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.24976
Autors: Shu-Hong Fu, Chuang-Ming Tong, Xi-Min Li, Kai Shen
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A compact wideband bandpass filter using modified NB-SRRs with wide upper bandstop
Abstract:
A new type of compact wideband bandpass filter using modified non-bianisotropic split-ring resonators is proposed to have wideband performance and suppress spurious responses. With the proposed resonators, size reduction of [sim]15% and 20% when comparing single outer and inner constituent rings has been obtained. Embedded-slot-loaded resonators are placed at both input and output feed lines for extra stopband rejection modes to suppress spurious frequencies with attenuation losses over than 15 dB for a frequency range up to 3.1 f0 without affecting the operation band. In addition, due to the zero-degree feed structure, the appearance of two transmission zeros, thereby suppressing the second harmonic response has been obtained. This filter has not been only compact size but also a wider upper stopband caused by slot-loaded resonator bandstop characteristics. Good agreement is obtained between simulations and measurements. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 551-553, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.24968
Autors: Sarawuth Chaimool, Prayoot Akkaraekthalin
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A compact, ultra-broadband coplanar-waveguide bandpass filter with simple open- and short-stub structures
Abstract:
A compact, ultra-broadband coplanar-waveguide (CPW) bandpass filter (BPF) is presented. The CPW-BPF comprises solely open- and short-stub structures. Compared with the conventional broadband CPW-BPFs, the proposed filter is of a relatively compact configuration. The demonstrated CPW-BPF has about 110% 3-dB fractional bandwidth, sharp selectivity, and good stopband rejection. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 715-718, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www. interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.25028
Autors: Shao-Ning Wang, Nan-Wei Chen
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Comprehensive Channel Model for UWB Multisensor Multiantenna Body Area Networks
Abstract:
Body area networks consist of a number of biological sensors communicating over the air with a central sink placed in close proximity of the human body. A promising solution is to use multisensor multiantenna ultrawideband architecture; each sensor carries one antenna, while the central sink supports an antenna array. In this paper, a complete analytical channel model has been developed for the on-body diffracted waves mechanism. It builds on the existing IEEE 802.15.4a standard channel model and offers an innovative space-time correlation model.
Autors: van Roy, S.;Oestges, C.;Horlin, F.;De Doncker, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 163 - 170
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Technique to Determine the Broadband Physically Consistent Material Characteristics of Microstrip Lines
Abstract:
This paper describes a method to extract the relative complex dielectric permittivity from propagation coefficient measurements on microstrip lines. The material characteristics of microstrip lines fabricated on two different types of substrates commonly used in microwave circuit and printed circuit boards are investigated. The mechanisms that cause the effective permittivity of microstrip lines to be dispersive are explored. The technique includes creating closed-form effective permittivity equations to relate the effective permittivity of the microstrip lines to the real part of the dielectric permittivity of the substrate. Curve-fitting methods are used to create causal dielectric material models that relate the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity to its real part. The methods developed in this paper can be used to characterize low-loss dielectric materials whose polarization is dominantly dipolar within the microwave frequency range in high-speed packaging applications.
Autors: Zhou, Z.;Melde, K. L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 185 - 194
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computational Study of Dopant-Segregated Schottky Barrier MOSFETs
Abstract:
A dopant-segregated Schottky barrier MOSFET is simulated by Monte Carlo method in this paper. The feature that dopant-segregated structure can improve on-current is revealed. The influence of dopant-segregated structure parameters on device performance is investigated, and the guideline for device design optimization is that the dopant-segregated region should overlay the whole Schottky barrier region. Some carrier transport details are also demonstrated here. The maximal velocities at source and drain sides all decrease with the increase of dopant-segregated region length. The maximal velocity at source side shows saturation with the existence of dopant-segregated structure when drain voltage increases while the maximal velocity at drain side shows no saturation.
Autors: Zeng, L.;Liu, X. Y.;Zhao, Y. N.;He, Y. H.;Du, G.;Kang, J. F.;Han, R. Q.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 108 - 113
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A concisely asymmetric modeling of double-? equivalent circuit for on-chip spiral inductors
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel 18-element asymmetric double-? equivalent circuit model for on-chip spiral inductors is proposed with corresponding direct parameter extraction. Meanwhile, the asymmetric characteristics of spiral inductors are analyzed by introducing a geometry-based optimization factor. To validate the proposed model and asymmetric analysis, two series of circular inductors with different number of turns and radii were fabricated and model parameters were extracted from S-parameters measurement up to 20GHz. The results show that this modeling methodology can achieve high accuracy extraction while offering simplification to previously reported methods.
Autors: Li, Yu , Yang, Tang , Yan, Wang
Appeared in: Solid-State Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A convex optimization approach to filtering in jump linear systems with state dependent transitions?
Abstract:
We introduce a new methodology to construct a Gaussian mixture approximation to the true filter density in hybrid Markovian switching systems. We relax the assumption that the mode transition process is a Markov chain and allow it to depend on the actual and unobservable state of the system. The main feature of the method is that the Gaussian densities used in the approximation are selected as the solution of a convex programming problem which trades off sparsity of the solution with goodness of fit. A meaningful example shows that the proposed method can outperform the widely used interacting multiple model...
Autors: Agostino, Capponi
Appeared in: Automatica
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A cooperative cache-based content delivery framework for intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks
Abstract:
For an infrastructure-less wireless environment, content dissemination among mobile users can be facilitated by self-organizing mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) through low cost wireless connections. However, due to limited radio transmission range, sporadic node densities and power limitations, MANETs can become intermittently connected. As a result, some proposed solutions exploit mobility and storage space of the nodes to distribute contents even if a route never exists. In all these mechanisms, whenever two mobile nodes encounter each other, each node only focuses on making independent disseminating decisions to improve the overall performance. With this in mind, this paper presents a cooperative cache-based content dissemination framework (CCCDF) to carry out the cooperative soliciting and caching strategies for the two encountering nodes. Two cooperative strategies are investigated: CCCDF (Optimal) is to maximize the overall content delivery performance while CCCDF (Max-Min) is to share the limited network resources among the contents in a Max-Min fairness manner. Simulation results demonstrated the enhanced delivery performance offered by the proposed CCCDF over existing schemes.
Autors: Yaozhou Ma;Jamalipour, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 366 - 373
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coplanar Strip Slow Wave Structure for the Optical Directional Coupler Modulators
Abstract:
A design of a coplanar stripline (CPS) slow wave structure, which has for the first time both series inductive and shunt capacitive sections, has been developed. It has been designed to match the RF/microwave modulation signal phase velocity to the optical wave velocity in GaAs optical waveguides. In this design, the CPS with series inductances and shunt capacitances retains the characteristic impedance at 50 . This slow wave structure provides flexibility of design for narrow gap CPS structures. The effective refractive index and characteristic impedance of this design have been measured in the frequency range of up to 45 GHz and compared to simulations.
Autors: Oh, J.;Gopinath, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 20, issue:1, pages: 7 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coplanar Stripline Ultra-Wideband Bandpass Filter With Notch Band
Abstract:
In this letter, a design of a compact coplanar stripline ultra-wideband bandpass filter with a narrow rejection band is reported. The filter characteristic is obtained by using stepped impedance open-circuited series stubs. It is shown that the rejection band can be placed at a desired frequency by tuning the width of the high impedance section of the series stub. Full-wave simulated and experimental results of a filter prototype are presented.
Autors: Mondal, P.;Guan, Y. L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 20, issue:1, pages: 22 - 24
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A data-dependent equalizer for an optical storage channel
Abstract:
Although information storage devices have increasingly faster data transfer rates and higher storage capacities at a lower cost, equalizing such devices often causes serious noise enhancement. Therefore, this work presents a novel equalization method capable of reducing serious noise enhancement and also combating the intersymbol interference (ISI) effects. The equivalent channel which combines the storage channel response and the power spectral density of the recorded run-length-limited (RLL) sequences is equalized to a desired response with cutoff frequency ?c, where the determination of ?c compromises noise enhancement and ISI. Two quantified values, SNRo(?c) and RISI(?c), related to noise enhancement and ISI...
Autors: Tsai-Sheng, Kao
Appeared in: Digital Signal Processing
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A DC-DC multilevel boost converter
Abstract:
A DC¿DC converter topology is proposed. The DC¿DC multilevel boost converter (MBC) is a pulse-width modulation (PWM)-based DC¿DC converter, which combines the boost converter and the switched capacitor function to provide different output voltages and a self-balanced voltage using only one driven switch, one inductor, 2N - 1 diodes and 2N - 1 capacitors for an Nx MBC. It is proposed to be used as DC link in applications where several controlled voltage levels are required with self-balancing and unidirectional current flow, such as photovoltaic (PV) or fuel cell generation systems with multilevel inverters; each device blocks only one voltage level, achieving high-voltage converters with low-voltage devices. The major advantages of this topology are: a continuous input current, a large conversion ratio without extreme duty cycle and without transformer, which allow high switching frequency. It can be built in a modular way and more levels can be added without modifying the main circuit. The proposed converter is simulated and prototyped; experimental results prove the proposition's principle.
Autors: Rosas-Caro, J.C.;Ramirez, J.M.;Peng, F.Z.;Valderrabano, A.;
Appeared in: IET Power Electronics
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 3, issue:1, pages: 129 - 137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dirichlet Process Mixture of Generalized Dirichlet Distributions for Proportional Data Modeling
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a clustering algorithm based on both Dirichlet processes and generalized Dirichlet distribution which has been shown to be very flexible for proportional data modeling. Our approach can be viewed as an extension of the finite generalized Dirichlet mixture model to the infinite case. The extension is based on nonparametric Bayesian analysis. This clustering algorithm does not require the specification of the number of mixture components to be given in advance and estimates it in a principled manner. Our approach is Bayesian and relies on the estimation of the posterior distribution of clusterings using Gibbs sampler. Through some applications involving real-data classification and image databases categorization using visual words, we show that clustering via infinite mixture models offers a more powerful and robust performance than classic finite mixtures.
Autors: Bouguila, N.;Ziou, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 107 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Discrete Stock Price Prediction Engine Based on Financial News
Abstract:
The Arizona Financial Text system leverages statistical learning to make trading decisions based on numeric price predictions. Research demonstrates that AZFinText outperforms the market average and performs well against existing quant funds.
Autors: Schumaker, Robert P.;Chen, Hsinchun;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 51 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Consensus-Based Cooperative Spectrum-Sensing Scheme in Cognitive Radios
Abstract:
In cognitive radio (CR) networks, secondary users can cooperatively sense the spectrum to detect the presence of primary users. In this paper, we propose a fully distributed and scalable cooperative spectrum-sensing scheme based on recent advances in consensus algorithms. In the proposed scheme, the secondary users can maintain coordination based on only local information exchange without a centralized common receiver. Unlike most of the existing decision rules, such as the or-rule or the 1-out-of-N rule, we use the consensus of secondary users to make the final decision. Simulation results show that the proposed consensus scheme can have significant lower missing detection probabilities and false alarm probabilities in CR networks. It is also demonstrated that the proposed scheme not only has proven sensitivity in detecting the primary user's presence but also has robustness in choosing a desirable decision threshold.
Autors: Li, Z.;Yu, F. R.;Huang, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 59, issue:1, pages: 383 - 393
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Multichannel MAC Protocol for Multihop Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
A cognitive radio (CR) network should be able to sense its environment and adapt communication to utilize the unused licensed spectrum without interfering with licensed users. In this paper, we look at CR-enabled networks with distributed control. As CR nodes need to hop from channel to channel to make the most use of the spectrum opportunities, we believe distributed multichannel medium access control (MAC) protocols to be key enablers for these networks. In addition to the spectrum scarcity, energy is rapidly becoming one of the major bottlenecks of wireless operations and has to be considered as a key design criterion. We present here an energy-efficient distributed multichannel MAC protocol for CR networks (MMAC-CR). Simulation results show that the proposed protocol significantly improves performance by borrowing the licensed spectrum and protects primary users (PUs) from interference, even in hidden terminal situations. Sensing costs are evaluated and shown to contribute only 5% to the total energy cost.
Autors: Timmers, M.;Pollin, S.;Dejonghe, A.;Van der Perre, L.;Catthoor, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 59, issue:1, pages: 446 - 459
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A dual mode UHF EPC Gen 2 RFID tag in 0.18?m CMOS
Abstract:
A dual mode UHF RFID transponder in 0.18?m CMOS conforming to the EPC Gen 2 standard is presented. Low voltage design of the analog and digital blocks enables the chip to operate with a 1V regulated voltage and thus to reduce the power consumption. The novel dual mode architecture enables the chip to work in passive and battery-assisted modes controlled by the reader. A custom Gen 2 based command switches the operation mode of the circuit. By using a special clock calibration method the chip operates from 1.2 to 5MHz clock frequency. Several low power techniques are employed to reduce...
Autors: Vali, Najafi , Siamak, Mohammadi , Vahid, Roostaie , Ali, Fotowat-Ahmady
Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Dual-Linearly-Polarized MEMS-Reconfigurable Antenna for Narrowband MIMO Communication Systems
Abstract:
The design and characterization is described of a compact dual-linearly-polarized reconfigurable 2-port antenna. The antenna can operate in two different selectable linear polarization bases, thus being capable of reconfiguring/rotating its polarization base from vertical/horizontal , to slant . The antenna has been implemented on a Quartz substrate, and uses monolithically integrated micro-electromechanical (MEM) switches to select between the two aforementioned polarization bases. The antenna operates at 3.8 GHz and presents a fractional bandwidth of 1.7%. The interest of the proposed antenna is two-fold. First, in LOS scenarios, the antenna enables polarization tracking in polarization-sensitive communication schemes. Second, there are the gains of using it in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system employing orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBC) to improve the diversity order/gain of the system in NLOS conditions. These benefits were verified through channel measurements conducted in LOS and NLOS propagation scenarios. Despite the simplicity of the antenna, the achievable polarization matching gains (in LOS scenarios) and diversity gains (in NLOS scenarios) are remarkable. These gains come at no expenses of introducing additional receive ports to the system (increasing the number of Radio-Frequency (RF) transceivers), rather as a result of the reconfigurable capabilities of the proposed antenna.
Autors: Grau, A.;Romeu, J.;Lee, M.-J.;Blanch, S.;Jofre, L.;De Flaviis, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 58, issue:1, pages: 4 - 17
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Mode Conditioning Circuit for Differential Analog-to-Digital Converters
Abstract:
Several devices such as load cells and pressure sensors, among others, provide differential outputs. Given that present high-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) have differential inputs, fully differential (F-D) circuits are required to adapt the sensor output to the ADC input. This paper proposes an F-D conditioning circuit that allows adjusting both differential- and common-mode signals to the levels required by the ADC. A design example is presented, and a prototype was built and tested. It transforms a differential input signal of 25 mV with a common-mode voltage of 5 V to a differential output signal of 5 and 2.5 V, respectively. It shows an input-referenced peak-to-peak noise of 120 nV, which results in a 112-dB dynamic range (18.7-bit noise-free resolution) for a signal bandwidth of 10 Hz.
Autors: Spinelli, E. M.;Garcia, P. A.;Guaraglia, D. O.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 59, issue:1, pages: 195 - 199
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamic Performance-Based Flow Control Method for High-Speed Data Transfer
Abstract:
New types of specialized network applications are being created that need to be able to transmit large amounts of data across dedicated network links. TCP fails to be a suitable method of bulk data transfer in many of these applications, giving rise to new classes of protocols designed to circumvent TCP's shortcomings. It is typical in these high-performance applications, however, that the system hardware is simply incapable of saturating the bandwidths supported by the network infrastructure. When the bottleneck for data transfer occurs in the system itself and not in the network, it is critical that the protocol scales gracefully to prevent buffer overflow and packet loss. It is therefore necessary to build a high-speed protocol adaptive to the performance of each system by including a dynamic performance-based flow control. This paper develops such a protocol, Performance Adaptive UDP (henceforth PA-UDP), which aims to dynamically and autonomously maximize performance under different systems. A mathematical model and related algorithms are proposed to describe the theoretical basis behind effective buffer and CPU management. A novel delay-based rate-throttling model is also demonstrated to be very accurate under diverse system latencies. Based on these models, we implemented a prototype under Linux, and the experimental results demonstrate that PA-UDP outperforms other existing high-speed protocols on commodity hardware in terms of throughput, packet loss, and CPU utilization. PA-UDP is efficient not only for high-speed research networks, but also for reliable high-performance bulk data transfer over dedicated local area networks where congestion and fairness are typically not a concern.
Autors: Eckart, Ben;He, Xubin;Wu, Qishi;Xie, Changsheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 114 - 125
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexible Parallel Simulator for Networks-on-Chip With Error Control
Abstract:
This paper presents a flexible parallel simulator to evaluate the impact of different error control methods on the performance and energy consumption of networks-on-chip (NoCs). Various error control schemes can be inserted into the simulator in a plug-and-play manner for evaluation. Moreover, a highly tunable fault injection feature is developed for modeling various fault injection scenarios, including different fault injection rates, fault types, fault injection locations, and faulty flit types. Case studies performed in the proposed flexible simulation environment are presented to demonstrate the impact of a set of error control schemes on NoC performance and energy in different noise scenarios. This paper also uses the simulator to provide design guidelines for NoCs with error control capabilities.
Autors: Yu, Q.;Ampadu, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2010, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 103 - 116
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A fractional approach for the motion planning of redundant and hyper-redundant manipulators
Abstract:
The trajectory planning of redundant robots through the pseudoinverse control leads to undesirable drift in the joint space. This paper presents a new technique to solve the inverse kinematics problem of redundant manipulators, which uses a fractional differential of order ? to control the joint positions. Two performance measures are defined to examine the strength and weakness of the proposed method. The positional error index measures the precision of the manipulator's end-effector at the target position. The repeatability performance index is adopted to evaluate if the joint positions are repetitive when the manipulator execute repetitive trajectories in the operational workspace....
Autors: Maria, da Graa Marcos , J.A., Tenreiro Machado , T.-P., azevedo-Perdicolis
Appeared in: Signal Processing
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A frameless eddy current sensor for cryogenic displacement measurement
Abstract:
This paper presents a frameless eddy current sensor for cryogenic displacement measurement, for instance, the monitoring of axial displacement in liquid propellant engine. The frameless sensor probe, which consists of flat spiral coils and long flat cables, is manufactured on a polyimide substrate directly using the flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) process. Manganese cooper, instead of general cooper, is used as the material for coil because of its thermal stability of conductivity in the low temperature. The developed frequency-modulated (FM) oscillator is used to improve sensitivity and stability. A cryogenic calibration system is designed and fabricated to verify the performance...
Autors: Peng, Wang , Zhibin, Fu , Tianhuai, Ding
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Jan 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 

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