Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2017 sorted by title, page: 0

» "Neural tourniquet" zaps a nerve to stop bleeding [News]
Abstract:
A "neural tourniquet" doesn't sound like a thing that should work. Even its inventors admit it. "It's a real leap of faith: 'I know, we'll stimulate a nerve to control bleeding,'" says Chris Czura, a vice president of the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, near New York City. "When you say this to surgeons, they look at you funny." But in the Feinstein team's 15 years of research, it has gathered ample evidence for this type of bioelectronic medicine, with studies that show neural stimulation can prevent or stop severe hemorrhages in lab animals. Now the researchers are launching a clinical trial in humans to show the world that their strange idea doesn't just work-it can save lives.
Autors: Eliza Strickland;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 9 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $1times$ - to $2times$ -nm perpendicular MTJ Switching at Sub-3-ns Pulses Below $100~mu$ A for High-Performance Embedded STT-MRAM for Sub-20-nm CMOS
Abstract:
Magnetization switching is confirmed for sub-3-ns pulses below in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) down to 16 nm in diameter. The magnetoresistance ratio exceeded 150%, satisfying requirements for fast read conditions. Using sub-30-nm MTJs, write-error rates of up to an order of −6 (10−6) are demonstrated. Read and write current margins, which are important device designs, are sufficiently large to avoid read disturbances. Moreover, -to--nm MTJs have sufficient data retention for level-2 or level-3 cache requirements. Furthermore, the MTJ resistance remains stable after 1012 write events. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of - to -nm MTJs supporting cache memory along with read–write current margins, fast read operations, low power consumption, sufficient retention, and high endurance.
Autors: Daisuke Saida;Saori Kashiwada;Megumi Yakabe;Tadaomi Daibou;Miyoshi Fukumoto;Shinji Miwa;Yoshishige Suzuki;Keiko Abe;Hiroki Noguchi;Junichi Ito;Shinobu Fujita;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 427 - 431
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $2times2$ Phased Array Consisting of Square Loop Antennas for High Gain Wide Angle Scanning With Low Grating Lobes
Abstract:
A array antenna comprised of conventional hybrid high impedance surface-based reconfigurable square loop antennas (SLAs) as elements is presented. The SLA element has four conducting arms and each arm is fed at the middle by vertical probes, which is connected to a port at the bottom of antenna ground plane. Thus, the SLA element has four feeding ports and it is capable of generating five distinct radiation patterns by using a combination of its feeding ports. Depending upon which of its four ports are excited it can provide four high gain off-boresight tilted beams (8.9 dBi at ) in four different quadrants of the space (tilted beam mode). When all the four ports are simultaneously excited with phases of 0°, 0°, 180°, and 180°, it provides an axial beam (6.5 dBi) at boresight (axial beam mode). By combining these two modes the array of SLAs can provide a scanning range of −60° to +60° in the elevation plane with high-gain beams (14–11.2 dBi).
Autors: Arpan Pal;Amit Mehta;Dariush Mirshekar-Syahkal;Hisamatsu Nakano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 576 - 583
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $L_0$ -Regularized Intensity and Gradient Prior for Deblurring Text Images and Beyond
Abstract:
We propose a simple yet effective -regularized prior based on intensity and gradient for text image deblurring. The proposed image prior is based on distinctive properties of text images, with which we develop an efficient optimization algorithm to generate reliable intermediate results for kernel estimation. The proposed algorithm does not require any heuristic edge selection methods, which are critical to the state-of-the-art edge-based deblurring methods. We discuss the relationship with other edge-based deblurring methods and present how to select salient edges more principally. For the final latent image restoration step, we present an effective method to remove artifacts for better deblurred results. We show the proposed algorithm can be extended to deblur natural images with complex scenes and low illumination, as well as non-uniform deblurring. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs favorably against the state-of-the-art image deblurring methods.
Autors: Jinshan Pan;Zhe Hu;Zhixun Su;Ming-Hsuan Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 342 - 355
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $mathsf {pSCAN}$ : Fast and Exact Structural Graph Clustering
Abstract:
We study the problem of structural graph clustering, a fundamental problem in managing and analyzing graph data. Given an undirected unweighted graph, structural graph clustering is to assign vertices to clusters, and to identify the sets of hub vertices and outlier vertices as well, such that vertices in the same cluster are densely connected to each other while vertices in different clusters are loosely connected. In this paper, we develop a new two-step paradigm for scalable structural graph clustering based on our three observations. Then, we present a approach, within the paradigm, aiming to reduce the number of structural similarity computations, and propose optimization techniques to speed up checking whether two vertices are structure-similar. outputs exactly the same clusters as the existing approaches and , and we prove that is worst-case optimal. Moreover, we propose efficient techniques for updating the clusters when the input graph dynamically changes, and we also extend our techniques to other similarity measures, e.g., Jaccard similarity. Performance studies on large real and synthetic graphs demonst- ate the efficiency of our new approach and our dynamic cluster maintenance techniques. Noticeably, for the twitter graph with 1 billion edges, our approach takes 25 minutes while the state-of-the-art approach cannot finish even after 24 hours.
Autors: Lijun Chang;Wei Li;Lu Qin;Wenjie Zhang;Shiyu Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 387 - 401
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $S$ -Band Relativistic Magnetron Operation With Multichannel Radial Outputs of the Microwave Power
Abstract:
The results of an experimental study of the S-band magnetron operation with a six-vane anode block and multichannel radial outputs for microwave power extraction are presented. The magnetron was driven by a linear induction accelerator (~350 kV, ~2.5 kA, and 150 ns). In the case of three outputs for microwave power extraction and another three outputs connected to waveguides short circuited by movable plungers for adjusting the magnetron resonance, frequency-stable generation of the microwaves radiation with a total power of 570 MW from these three outputs was demonstrated. This power was equal to the power obtained when the same magnetron with one output was operated with high efficiency (%). In addition, it was shown that the distribution of the generated microwave power between the three outputs allows wedge insulators to be used in the waveguides vacuum–air interface without electrical breakdown. Finally, microwave radiation, extracted in free space by a cluster of horn antennas connected at the output of the waveguides, was coherently added to each other at the desired distance with a three times larger microwave power density than in the case of 570-MW single output magnetron operation.
Autors: Arkady Sayapin;Uri Dai;Yakov E. Krasik;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 45, issue:2, pages: 229 - 234
Publisher: IEEE
 
» –Omic and Electronic Health Record Big Data Analytics for Precision Medicine
Abstract:
Objective: Rapid advances of high-throughput technologies and wide adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) have led to fast accumulation of –omic and EHR data. These voluminous complex data contain abundant information for precision medicine, and big data analytics can extract such knowledge to improve the quality of healthcare. Methods: In this paper, we present –omic and EHR data characteristics, associated challenges, and data analytics including data preprocessing, mining, and modeling. Results: To demonstrate how big data analytics enables precision medicine, we provide two case studies, including identifying disease biomarkers from multi-omic data and incorporating –omic information into EHR. Conclusion: Big data analytics is able to address –omic and EHR data challenges for paradigm shift toward precision medicine. Significance: Big data analytics makes sense of –omic and EHR data to improve healthcare outcome. It has long lasting societal impact.
Autors: Po-Yen Wu;Chih-Wen Cheng;Chanchala D. Kaddi;Janani Venugopalan;Ryan Hoffman;May D. Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 263 - 273
Publisher: IEEE
 
» (Digitally) Inking in the 21st Century
Abstract:
The ubiquity and mobility of contemporary computing devices has enabled users to consume content, anytime, anywhere. Yet, when we need to create content, touch input is far from perfect. When coupled with touch input, the stylus should enable users to simultaneously ink, manipulate the page, and switch between tools with ease, so why has the stylus yet to achieve universal adoption? Michelle Annett's thesis sought to understand the usability barriers and tensions that have prevented stylus input from gaining traction and reaching widespread adoption. This article in particular explores the limits of human latency perception and evaluates solutions to unintended touch.
Autors: Michelle Annett;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 92 - 99
Publisher: IEEE
 
» (t, n) Threshold Quantum State Sharing Scheme Based on Linear Equations and Unitary Operation
Abstract:
Quantum state sharing (QSTS) plays an important role in transporting, managing, and distributing keys. In this paper, by adopting the linear equation instead of using the Lagrange interpolation, a new idea of constructing (t, n) threshold quantum state sharing scheme is proposed. The best innovation is that a new tool in constructing (t, n) threshold structure is proposed. In this scheme, the dealer who possesses a sequence of one-particle unknown quantum states intends to share it with n participants and authorizes t out of them cooperate to reconstruct the sequence. First, the equations decided by the private key of dealer are constructed. Second, the dealer distributes the private keys of n participants by using the solutions to the equations just mentioned. Finally, the dealer encodes the sequence through a unitary operation, and any t out of the n participants recover the initial quantum state sequence through the unitary operations decided by the solutions to the linear equations. Compared to the existing schemes, the proposed scheme is easily realized in physical experiment, and its successful probability is 100% theoretically.
Autors: Cao Hao;Ma Wenping;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1/f-Noise in AlGaN/GaN Nanowire Omega-FinFETs
Abstract:
The low-frequency noise (LFN) characteristics of AlGaN/GaN FinFETs with omega-gate and combined two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and MOS conduction are investigated. It is found that LFN is dominated by carrier number fluctuations whatever the width of the fin. Charge trapping in narrow devices is one order of magnitude lower than in wide fin device. In narrow devices, the sidewall conduction prevails and the noise mainly stems from the carrier trapping in the sidewall Al2O3 gate dielectric. Instead, in wide fin devices, the top gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure dominates and the LFN is mostly governed by the carrier trapping in the GaN layer close to 2DEG channel.
Autors: Sindhuri Vodapally;Young In Jang;In Man Kang;In-Tak Cho;Jong-Ho Lee;Youngho Bae;Gérard Ghibaudo;Sorin Cristoloveanu;Ki-Sik Im;Jung-Hee Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 38, issue:2, pages: 252 - 254
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 18-MHz Silicon Lamé Mode Resonators With Corner and Central Anchor Architectures in a Dual-Wafer SOI Technology
Abstract:
This paper presents Lamé bulk mode square resonators fabricated in a novel silicon-on-insulator technology, MicraGEM-Si. Structures are formed by patterning two wafers with several etched depths and wafer bonding them to create the released movable resonator structures. Two distinct anchoring architectures are studied: one with suspension beams at the nodal corner points, and the other with a central anchoring support. The center support architecture can be suitable for realizing high-performance gyroscopes. Resonators with different support sizes are fabricated and characterized. Fabricated devices were measured to operate at a resonance frequency of ~18 MHz and quality factors as high as ~42 000 in atmospheric pressure, which to the best of our knowledge is the highest reported to date at such an ambient pressure, and ~871 000 in 100-mtorr vacuum, corresponding to a product of . [2016-0112]
Autors: Mohannad Y. Elsayed;Frederic Nabki;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 67 - 74
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2016 IEEE Education Society Awards, 2016 Frontiers in Education Conference Awards, and Selected IEEE Awards
Abstract:
The IEEE Education Society, the IEEE Computer Society, and the American Society for Engineering Education Educational Research and Methods Division (ASEE ERM) sponsored the 46th Frontiers in Education (FIE) Conference in Erie, PA, USA, held October 12–15, 2016. James Sluss, President of the Society, Russell Meier, President of the ASEE ECE Division, and Elizabeth Eschenbach, Chair, FIE Steering Committee, presented awards sponsored by HP Enterprise, the FIE Conference, the Education Society of IEEE, and the ECE Division of ASEE to the 2016 recipients of these awards.
Autors: Edwin C. Jones;Kathleen E. Wage;Sanjit A. Seshia;Susan M. Lord;Michael E. Auer;Lance C. Pérez;Katherine Shu-Min Li;S. L. Krishna Priya;Sasha Nikolic;Francisco J. Arcega;Richard A. Layton;Matthew W. Ohland;Kayode P. Ayodele;Isaac A. Inyang;Lawr
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 67 - 77
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2016 IEEE Educational Activities Board Awards
Abstract:
The 2016 IEEE Educational Activities Board (EAB), chaired by IEEE Educational Activities Vice President S. K. Ramesh, upon the recommendation of the EAB Awards and Recognition Committee (ARC) has named the recipients of the 2016 IEEE EAB Awards. EAB Awards recognize and honor individuals and companies for major contributions to engineering and technical education. Awards are given for meritorious activities in accreditation, continuing education, educational innovation, preuniversity education, service to the IEEE EAB, standards education, employee professional development, and informal education systems, as well as related achievements that advance the practice of engineering and engineering education.
Autors: Karen A. Panetta;R. Joe Stanley;Salvatore Campione;David L. Soldan;Shi Bu;David Michael Ritter;Matthew W. Ohland;Nafeesa Mazhar;Walter W. Buchanan;Scottie Austin Wilson;Tushar Sharma;Bozenna Pasik-Duncan;Moshe Kam;George A. Bekey;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 78 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2016 MTT-S Awards [Awards]
Abstract:
Presents the recipients of various MTTS society awards.
Autors: Charlie Jackson;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 114 - 131
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Analytical Modeling of Dual-Material Triple-Gate Silicon-on-Nothing MOSFET
Abstract:
A 3-D analytical model of a new structure, namely, dual-material triple-gate silicon-on-nothing MOSFET is proposed in this paper. 3-D Poisson’s equation with proper boundary conditions was solved to obtain the surface potential variation of the structure considering the popular parabolic potential approximation, and the threshold voltage and electric field were calculated for the model. The proposed model’s immunity to the various short-channel effects, such as threshold voltage roll-off, Drain-Induced Barrier Lowering (DIBL), and subthreshold swing, are also examined, and the impact of the various device parameters on the performance of the device is studied. The 3-D simulated results obtained using ATLAS, a device simulator from Silvaco, validate the analytical results obtained for this structure.
Autors: Pritha Banerjee;Subir Kumar Sarkar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 368 - 375
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Displacement Measurement for Structural Health Monitoring Using Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields
Abstract:
Smart structures of the future will require a cost-effective, easily deployable solution for structural health monitoring. High loads on structures cause stresses that may lead to expansion of gaps, which are of utmost importance when it comes to overall structural health, as they absorb excess stress. Existing methods for direct displacement measurement of expansion joints are not ideal, as they operate under line-of-sight assumptions, are sensitive to moisture, or employ moving parts. In addition, the majority of existing sensors for structural health monitoring are uniaxial, and hence are fundamentally unable to measure 3-D displacement. Importantly, none of the existing wireless sensors for structural health monitoring can be embedded in concrete. We propose a system that uses low-frequency magnetic fields to conduct 3-D displacement measurement directly from within concrete, with a median displacement error of 0.5 mm in all directions, with a maximum separation distance of 50 mm between the transmitter and the receiver. The sensors can be attached to the concrete surface after the building is erected, or can be included in the concrete mix at manufacture, to monitor displacement between gaps in expansion joints, perform crack detection in concrete ties for railroads and in pavements, as well as aid position measurement for the assembly of premanufactured concrete blocks. Embedment in concrete allows operation throughout the lifetime of a structure, providing early warning of impending disaster and helping to inform repair operations.
Autors: Orfeas Kypris;Andrew Markham;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 17, issue:4, pages: 1165 - 1174
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-Gb/s High-Speed True Random Number Generator Using Common-Mode Operating Comparator and Sampling Uncertainty of D Flip-Flop
Abstract:
True random number generators (TRNGs) are important in data encryption for information security applications. In this paper, we propose a TRNG that utilizes a comparator in the common-mode operation and the sampling uncertainty of a D flip-flop (DFF). The comparator output is affected by the input common-mode noise and the noise that is simultaneously self-induced. A slicer generates an unpredictable and asynchronous pulse to the input of the DFF according to the output-referred noise of the comparator. By sampling the random pulse with a 3-GHz external clock, there is a sampling uncertainty, which helps to increase the random quality. As a result, we use the independent two random sources for TRNG. The area of the designed circuit is 1609 . In spite of the small size, the data rate of the proposed TRNG is 3 Gb/s. We verify that the output bit stream passes all of the National Institute of Standards and Technology test suites. We fabricate the TRNG in a 65-nm CMOS process with a 1.2 V supply voltage. The power consumption of the proposed TRNG is 5 mW, and the energy per bit is 1.6 pJ/b.
Autors: Sang-Geun Bae;Yongtae Kim;Yunsoo Park;Chulwoo Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 605 - 610
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Myocardial Elastography In Vivo
Abstract:
Strain evaluation is of major interest in clinical cardiology as it can quantify the cardiac function. Myocardial elastography, a radio-frequency (RF)-based cross-correlation method, has been developed to evaluate the local strain distribution in the heart in vivo. However, inhomogeneities such as RF ablation lesions or infarction require a three-dimensional approach to be measured accurately. In addition, acquisitions at high volume rate are essential to evaluate the cardiac strain in three dimensions. Conventional focused transmit schemes using 2D matrix arrays, trade off sufficient volume rate for beam density or sector size to image rapid moving structure such as the heart, which lowers accuracy and precision in the strain estimation. In this study, we developed 3D myocardial elastography at high volume rates using diverging wave transmits to evaluate the local axial strain distribution in three dimensions in three open-chest canines before and after radio-frequency ablation. Acquisitions were performed with a 2.5 MHz 2D matrix array fully programmable used to emit 2000 diverging waves at 2000 volumes/s. Incremental displacements and strains enabled the visualization of rapid events during the QRS complex along with the different phases of the cardiac cycle in entire volumes. Cumulative displacement and strain volumes depict high contrast between non-ablated and ablated myocardium at the lesion location, mapping the tissue coagulation. 3D myocardial strain elastography could thus become an important technique to measure the regional strain distribution in three dimensions in humans.
Autors: Clement Papadacci;Ethan A. Bunting;Elaine Y. Wan;Pierre Nauleau;Elisa E. Konofagou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 36, issue:2, pages: 618 - 627
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Quasi-Static Ultrasound Elastography With Plane Wave In Vivo
Abstract:
In biological tissue, an increase in elasticity is often a marker of abnormalities. Techniques such as quasi-static ultrasound elastography have been developed to assess the strain distribution in soft tissues in two dimensions using a quasi-static compression. However, as abnormalities can exhibit very heterogeneous shapes, a three dimensional approach would be necessary to accurately measure their volume and remove operator dependency. Acquisition of volumes at high rates is also critical to performing real-time imaging with a simple freehand compression. In this study, we developed for the first time a 3D quasi-static ultrasound elastography method with plane waves that estimates axial strain distribution in vivo in entire volumes at high volume rate. Acquisitions were performed with a 2D matrix array probe of 2.5 MHz frequency and 256 elements. Plane waves were emitted at a volume rate of 100 volumes/s during a continuous motorized and freehand compression. 3D B-mode volumes and 3D cumulative axial strain volumes were successfully estimated in inclusion phantoms and in ex vivo canine liver before and after a high intensity focused ultrasound ablation. We also demonstrated the in vivo feasibility of the method using freehand compression on the calf muscle of a human volunteer and were able to retrieve 3D axial strain volume at a high volume rate depicting the differences in stiffness of the two muscles which compose the calf muscle. 3D ultrasound quasi-static elastography with plane waves could become an important technique for the imaging of the elasticity in human bodies in three dimensions using simple freehand scanning.
Autors: Clement Papadacci;Ethan A. Bunting;Elisa E. Konofagou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 36, issue:2, pages: 357 - 365
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4 New ways to store renewable energy with water [News]
Abstract:
If Elon Musk has his way, in the future we'll all be storing renewable electricity inside big banks of lithium-ion batteries. But let's not forget the energy storage situation today. In the United States, 97 percent of utility-scale storage in 2014 was in pumped-storage hydroelectric plants, according to research by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee.
Autors: Andrew Silver;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 13 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4H-SiC Trench IGBT With Back-Side n-p-n Collector for Low Turn-OFF Loss
Abstract:
In this paper, an n-p-n collector incorporated in the back side of a 4H-SiC trench IGBT is presented to reduce the turn-off energy loss. A comparative study between the proposed structure and the conventional structure is conducted through ATLAS. The simulation results have demonstrated that the turn-off energy loss is reduced by more than 82.96% with a slight degradation in the on-state voltage drop.
Autors: Yan-Juan Liu;Ying Wang;Yue Hao;Cheng-Hao Yu;Fei Cao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 488 - 493
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Effects and Charge Locking in Capacitive MEMS Under Dielectric Charge Control
Abstract:
This work investigates, analytically and experimentally, the effects induced by the use of a first-order sigma-delta () feedback loop as a control method of dielectric charging for capacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). This technique allows setting of a desired level of net charge in the dielectric of a MEMS device by continuously alternating the polarity of the actuation voltage. This control system displays a number of interesting effects, inherited from modulation and not usually found in conventional MEMS applications, with the charge-locking phenomenon being the most relevant. The convergence time and the effectiveness of the control method are also investigated and discussed.
Autors: Panagiotis Giounanlis;Sergi Gorreta;Manuel Dominguez-Pumar;Joan Pons-Nin;Orla Feely;Elena Blokhina;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 206 - 210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Effects and Charge Locking in Capacitive MEMS Under Dielectric Charge Control
Abstract:
This work investigates, analytically and experimentally, the effects induced by the use of a first-order sigma-delta () feedback loop as a control method of dielectric charging for capacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). This technique allows setting of a desired level of net charge in the dielectric of a MEMS device by continuously alternating the polarity of the actuation voltage. This control system displays a number of interesting effects, inherited from modulation and not usually found in conventional MEMS applications, with the charge-locking phenomenon being the most relevant. The convergence time and the effectiveness of the control method are also investigated and discussed.
Autors: Panagiotis Giounanlis;Sergi Gorreta;Manuel Dominguez-Pumar;Joan Pons-Nin;Orla Feely;Elena Blokhina;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 206 - 210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» eBA: Efficient Bandwidth Guarantee Under Traffic Variability in Datacenters
Abstract:
Datacenter networks suffer unpredictable performance due to a lack of application level bandwidth guarantees. A lot of attention has been drawn to solve this problem such as how to provide bandwidth guarantees for virtualized machines (VMs), proportional bandwidth share among tenants, and high network utilization under peak traffic. However, existing solutions fail to cope with highly dynamic traffic in datacenter networks. In this paper, we propose eBA, an efficient solution to bandwidth allocation that provides end-to-end bandwidth guarantee for VMs under large numbers of short flows and massive bursty traffic in datacenters. eBA leverages a novel distributed VM-to-VM rate control algorithm based on the logistic model under the control-theoretic framework. eBA’s implementation requires no changes to hardware or applications and can be deployed in standard protocol stack. The theoretical analysis and the experimental results show that eBA not only guarantees the bandwidth for VMs, but also provides fast convergence to efficiency and fairness, as well as smooth response to bursty traffic.
Autors: Fangming Liu;Jian Guo;Xiaomeng Huang;John C. S. Lui;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 25, issue:1, pages: 506 - 519
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.26-nJ/node, 400-kHz Tx Driving, Filtered Fully Differential Readout IC With Parasitic RC Time Delay Reduction Technique for 65-in $169 times 97$ Capacitive-Type Touch Screen Panel
Abstract:
This paper presents a readout method and circuit for large, capacitive-type touch-screen panels (TSPs). Despite the considerable amount of RC time delay of large-area TSPs, the proposed readout method with a receiver (Rx) input series-capacitor improves the settling speed of signals transferred from the transmitter (Tx) to the Rx, by reducing the RC time delay. Combined with the Rx input series-capacitor, a capacitive-input fully differential filtered charge integrator effectively cancels out the display noise and reduces the self-noise in capacitive-type TSPs. The proposed Rx circuit was implemented using 0.35- CMOS. Using a 65-in metal-mesh TSP with 169 Tx and 97 Rx electrodes mounted on a liquid-crystal display for testing, the proposed readout method achieved 65% reduction of signal settling time within an accuracy of for the longest signal path of the TSP. Using the RC time delay reduction technique, the Tx driving frequency could be boosted by as much as 400 kHz, and the measured signal-to-noise ratio of 43.5 dB was obtained for finger touch at a 120-Hz scan rate, resulting in a figure-of-merit of 0.26 nJ/node, while the overall power consumption was 76 mW.
Autors: Sang-Hui Park;Hyun-Sik Kim;Jun-Suk Bang;Gyu-Ha Cho;Gyu-Hyeong Cho;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 528 - 542
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.4 $mu text{g}$ Bias Instability and 1.2 $mu text{g}/surd $ Hz Noise Floor MEMS Silicon Oscillating Accelerometer With CMOS Readout Circuit
Abstract:
This paper describes a silicon-on-insulator MEMS oscillating accelerometer with a fully differential CMOS continuous-time oscillation sustaining circuit and a digital frequency measurement circuit. To reduce the amplitude-stiffness-induced frequency variation, the effects of flicker noise in the automatic amplitude control circuit are classified into additive and multiplicative components, which are suppressed by chopper stabilization and tail current source free structures, respectively. A low-power digital frequency measurement circuit employing a time-domain ADC is integrated on chip. The accelerometer achieves a bias instability of 0.4/2 , a bias stability of 4.13/13.2 , and a noise floor of 1.2/2.6 Hz, as measured from the analog/digital outputs, respectively, with a scale factor of 280 Hz/g and a full scale of ±20 g. The chip is fabricated in 0.35 standard CMOS technology, and consumes 4.37 mW under a 1.5 V supply.
Autors: Xi Wang;Jian Zhao;Yang Zhao;Guo Ming Xia;An Ping Qiu;Yan Su;Yong Ping Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 472 - 482
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.92-THz SiGe Power Radiator Based on a Nonlinear Theory for Harmonic Generation
Abstract:
We propose a nonlinear device model and a systematic methodology to generate maximum power at any desired harmonic. The proposed power optimization technique is based on the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems. By manipulating the device nonlinearity and optimizing the embedding network, optimum conditions for harmonic power generation are provided. Using this theory, a 920–944-GHz frequency quadrupler is designed in a 130-nm SiGe:C process. The circuit achieves the peak output power of −17.3 and −10 dBm of effective isotropic radiated power and consumes 5.7 mW of dc power. To the best of our knowledge, this circuit demonstrates the highest generated power among Si/SiGe-based sources at this frequency range.
Autors: Hamidreza Aghasi;Andreia Cathelin;Ehsan Afshari;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 406 - 422
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1 MHz BW 34.2 fJ/step Continuous Time Delta Sigma Modulator With an Integrated Mixer for Cardiac Ultrasound
Abstract:
Fully digitized 2D ultrasound transducer arrays require one ADC per channel with a beamforming architecture consuming low power. We give design considerations for per-channel digitization and beamforming, and present the design and measurements of a continuous time delta-sigma modulator (CTDSM) for cardiac ultrasound applications. By integrating a mixer into the modulator frontend, the phase and frequency of the input signal can be shifted, thereby enabling both improved conversion efficiency and narrowband beamforming. To minimize the power consumption, we propose an optimization methodology using a simulated annealing framework combined with a C++ simulator solving linear electrical networks. The 3rd order single-bit feedback type modulator, implemented in a 65 nm CMOS process, achieves an SNR/SNDR of 67.8/67.4 dB across 1 MHz bandwidth consuming 131 of power. The achieved figure of merit of 34.2 fJ/step is comparable with state-of-the-art feedforward type multi-bit designs. We further demonstrate the influence to the dynamic range when performing dynamic receive beamforming on recorded delta-sigma modulated bit-stream sequences.
Autors: Rune Kaald;Trym Eggen;Trond Ytterdal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 234 - 243
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1-to-2048 Fully-Integrated Cascaded Digital Frequency Synthesizer for Low Frequency Reference Clocks Using Scrambling TDC
Abstract:
Generation of low jitter, high frequency clock from a low frequency reference clock using classical analog phase-locked loops (PLLs) requires large loop filter capacitor and power hungry oscillator. Digital PLLs can help reduce area but their jitter performance is severely degraded by quantization error. Specifically, their deterministic jitter (DJ), which is proportional to the loop update rate becomes prohibitively large at low reference clock frequencies. We propose a scrambling TDC (STDC) to improve DJ performance and a cascaded architecture with digital multiplying delay locked loop as the first stage and hybrid analog/digital PLL as the second stage to achieve low random jitter in a power efficient manner. Fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS process, the prototype frequency synthesizer consumes 4.76 mW power from a 1.0 V supply and generates 160 MHz and 2.56 GHz output clocks from a 1.25 MHz crystal reference frequency. The long-term absolute jitter of the 160 MHz digital MDLL and 2.56 GHz digital PLL outputs are 2.4 and 4.18 , while the peak-to-peak jitter are 22.1 ps and 35.2 ps, respectively. The proposed frequency synthesizer occupies an active die area of 0.16mm2 and achieves power efficiency of 1.86 mW/GHz.
Autors: Romesh Kumar Nandwana;Saurabh Saxena;Amr Elshazly;Kartikeya Mayaram;Pavan Kumar Hanumolu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 283 - 295
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.2V-to-0.4V 3.2GHz-to-14.3MHz Power-Efficient 3-Port Register File in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents a 44.2-mW 3.2-GHz 3-port register file (RF) that demonstrates measured operation from 1.2 V down to 0.4 V. The 32-entry-bit/word 2-read/1-write RF is fabricated in TSMC 65-nm low-power low threshold voltage (low-) CMOS process. A four-transistor read port is presented that permits the design of low-capacitance dynamic local bitlines (LBLs). Switching power in the LBLs and the LBL precharge buffer is thereby reduced. Based on extensive simulation results, the proposed read port is recommended for use in wide-worded RFs, which employ a wide dynamic-OR structure at the LBL stage. The proposed RF outperforms the conventional design in terms of power consumption for frequencies exceeding 3-GHz. The read port exploits intrinsic capacitive coupling to achieve robust operation over a wide voltage range. The architecture of the read port simultaneously enhances robustness of the dynamic bitline by 58.8% as compared to the conventional low- bitline.
Autors: Khawar Sarfraz;Mansun Chan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 360 - 372
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 100 MHz Hybrid Supply Modulator With Ripple-Current-Based PWM Control
Abstract:
This paper presents a 100 MHz hybrid supply modulator (HSM) with ripple-current-based pulse width modulation (PWM) control. By sensing the ripple current, a ripple current sensor (RCS) is able to overcome the bandwidth limitation of an absolute current sensor. By leveraging the RCS, we propose a large-signal PWM control method for HSMs. This method has an intrinsically fast switching loop, and thus eliminates the need for the feed-forward path used in many previous designs. The possibility of generating high-order harmonics in PWM-controlled HSMs is pointed out for the first time, and design recommendations to avoid them are presented. A very-high-frequency triangular wave generator that is robust to both process-voltage-temperature (PVT) variations and device mismatches is proposed. A proof-of-concept prototype was fabricated in CMOS 130 nm technology. Switching at 100 MHz, this HSM is able to track a 0.8 sinusoidal waveform up to 13 MHz with high fidelity. It achieves a peak efficiency of 88.2% at the maximum output power of 23 dBm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first PWM-controlled HSM that is able to operate at 100 MHz.
Autors: Min Tan;Wing-Hung Ki;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 569 - 578
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 100-mA, 99.11% Current Efficiency, 2-mVpp Ripple Digitally Controlled LDO With Active Ripple Suppression
Abstract:
Digital low-dropout (DLDO) regulators are gaining attention due to their design scalability for distributed multiple voltage domain applications required in state-of-the-art system-on-chips. Due to the discrete nature of the output current and the discrete-time control loop, the steady-state response of the DLDO has inherent output voltage ripple. A hybrid DLDO (HD-LDO) with fast response and stable operation across a wide load range while reducing the output voltage ripple is proposed. In the HD-LDO, a DLDO and a low current analog ripple cancelation amplifier (RCA) work in parallel. The output dc of the RCA is sensed by a 2-bit analog-to-digital converter, and the digitized linear stage current is fed into the DLDO as an error signal. During load transients, a gear-shift controller enables fast transient response using dynamic load estimation. The DLDO suppresses the output dc of the RCA within its current resolution. With this arrangement, a majority of the dc load current is provided by the DLDO and the RCA supplies ripple cancelation current. The HD-LDO is designed and fabricated in a 180-nm CMOS technology, and occupies 0.697 mm2 of the die area. The HD-LDO operates with an input voltage range of 1.43–2.0 V and an output voltage range of 1.0–1.57 V. At 100-mA load current, the HD-LDO achieves a current peak efficiency of 99.11% and a settling time of 15 clock periods with a 0.5-MHz clock for a current switching between 10 and 90 mA. The RCA suppresses fundamental, second, and third harmonics of the switching frequency by 13.7, 13.3, and 14.1 dB, respectively.
Autors: Michael Cheah;Debashis Mandal;Bertan Bakkaloglu;Sayfe Kiaei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 25, issue:2, pages: 696 - 704
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1000 frames/s Vision Chip Using Scalable Pixel-Neighborhood-Level Parallel Processing
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel vision chip architecture based on pixel-neighborhood-level parallel processing. In the architecture, an 8-b RISC processing core is embedded in an array of digital pixel sensors on the same focal plane. These neighborhood processors (NPs) are tiled in a 2-D array to form the final imager resolution. Program execution is carried out in parallel across the array of pixel-neighborhood processing cores, allowing for direct scalability in terms of resolution, without reduction in processing speed or frame rate. To accomplish this, a compact, low-complexity NP architecture along with a general-purpose, 8-b instruction set has been designed and implemented. A prototype vision chip containing an array of NPs with a resolution has been designed and fabricated in a 0.13- 1P8M CMOS fabrication process. The system is reprogrammable and can perform a wide range of image and video processing tasks. Several example algorithms are implemented and tested on the single-chip vision system to demonstrate the functionality of pixel-neighborhood-level parallelism, including 1000-frames/s object tracking.
Autors: Joseph A. Schmitz;Mahir K. Gharzai;Sina Balkır;Michael W. Hoffman;Daniel J. White;Nathan Schemm;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 556 - 568
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 103.12-Gb/s WDM PAM4 VCSEL-Based Transmission With Light Injection and Optoelectronic Feedback Techniques
Abstract:
A 103.12-Gb/s wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) transmission based on 850-nm and 880-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Results show that two such 7.5-GHz VCSELs with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques are potent for 103.12-Gb/s WDM PAM4 transmissions. To the authors’ knowledge, it is the first one to successfully adopt two VCSEL transmitters with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques in a WDM PAM4 transmission. A total transmission rate of 103.12 Gb/s (51.56 Gb/s/λ × 2 λs) is achieved in the proposed WDM PAM4 transmissions. The link performances of the proposed WDM PAM4 transmissions have been evaluated in real time. Good real-time bit error rate performance and three independent clear eye diagrams are obtained at a 180-m OM4 multimode fiber operation. Such a proposed 103.12-Gb/s WDM PAM4 VCSEL-based transmission has great potential for providing efficient bandwidth in short-reach optical communications.
Autors: Hai-Han Lu;Chung-Yi Li;Chang-Kai Lu;Chun-Ming Ho;Hwan-Wei Chen;Ming-Te Cheng;Zih-Yi Yang;Sheng-Jhe Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 12-b ENOB 2.5-MHz BW VCO-Based 0-1 MASH ADC With Direct Digital Background Calibration
Abstract:
This paper presents a scaling friendly mostly digital voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO)-based 0-1 multistage noise shaping (MASH) analog-to-digital converter. A novel background calibration technique corrects conversion errors due to VCO linear gain drift, residue generating digital-to-analog converter mismatches, and nonlinearity of the VCO voltage-to-frequency conversion. The proposed architecture minimally modifies the basic 0-1 MASH architecture and directly calibrates the main VCOs without relying on replica matching. A redundant first-stage coarse quantizer enables fast error estimation in the digital domain. A 12-b prototype implemented in 180-nm CMOS achieves 12-b ENOB over 2.5 MHz and consumes 4.8 mW from a 1.8 V supply.
Autors: Kareem Ragab;Nan Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 433 - 447
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 120-GHz Electrical Interferometer for Contactless Permittivity Measurements With Direct Digital Read-Out
Abstract:
This work describes an electrical interferometer for contactless permittivity measurements working at 120 GHz. It was fabricated in a 130 nm SiGe process featuring an ft and fmax of 240 and 330 GHz. The on-chip system contains a 120 GHz VCO with a tuning range of 7 GHz featuring a divide-by-64 circuit to enable external PLL operation. The subsequent buffer provides 7 dBm of output power at 120 GHz. Additionally, the IC contains high-precision and high-resolution phase shifters based on a slow-wave transmission line approach with digital control for direct readout ability. A 120 GHz LNA with 17 dB gain and a power detector to provide DC output signals were realized on chip. It enables sample emulation capability by phase shift inducement in the measurement as well as a reference transmission line. In terms of phase detection, the system shows a sensitivity of 907.36 MHz/°.
Autors: Jan Wessel;Klaus Schmalz;J. Christoph Scheytt;Dietmar Kissinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 198 - 200
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 14-Bit 30-MS/s 38-mW SAR ADC Using Noise Filter Gear Shifting
Abstract:
We present a successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that employs a comparator with time-varying noise performance, realized by changing the integration time of a preamplifier. This approach allows us to relax precision and enhance speed during noncritical decisions, leading to an aggregate speed-up of 22% compared to a conventional design. The ADC operates at 30 MS/s, achieves a peak signal-to-noise and distortion ratio of 77.2 dB, and consumes 38 mW from 1.2 V/2.5 V supplies, corresponding to a Schreier FOM of 163.1 dB (161.6 dB at Nyquist). The proof-of-concept converter is implemented in a 40-nm LP complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process and occupies 0.24 mm2.
Autors: Martin Krämer;Erwin Janssen;Kostas Doris;Boris Murmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 116 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 15.5-dBm 160-GHz High-Gain Power Amplifier in SiGe BiCMOS Technology
Abstract:
This letter presents the design of a 160 GHz cascode based differential power amplifier (PA) realized in a 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS technology. It consists of 4 driving stages and an output power stage, providing a peak differential gain of 30 dB and a 3-dB small-signal bandwidth of around 50 GHz. Gain is enhanced by means of inductive positive feedback in the common-base stage. By using optimally sized HBTs in the power stage and operating in the weak avalanche region, high output power is achieved. The designed PA achieves a peak differential of 15.5 dBm at 160 GHz and a PAE of 7.2%, which is to-date the highest reported output power for PAs above 150 GHz, in Si-based technologies.
Autors: Muhammad Furqan;Faisal Ahmed;Bernd Heinemann;Andreas Stelzer;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 177 - 179
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 250- $mutext{W}$ 2.4-GHz Fast-Lock Fractional-N Frequency Generation for Ultralow-Power Applications
Abstract:
This brief presents a fast-lock 2.4-GHz fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) for ultralow-power applications. To minimize the power consumed by all the other circuits except for the main oscillator, we propose a master–slave PLL structure in which a low-frequency master PLL is followed by a slave injection-locked oscillator operating at high frequency. A frequency-error compensation circuit is also implemented in the slave oscillator to eliminate possible drift in the free-running frequency. With a fractional-N coarse-lock unit in the master PLL and a fine frequency initialization unit in the slave oscillator, the PLL supports two fast-lock modes: 1) start-up locking from deep-power-down mode and 2) instantaneous relocking from standby mode. The implemented PLL in 65-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) consumes 250 from a 0.8-V supply, demonstrating a power efficiency of 0.102 mW/GHz. The PLL performs the two fast-lock operations with lock times of less than 22 from deep power down and 1 from standby, respectively.
Autors: Seunghwan Hong;Shinwoong Kim;Seungnam Choi;Hwasuk Cho;Jaehyeong Hong;Young-Hun Seo;Byungsub Kim;Hong-June Park;Jae-Yoon Sim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 106 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 28 nm, 475 mW, and 0.4–1.7 GHz Embedded Transceiver Front-End Enabling High-Speed Data Streaming Within Home Cable Networks
Abstract:
A 28 nm CMOS software-defined transceiver (SDTRX) enabling high-speed data (HSD) streaming, including ultra HD TV, within home cable networks is presented. By making efficient use of available cable bandwidth, the SDTRX dynamically handles up to 1024-QAM OFDM-modulated HSD streams. This paper addresses SDTRX system-level design methodology as the key driver in enabling performance optimization for achieving a wide frequency range of operation at lowest power and area consumption. By employing an optimized architecture constructed on available state-of-the-art 28 nm functional building blocks, the monolithic SDTRX consists of a mixer-based harmonic rejection RX with a digital-to-analog converter-based TX and a smart phase-locked loop system. It operates over 0.4–1.7 GHz frequency range while consuming less than 475 mW in half-duplex mode. Moreover, by developing a simple transmitter (TX) to receiver (RX) loopback circuit, the system is enabled to efficiently calibrate TX output power and to remove the need for a dedicated external pin. This low-cost SDTRX is embedded in various 28 nm CMOS multimedia system-on-chip and is, to the authors’ knowledge, the first reported transceiver front-end to enable true HSD streaming within home cable networks.
Autors: S. Spiridon;D. Koh;J. Xiao;M. Brandolini;B. Shen;C.-M. Hsiao;H. Huang;D. Guermandi;S. Bozzola;H. Yan;M. Introini;L. Krishnan;K. Raviprakash;Y. Shin;R. Gomez;J. Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 338 - 345
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 28-GHz Harmonic-Tuned Power Amplifier in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS
Abstract:
The design methodology and measurement results of a millimeter-wave harmonic-tuned power amplifier (PA) are presented. The PA uses optimum fundamental and second-harmonic terminations to achieve high peak power-added efficiency (PAE). We present a parasitic-aware design technique for the output network realized as a bandpass filter cascaded with or surrounded by a low-pass matching network. This technique demonstrates a method of manipulating the second-harmonic phase of a Chebyshev bandpass filter, while maintaining a suitable impedance match at the fundamental. The technique is applied to a 28-GHz PA in SiGe BiCMOS, which achieves 15.3-dB gain, 18.6-dBm saturated output power, 15.5-dBm output 1-dB compression point, and 35.3% peak PAE. When backed off 6- from 1-dB compression, the PA achieves 11.5% PAE with a third-order intermodulation product of −33.7 dBc.
Autors: Anirban Sarkar;Brian A. Floyd;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 522 - 535
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 28-GHz Quadrature Fractional-N Frequency Synthesizer for 5G Transceivers With Less Than 100-fs Jitter Based on Cascaded PLL Architecture
Abstract:
This paper introduces a quadrature fractional-N cascaded frequency synthesizer and its phase noise analysis, optimization, and design for future 5G wireless transceivers. The performance improvement of the cascaded phase-locked loop (PLL) over single-stage PLL in terms of jitter and power consumption is theoretically presented and verified with measured results. The cascaded PLL is implemented using a first-stage fractional-N charge-pump PLL followed by a second-stage quadrature dividerless subsampling PLL. The fractional division in the first-stage PLL is implemented using a high-resolution phase mixer for lower quantization noise. Two prototypes of the single-stage PLL and the cascaded PLL were implemented in the 65-nm bulk CMOS process. The 26–32 GHz quadrature cascaded PLL consumes a total of 26.9 mW from 1-V supply and achieves less than 100-fs integrated jitter with −116.2 and −112.6-dBc/Hz phase noise at 1-MHz offset for the integer-N and the fractional-N modes, respectively. The fractional-N single-stage and cascaded PLLs achieve figure-of-merits of −230.58 and −248.75 dB, respectively.
Autors: Waleed El-Halwagy;Amlan Nag;Philip Hisayasu;Farshid Aryanfar;Pedram Mousavi;Masum Hossain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 396 - 413
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 280-GHz 10-dBm Signal Source Based on InP HBT Technology
Abstract:
A 280-GHz high-power signal source has been developed in this work based on a 250-nm InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology. The fabricated signal source is composed of two in-phase locked common-base cross-coupled oscillators, the output of which is on-chip combined by a pair of rat-race couplers and a Wilkinson power combiner for enhanced output power. The developed signal source exhibits an oscillation frequency of 276.4 GHz and a phase noise of–89 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. The output power of the signal source is measured to be 10 dBm (10 mW), while consuming a dc power of 196 mW (dc-to-RF efficiency of 5.1%).
Autors: Jongwon Yun;Jungsoo Kim;Jae-Sung Rieh;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 159 - 161
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 30 $mutext{W}$ Remotely Powered Local Temperature Monitoring Implantable System
Abstract:
An implantable local temperature monitoring system for a laboratory mouse is presented. Magnetic coupling is used to remotely power the passive implant. The temperatures of two local points are monitored by thermistors. A low-power readout circuit is implemented by directly amplifying and resolving the sensor response in the time domain. A free-running oscillator operating at 868 MHz transmits the sensor data to the base station. The average power dissipation of the implant is decreased by time interleaving between the sensor readout and the data communication. The power transfer to the implant is also time interleaved with other operations to avoid interference with data communication. A voltage regulation loop for the implant based on controlling the duration of powering the base station power amplifier is also described. A prototype chip is implemented in 0.18 CMOS. The implant requires average RF power of 29.5 for operation and is capable of measuring two thermistors with accuracy of ±0.05 °C.
Autors: Mehrdad A. Ghanad;Michael M. Green;Catherine Dehollain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 54 - 63
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 30-MHz–3-GHz CMOS Array Receiver With Frequency and Spatial Interference Filtering for Adaptive Multi-Antenna Systems
Abstract:
A 30-MHz–3-GHz wideband complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor phased array receiver with interference suppression capability in the frequency and spatial domains is presented. A frequency filtering function is provided by a two-stage harmonic rejection mixer with 16-phase local oscillator (LO) signals that are generated by frequency dividers and phase interpolators. The developed IC suppresses third- to seventh-order harmonic interference by more than 55 dB in a wide range from 30 MHz to 3 GHz. The 16-phase LO signal generator combined with a 2-b baseband phase shifter (PS) also works as a 6-b PS. Equipped with a 6-b amplitude control in addition to the 6-b phase control, the array receiver enables analog null steering that can reduce a spatial interference coming from a specific direction. The multi-chip synchronization needed for the null steering function is realized with pre-set circuits in the frequency dividers. Space propagation measurements made on a four-element array antenna system using the developed ICs indicated that the null steering function reduces spatial interference by 20 dB and reduces the error vector magnitude of a 2-GHz radio frequency, 20-MHz bandwidth, and 64-quadrature amplitude modulation signal from −12.7 to −26.3 dB even when a strong interferer exists.
Autors: Naoki Oshima;Masaki Kitsunezuka;Kenta Tsukamoto;Kazuaki Kunihiro;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 362 - 373
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 33fJ/Step SAR Capacitance-to-Digital Converter Using a Chain of Inverter-Based Amplifiers
Abstract:
A 12 – bit energy-efficient capacitive sensor interface circuit that fully relies on capacitance-domain successive approximation (SAR) technique is presented. Analysis shows that for SAR capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) comparator offset voltage will result in parasitic-dependent conversion errors, which necessitates using an offset cancellation technique. Based on the presented analysis, a SAR CDC that uses a chain of cascode inverter-based amplifiers with near-threshold biasing is proposed to provide robust, energy-efficient, and fast operation. A hybrid coarse-fine capacitive digital-to-analog converter (CapDAC) achieves 11.7 – bit effective resolution, and provides 83% area saving compared to a conventional binary weighted implementation. The prototype fabricated in a CMOS technology is experimentally verified using MEMS capacitive pressure sensor. Experimental results show an energy efficiency figure-of-merit (FoM) of which outperforms the state-of-the-art. The CDC output is insensitive to analog references; thus, a very low temperature sensitivity of is achieved without the need for calibration.
Autors: Hesham Omran;Abdulaziz Alhoshany;Hamzah Alahmadi;Khaled N. Salama;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 310 - 321
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 40-Gb/s SiGe-BiCMOS MZM Driver With 6-V $_{text {p-p}}$ Output and On-Chip Digital Calibration
Abstract:
A wide-swing optical modulator driver is implemented in 0.13- SiGe-BiCMOS using a three-stage distributed amplifier with a digital input line. Measurements demonstrate 6 - differential output, symmetric 6 -ps (min) rise/fall times, 333-fs (rms) additive jitter, and better than 20-dB output return loss (S11) below 58 GHz. Full output swing with adjustable (6–12 ps) rise/fall times is realized after a three-step calibration sequence facilitated by an on-chip energy detector and digital control. The circuit supports 28–48-Gb/s external data sources, or 2 PRBS and 1-0 internal data generators for calibration and characterization respectively. The 3-mm2 driver IC (1.8-mm2 active area) consumes 1.92 W from +5/−2.5-V supplies.
Autors: Leonardo Vera;John R. Long;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 460 - 471
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 43-mW MASH 2-2 CT $Sigma Delta$ Modulator Attaining 74.4/75.8/76.8 dB of SNDR/SNR/DR and 50 MHz of BW in 40-nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper proposes a multistage noise-shaping continuous-time sigma-delta modulator (CT) with on-chip RC time constant calibration circuits, multiple feedforward interstage paths, and a fully integrated noise-cancellation filter (NCF). The core modulator architecture is a cascade of two single-loop second-order CT stages, each of which consists of an integrator-based active- RC loop filter, current-steering feedback digital-to-analog converters, and a 4-b flash quantizer. On-chip RC time constant calibration circuits and high-gain multistage operational amplifiers are realized to mitigate quantization noise leakage due to process variation. Multiple feedforward interstage paths are introduced to: 1) synthesize a fourth-order noise transfer function with dc zeros; 2) simplify the design of NCF; and 3) reduce signal swings at the second-stage integrator outputs. Fully integrated in 40-nm CMOS, the prototype chip achieves 74.4 dB of signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR), 75.8 dB of signal-to-noise ratio, and 76.8 dB of dynamic range in 50.3 MHz of bandwidth (BW) at 1 GHz of sampling frequency with 43 mW of power consumption (P) from 1.1/1.15/2.5-V power supplies. It does not require external software calibration and possesses minimal out-of-band signal transfer function peaking. The figure-of-merit (FOM), defined as , is 165.1 dB.
Autors: Alexander Edward;Qiyuan Liu;Carlos Briseno-Vidrios;Martin Kinyua;Eric G. Soenen;Aydın Ilker Karşılayan;Jose Silva-Martinez;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 448 - 459
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 46 $mu text{W}$ 13 b 6.4 MS/s SAR ADC With Background Mismatch and Offset Calibration
Abstract:
A 6.4 MS/s 13 b ADC with a low-power background calibration for DAC mismatch and comparator offset errors is presented. Redundancy deals with DAC settling and facilitates calibration. A two-mode comparator and 0.3 fF capacitors reduce power and area. The background calibration can directly detect the sign of the dynamic comparator offset error and the DAC mismatch errors and correct both of them simultaneously in a stepwise feedback loop. The calibration achieves 20 dB spur reduction with little area and power overhead. The chip is implemented in 40 nm CMOS and consumes 46 from a 1 V supply, and achieves 64.1 dB SNDR and a FoM of 5.5 fJ/conversion-step at Nyquist.
Autors: Ming Ding;Pieter Harpe;Yao-Hong Liu;Benjamin Busze;Kathleen Philips;Harmke de Groot;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 423 - 432
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5.28-Gb/s LDPC Decoder With Time-Domain Signal Processing for IEEE 802.15.3c Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a high-throughput, energy-efficient, and scalable low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoder with time-domain (TD) signal processing. The proposed arbiter-based minimum value finder is able to support practical long codes. The latency for determining the first two minimum values required in the check node unit is significantly reduced through TD processing. A layered -based decoding architecture together with the associated scheduling is proposed in order to reduce the amount of memory used for check node storage. Multimode operations are supported by leveraging the structure of the base matrices and the proposed scalable minimum finder architecture. As a proof of concept, a TD-based multimode LDPC decoder for high-speed IEEE 802.15.3c is designed and fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS process. The LDPC decoder integrates 495k logic gates in 2.25 mm2 and achieves a throughput of 5.28 Gb/s at 157 MHz from a 1.05 V supply voltage. The power and normalized energy dissipation are 182 mW and 34.47 pJ/b, respectively. The proposed LDPC decoder is more hardware and energy efficient than previous digital counterparts and is able to support long codes for practical applications, which is still infeasible for the state-of-the-art TD-based LDPC decoders.
Autors: Mao-Ruei Li;Chia-Hsiang Yang;Yeong-Luh Ueng;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 592 - 604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 53–117 GHz LNA in 28-nm FDSOI CMOS
Abstract:
This letter presents the design of a wideband millimeter-wave (mm-wave) low-noise amplifier (LNA) in a 28-nm FDSOI CMOS technology. Having a total power consumption of 38.2 mW, the LNA provides gain over 12 dB from 53 to 117 GHz, and has a measured NF of 6 dB from 75 to 105 GHz. To the author’s best knowledge, the presented LNA achieves the lowest NF with widest bandwidth among previously presented wideband CMOS LNAs operating in the W-band.
Autors: Denizhan Karaca;Mikko Varonen;Dristy Parveg;Ali Vahdati;Kari A. I. Halonen;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 171 - 173
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 56 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-Based LiFi Transmission With Two-Stage Injection-Locked Technique
Abstract:
A 56 Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) light-based WiFi (LiFi) transmission based on a 680-nm/5.4-GHz vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a two-stage injection-locked technique is proposed and demonstrated. Experimentally results show that a 5.4-GHz VCSEL with a two-stage injection-locked technique is effective for 56 Gb/s PAM4 LiFi transmissions. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first one to adopt a 680-nm VCSEL transmitter with two-stage injection-locked technique in a 56 Gb/s PAM4 LiFi transmission. A pair of doublet lenses is employed in the proposed PAM4 VCSEL-based LiFi transmissions to enhance the free-space link. The link performances of the proposed PAM4 LiFi transmissions have been analyzed in real time. Good bit error rate performance and three independent clear eye diagrams are obtained over a 20-m free-space link. Such a proposed 56 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based LiFi transmission with two-stage injection-locked technique has the potential to play a significant role in future wireless infrastructure for providing high transmission rate and long free-space transmission distance effectively.
Autors: Hai-Han Lu;Chung-Yi Li;Hwan-Wei Chen;Chun-Ming Ho;Ming-Te Cheng;Zih-Yi Yang;Chang-Kai Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6-GS/s 9.5-b Single-Core Pipelined Folding-Interpolating ADC With 7.3 ENOB and 52.7-dBc SFDR in the Second Nyquist Band in 0.25- $mu$ m SiGe-BiCMOS
Abstract:
A pipelined folding-interpolating analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a distributed quantizer is presented. The mismatch-insensitive analog frontend provides excellent spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal-to-noise ratio without calibration or digital postprocessing. The algorithm of the digital coder relaxes the requirements on the interface between analog core and digital coder. The single-core ADC achieves an effective resolution of 7.3 b and an SFDR of 52.7 dBc in the second Nyquist band at 6 GS/s with an overall power consumption of 10.2 W.
Autors: M. Buck;M. Grözing;R. Bieg;J. Digel;X.-Q. Du;P. Thomas;M. Berroth;M. Epp;J. Rauscher;M. Schlumpp;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 414 - 422
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 71–86-GHz Phased Array Transceiver Using Wideband Injection-Locked Oscillator Phase Shifters
Abstract:
This paper presents the first phased array transceiver operating from 71 to 86 GHz using injection-locked oscillators (ILOs) for phase shifting. A folded-cascode ILO is proposed to extend the locking range of an array of oscillators. Frequency multiplication covers a 10-GHz tuning range with 23-dB power gain. Each ILO path covers more than ±300° and exhibits low amplitude variation with respect to phase shift range (<1 dB) and excellent isolation and amplitude error (<0.5 dB) between array elements. A wideband, bidirectional RF front end delivers 10-dBm maximum output power with more than 20-dB conversion gain over the 3-dB bandwidth in the transmit (TX) mode and a minimum 9.5-dB noise figure with more than 20-dB conversion gain in the receive (RX) mode. Low phase noise is demonstrated in the ILO approach over the phase tuning range with −112 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset and phase noise variation for different phase shift states under 2.5 dB, corresponding to less than 2° phase error. Array patterns demonstrate the wide scan range, and dynamic measurements show that the transmitter supports up to 6-Gb/s data rate with 256 QAM. The chip has mm2 area implementing in the 90-nm BiCMOS technology and consuming 386.4 mW in the TX mode and 286 mW in the RX mode per element.
Autors: Najme Ebrahimi;Po-Yi Wu;Mahdi Bagheri;James F. Buckwalter;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 346 - 361
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bandpass Frequency Selective Surface With a Low Cross-Polarization Based on Cavities With a Hybrid Boundary
Abstract:
A novel low cross-polarization bandpass frequency selective surface (FSS) with low passband ripples and a steep roll-off at both sides of the passband is proposed. Different from available substrate integrated waveguide FSSs in which the boundary of every unit cell is electrically conducting, the proposed FSS unit cell is composed of two specially designed cavities with mixed electrically and magnetically conducting boundaries. These boundaries are formed by an array of shorting vias and complementary slots etched on both the top and bottom metallic patches, respectively. A bandwidth enhancement is achieved by properly merging three individual resonances excited in the two hybrid cavities and the slots within the required frequency range. An FSS centered at 4.58 GHz is fabricated and its near- and far-field performances are measured, with the results in good agreement with the prediction. The characteristics, including a steep roll-off, low passband ripples, a low cross-polarization, and stability at oblique incidence angles, are verified by the measurement.
Autors: Li-Li Yang;Xing-Chang Wei;Da Yi;Jian-Ming Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 654 - 661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bandpass Graphene Frequency Selective Surface With Tunable Polarization Rotation for THz Applications
Abstract:
In order to achieve tunable polarization rotation of the transmitted wave and controllable bandpass response simultaneously, a new graphene frequency selective surface (GFSS) is proposed for terahertz applications. The GFSS is built up by sandwiching a high-resistivity Si-substrate with a graphene patch array and a graphene sheet, both of which are electromagnetically biased. The configuration is analyzed by using an equivalent tensorial surface conductivity and transmission matrices of graphene structures, which is validated by full-wave simulations. The transmission coefficient, axial ratio, and polarization rotation angle of the bandpass GFSS are captured. An observable polarization rotation angle is obtained with a relatively large transmittance, which is superior to the graphene sheet and bandstop patch-type structures. The passband frequency is found to be not sensitive to the incident angle for either TE- or TM-polarized incidence, while it can be shifted from 1.6 to 2.2 THz with the polarization rotation angle varying from 24° to 16° by changing the chemical potential from 0.6 to 1 eV. When the applied magnetic field is set up to 3 T, the maximum rotation angle of polarization reaches up to 30° for TM incidence and 45° for TE incidence while the passband remains around 2 THz.
Autors: Xiang Li;Lin Lin;Lin-Sheng Wu;Wen-Yan Yin;Jun-Fa Mao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 662 - 672
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Better Balun? Done The Design of a 4:1 Wideband Balun Using a Parallel-Connected Transmission-Line Balun
Abstract:
This article presents a 4:1 wide-band balun that won the student design competition for wide-band baluns held during the 2016 IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) International Microwave Symposium (IMS2016) in San Francisco, California. For this contest, sponsored by Technical Committee MTT-17, participants were required to implement and evaluate their own baluns, with the winning entry achieving the widest bandwidth while satisfying the conditions of the competition rules during measurements at IMS2016. Some of the conditions were revised for this year's competition compared with previous competitions as follows.
Autors: Hansik Oh;Wooseok Lee;Hwiseob Lee;Hyungmo Koo;Sungjae Oh;Keum Choel Hwang;Kang-Yoon Lee;Cheon-seok Park;Youngoo Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 18, issue:1, pages: 85 - 90
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bio-Inspired Robot With Undulatory Fins and Its Control Methods
Abstract:
This paper proposes a bio-inspired robot with undulatory fins and summarizes its control methods. First, three basic motions, forward/backward swimming, diving/rising motion, and turning, are implemented and evaluated by experiments. Next, a hybrid control that combines active disturbance rejection control with a fuzzy strategy is presented to achieve closed-loop depth and course control according to the evaluation of the three basic motions. Finally, waypoint tracking with a line-of-sight guidance system based on a finite-state machine for this bio-inspired robot is presented. The results of swimming experiments are provided to illustrate the validity of the proposed methods.
Autors: Shuo Wang;Yu Wang;Qingping Wei;Min Tan;Junzhi Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 206 - 216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Biomechanical Modeling Guided CBCT Estimation Technique
Abstract:
Two-dimensional-to-three-dimensional (2D-3D) deformation has emerged as a new technique to estimate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. The technique is based on deforming a prior high-quality 3D CT/CBCT image to form a new CBCT image, guided by limited-view 2D projections. The accuracy of this intensity-based technique, however, is often limited in low-contrast image regions with subtle intensity differences. The solved deformation vector fields (DVFs) can also be biomechanically unrealistic. To address these problems, we have developed a biomechanical modeling guided CBCT estimation technique (Bio-CBCT-est) by combining 2D-3D deformation with finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling of anatomical structures. Specifically, Bio-CBCT-est first extracts the 2D-3D deformation-generated displacement vectors at the high-contrast anatomical structure boundaries. The extracted surface deformation fields are subsequently used as the boundary conditions to drive structure-based FEA to correct and fine-tune the overall deformation fields, especially those at low-contrast regions within the structure. The resulting FEA-corrected deformation fields are then fed back into 2D-3D deformation to form an iterative loop, combining the benefits of intensity-based deformation and biomechanical modeling for CBCT estimation. Using eleven lung cancer patient cases, the accuracy of the Bio-CBCT-est technique has been compared to that of the 2D-3D deformation technique and the traditional CBCT reconstruction techniques. The accuracy was evaluated in the image domain, and also in the DVF domain through clinician-tracked lung landmarks.
Autors: You Zhang;Joubin Nasehi Tehrani;Jing Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 36, issue:2, pages: 641 - 652
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Brief Message From the New Editor-In-Chief
Abstract:
Autors: J. E. Fowler;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 24, issue:2, pages: 135 - 135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Capacitor Voltage Balancing Strategy With Minimized AC Circulating Current for the DC–DC Modular Multilevel Converter
Abstract:
The dc-dc modular multilevel converter (MMC), which has originated from the ac-dc MMC circuit topology, is an attractive converter topology for interconnection of medium-/high-voltage dc grids. Proper operation of the dc-dc MMC necessitates injection of an ac circulating current to maintain its submodule (SM) capacitor voltages balanced. The ac circulating current, however, needs to be minimized for efficiency improvement. In addition, a unique type of imbalance amongst the SM capacitor voltages that is caused by dc power flow needs to be mitigated. This paper proposes a closed-loop control strategy for the dc-dc MMC to simultaneously regulate the dc-link currents, maintain the SM capacitor voltages balanced, and minimize the ac circulating current. Performance and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are evaluated based on simulation studies in the MATLAB Simulink and experimentally verified on a laboratory prototype.
Autors: Heng Yang;Maryam Saeedifard;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 956 - 965
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Closer Look at ROADM Contention
Abstract:
ROADMs provide the wavelength-switching capability in the optical layer of most transport networks. As the need for greater network configurability grows, ROADMs continue to evolve to provide greater flexibility. More specifically, ROADMs that provide colorless, directionless, gridless, and contentionless operation are on the roadmap of many equipment vendors and service providers. The first three of these properties are easy to define. ROADM contention, however, can take on many forms, which has led to some misconceptions regarding the contentionless property. We examine ROADM contention in more detail in order to provide greater clarity regarding contentionless ROADMs.
Autors: Jane M. Simmons;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 160 - 166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coalition Formation Game for Remote Radio Head Cooperation in Cloud Radio Access Network
Abstract:
With the increasing demand of spectrum and emergence of mobile devices, a cloud radio access network (C-RAN) is a promising technology to improve network capacity and coverage. The key concept of the C-RAN is to separate the radio function unit in remote radio heads (RRHs) from the digital function unit in baseband units (BBUs). This separation facilitates efficient spectrum and infrastructure sharing in the C-RAN. This paper considers the cooperative interference management among RRHs in the C-RAN. The RRHs can form coalitions to mitigate intra-interference and jointly serve their subscribers. To characterize RRH performance under the coalition, this paper develops two signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR)-based downlink throughput models of RRH, where one adopts tools from stochastic geometry to capture the interference from vehicular users (VUs) belonging to noncooperative RRHs, and another ignores the VU interference. In this paper, a coalition formation game is formulated to model the situation in which RRHs of C-RAN can make an individual decision to cooperatively serve their VUs if the throughput of the RRH can be improved. To obtain the solution of the proposed game, we develop a distributed coalition formation algorithm and analyze the stability of the coalition structure using a Markov chain model. Simulation results show that, as compared with the noncoalition and grand coalition, our distributed coalition formation can improve the C-RAN throughput by at least 20% and 80%, respectively. Furthermore, according to extensive simulation, we can define the conditions needed for RRHs to form a coalition and obtain higher throughput.
Autors: Shun-Cheng Zhan;Dusit Niyato;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1723 - 1738
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact 12-Way Slotted Waveguide Power Combiner for Ka-Band Applications
Abstract:
A power divider/combiner based on a double sided slotted waveguide geometry suitable for Ka-band applications is proposed. This structure allows up to 50% reduction of the total device length compared to previous designs of this type without compromising manufacturing complexity or combining efficiency. Efficient design guidelines based on an equivalent circuit technique are provided and the performance is demonstrated by means of a 12-way divider/combiner prototype operating in the range 29-31 GHz. Numerical simulations show that back to back insertion loss of 1.19 dB can be achieved, corresponding to a combining efficiency of 87%. The design is validated by means of manufacturing and testing an experimental prototype with measured back-to-back insertion loss of 1.83 dB with a 3 dB bandwidth of 20.8%, corresponding to a combining efficiency of 81%.
Autors: José Antonio García Pérez;Savvas Kosmopoulos;George Goussetis;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 135 - 137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact 128-Element Schottky Diode Grid Frequency Doubler Generating 0.25 W of Output Power at 183 GHz
Abstract:
This paper presents a compact varactor grid frequency doubler encapsulated in a waveguide environment, thus providing single mode (H10) waveguide connection at both input and output. Schottky diodes are used as varactors in this 128-element grid frequency doubler. By packaging the grid and its embedding network together with a stepped waveguide taper on the output, a module measuring 9 mm 19 mm by 19 mm is created. A peak output power of 0.25 W is produced at 183 GHz with 1.32 W of input power and a corresponding conversion efficiency of 19%. The peak conversion efficiency is 23% at 183 GHz with 666 mW of input power.
Autors: Robin Dahlbäck;Vladimir Drakinskiy;Josip Vukusic;Jan Stake;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 162 - 164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Broadband Riblet-Type Three-Way Power Divider in Rectangular Waveguide
Abstract:
A compact broadband three-way power divider based on a Riblet type coupler is proposed and designed in W-band. Coupling occurs among three adjacent waveguides through narrow walls. Two cylindrical posts located in the coupling region, help to achieve efficient coupling within shorter length and also to reduce reflections. The tapering of the input central waveguide improves the return loss of the power divider. The proposed power divider is validated with experimental measurements and measured power division ratio is −5.2 dB ± 0.25 dB. The return loss and isolation between the output ports is better than 20 dB over 88.75-97.5 GHz frequency range. The amplitude imbalance between the output ports is less than ± 0.4 dB. The fractional bandwidth for the power divider is 9.47% and the coupling length is . The simulated and measured results are in close agreement.
Autors: G. Arun Kumar;Bijit Biswas;D. R. Poddar;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 141 - 143
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) Actuated Valveless Pump for Drug Delivery
Abstract:
This paper proposes a double-chamber valveless pump actuated by a cantilever ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC), whose deflection is measured by inductive sensors. While IPMCs are regarded as a promising actuator for portable devices, their unique electrochemical and mechanical properties such as dehydration, hysteresis, and back-relaxation constraint are from real-life applications. To address these drawbacks, two adaptive control schemes, PID with iterative feedback tuning and repetitive control, were implemented and evaluated to compare tracking performance. The following contributions are presented based on the proposed IPMC pump: validation a double-chamber configuration addresses the back-relaxation problem of IPMC and compensates the nonlinearity of inductive sensors, demonstration of a compact configuration utilizing a contactless inductive sensor, controlling IPMC for over 2 h using repetitive control that favors tracking of periodic signal in terms of control effort, tracking error, and computational memory consumption. The pump has a maximum flow rate of 780 μL/min when the IPMC operates at a maximum deflection of 1.7 mm, which validates its suitability for use in drug delivery applications.
Autors: Jiaqi Wang;Andrew J. McDaid;Charles Zhe Lu;Kean C. Aw;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 196 - 205
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Reconfigurable Coupler with Tunable Coupling Coefficients and Frequencies
Abstract:
A compact microstrip coupler with tunable frequencies and coupling coefficients is presented. The calculation equations for capacitances under two different reconfigurable situations are derived. The design procedures are also given upon different requirements. To demonstrate the design strategies, a prototype with center frequency of 2 GHz is fabricated and measured. The measured results show a tunable frequency range from 1 to 3 GHz with 3 dB coupling, and a tunable coupling coefficient range from 0.86 dB to 9.5 dB at center frequency.
Autors: Tianyu Zhang;Wenquan Che;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 129 - 131
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Two-Wavelength Time-Domain NIRS System Based on SiPM and Pulsed Diode Lasers
Abstract:
This paper presents a complete, compact, and low power consumption instrument designed for time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy. It employs two custom-designed pulsed diode lasers (operating at 830 and 670 nm, with average optical power higher than 2 mW at 40 MHz repetition frequency), a single-photon detection module (based on a 1 mm2 active area silicon photomultiplier), and a custom time-to-digital converter with 10 ps time resolution. The system experimental characterization shows an instrument response function narrower than 300 ps (full-width at half maximum), with measurement stability better than ±1% over several hours of operation. The instrument, which is housed into a compact aluminum case (size 200 × 160 × 50 mm3), is specifically tailored for portability and ease of operation, hence fostering the diffusion of time-domain diffuse optics techniques. Thanks to a total power consumption lower than 10 W, this system is suitable for battery operation, thus enabling on-field measurements.
Autors: Mauro Buttafava;Edoardo Martinenghi;Davide Tamborini;Davide Contini;Alberto Dalla Mora;Marco Renna;Alessandro Torricelli;Antonio Pifferi;Franco Zappa;Alberto Tosi;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 1 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Digital Protection Scheme for Low-Voltage Microgrids with Inverter-Based and Conventional Distributed Generations
Abstract:
Microgrid (MG) protection is one of the main challenges in proliferation of microgrids. Due to limited fault current feeding of inverter-based distributed generations (DGs), in islanded operation of MG, protection problems become more complicated; and, therefore, conventional protection strategies cannot be applied. Hence, new protection methods that are applicable in islanded and grid-connected modes of operation are necessary. In this paper, a comprehensive digital-relay based protection is introduced for the protection of MGs. The proposed method includes protection of lines, distributed generations, and the point of common coupling. The structure and graphical schematic of the proposed digital relays are also presented. The proposed method is independent of the MG operation mode and benefits from single-phase tripping. In this method, due to fault isolation from both sides of a line, downstream loads and DGs can operate after fault clearance. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed protection method, numerous simulations are carried out on an MG test system in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment.
Autors: Seyed Fariborz Zarei;M. Parniani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 441 - 452
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Evaluation of Microwave Emissivity and Brightness Temperature Sensitivities to Soil Parameters Using Qualitative and Quantitative Sensitivity Analyses
Abstract:
Passive microwave remote sensing has experienced significant success for soil moisture (SM) inversion. However, quantifying the uncertainties caused by soil parameter sensitivities has not attracted sufficient attention. Although local sensitivity analysis (SA) has been used to describe parameter sensitivity in the past, it fails to quantify parameter sensitivities, especially interactions, for nonlinear microwave emission models. This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation that combines physically based emission models and various global SA algorithms to evaluate parameter sensitivity. All the algorithms exhibit highly consistent sensitivity measures, which means a reliable SA result is obtained. The results indicate that the sums of the main sensitivity indices of SM and surface roughness parameters—root-mean-square height (RMSH) and correlation length—are greater than 0.92 and 0.95 for emissivity and brightness temperature (TB), respectively. Furthermore, we find that: 1) the parameter probability distributions have little effect on the sensitivity measures; 2) the SM sensitivity decreases and the RMSH sensitivity increases as the frequency increases and the incidence angle decreases; and 3) the SM is more sensitive on V-polarized than on H-polarized emissivity and TB, while the RMSH is much more sensitive on the polarization index. The presented global SA quantitatively explains the optimal frequency, incidence angle, and polarization for SM inversion and extends the parameter SA for microwave emission models to a more general framework, as well as provides an implication for bare soil emission modeling and SM inversion.
Autors: Chunfeng Ma;Xin Li;Jing Wang;Chen Wang;Qingyun Duan;Weizhen Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 1025 - 1038
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Numerical Model of Steady-State Negative Corona for Coaxial Cylindrical Electrode in Atmosphere Air
Abstract:
Corona numerical model to predict the distributions of space charge and electric field is an important aspect in coaxial cylindrical electrode. Compared with the existing steady-state negative corona models, electron diffusion, space charge recombination, photoionization, and secondary electron emission mechanism are simultaneously considered in a comprehensive negative corona model. The 1-D hydrodynamic equations are calculated by the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method and the central finite difference method. The effects of these four terms in the conversation equations are analyzed quantitatively. In addition, the influence of corona current and conductor radius on the distribution of space charge and electric field and voltage–current characteristics has been discussed. The results from the comprehensive model show that under the high corona current, the comprehensive scheme is superior to the simplified model and the ion flow model in the accuracy.
Autors: Yong Yi;Liming Wang;Zhengying Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 45, issue:2, pages: 200 - 207
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Study of Reverse Current Degradation Mechanisms in Au/Ni/n-GaN Schottky Diodes
Abstract:
In this paper, we perform a comprehensive study on the reverse current degradation mechanisms in Au/Ni/n-GaN Schottky diodes based on an in-depth understanding on the defect-related current transport mechanisms. Instead of traditional Poole–Frenkel (PF) emission model, an extended bulk-limited PF transport process, including the compensation effect, is adopted to explain the variation of the PF current slope as a function of the stress time, which majorly takes place inside the depletion region near the neutral semiconductor side. Based on the electrostatic analysis, we develop a shallow donor-like defects model to address the current degradation kinetics, which states that the energetic electrons produced by Fowler–Nordheim tunneling can induce significant Joule heating effect during the subsequent drift move of field, and give rise to the formation of the donor-like defects, and in turn enhance the surface electrical field to cause a significant increase of the tunneling component, in good agreement with the emission microscope observations.
Autors: Jian Ren;Wenjie Mou;Linna Zhao;Dawei Yan;Zhiguo Yu;Guofeng Yang;Shaoqing Xiao;Xiaofeng Gu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 407 - 411
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Study on Cross-View Gait Based Human Identification with Deep CNNs
Abstract:
This paper studies an approach to gait based human identification via similarity learning by deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). With a pretty small group of labeled multi-view human walking videos, we can train deep networks to recognize the most discriminative changes of gait patterns which suggest the change of human identity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work based on deep CNNs for gait recognition in the literature. Here, we provide an extensive empirical evaluation in terms of various scenarios, namely, cross-view and cross-walking-condition, with different preprocessing approaches and network architectures. The method is first evaluated on the challenging CASIA-B dataset in terms of cross-view gait recognition. Experimental results show that it outperforms the previous state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin. In particular, our method shows advantages when the cross-view angle is large, i.e., no less than 36 degree. And the average recognition rate can reach 94 percent, much better than the previous best result (less than 65 percent). The method is further evaluated on the OU-ISIR gait dataset to test its generalization ability to larger data. OU-ISIR is currently the largest dataset available in the literature for gait recognition, with 4,007 subjects. On this dataset, the average accuracy of our method under identical view conditions is above 98 percent, and the one for cross-view scenarios is above 91 percent. Finally, the method also performs the best on the USF gait dataset, whose gait sequences are imaged in a real outdoor scene. These results show great potential of this method for practical applications.
Autors: Zifeng Wu;Yongzhen Huang;Liang Wang;Xiaogang Wang;Tieniu Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 209 - 226
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System With EEG Based on the P3b Wave During an Auditory Odd-Ball Task in Schizophrenia
Abstract:
Objective: To design a Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system using an optimized methodology over the P3b wave in order to objectively and accurately discriminate between healthy controls (HC) and schizophrenic subjects (SZ). Methods: We train, test, analyze, and compare various machine learning classification approaches optimized in terms of the correct classification rate (CCR), the degenerated Youden's index (DYI) and the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). CAD system comprises five stages: electroencephalography (EEG) preprocessing, feature extraction, seven electrode groupings, discriminant feature selection, and binary classification. Results: With two optimal combinations of electrode grouping, filtering, feature selection algorithm, and classification machine, we get either a mean CCR = 93.42%, specificity = 0.9673, sensitivity = 0.8727, DYI = 0.9188, and AUC = 0.9567 (total-15 Hz-J5-MLP), or a mean CCR = 92.23%, specificity = 0.9499, sensitivity = 0.8838, DYI = 0.9162, and AUC = 0.9807 (right hemisphere-35 Hz-J5-SVM), which to our knowledge are higher than those available to date. Conclusions: We have verified that a more restrictive low-pass filtering achieves higher CCR as compared to others at higher frequencies in the P3b wave. In addition, results validate previous hypothesis about the importance of the parietal-temporal region, associated with memory processing, allowing us to identify powerful {feature,electrode} pairs in the diagnosis of schizophrenia, achieving higher CCR and AUC in classification of both right and left Hemispheres, and parietal-temporal EEG signals, like, for instance, the {PSE, P4} pair (J5 and mutual information feature selection). Significance: Diagnosis of schizophrenia is made thoroughly by psychiatrists but as any human-based decision th- t has a subjective component. This CAD system provides the human expert with an objective complimentary measure to help him in diagnosing schizophrenia.
Autors: Lorenzo Santos-Mayo;Luis M. San-José-Revuelta;Juan Ignacio Arribas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 395 - 407
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Consensus-Based Algorithm for Truck Platooning
Abstract:
The platooning of trucks can be considered to be a potential approach to mitigate some of the negative effects that trucking can have on traffic streams. This paper proposes a cooperative distributed approach for forming/modifying platoons of trucks based on consensus algorithms. In this approach, trucks exchange information about their current status in real time, and the platoon is formed in consecutive iterations. This distributed consensus-based algorithm is compared with a centralized optimization-based algorithm for truck platooning, in which the trucks move with a set of predetermined speeds for a definite amount of time to form a platoon. The two approaches are tested and compared using various scenarios generated based on real data collected on a highway in Basel, Switzerland. Based on the results, the consensus-based algorithm proved to be a more general scheme that is able to form platoons even in cases with large initial separation of trucks. This algorithm is able to handle complex situations using its capability to form partial platoons.
Autors: Mahnam Saeednia;Monica Menendez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 404 - 415
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Context-Driven Extractive Framework for Generating Realistic Image Descriptions
Abstract:
Automatic image annotation methods are extremely beneficial for image search, retrieval, and organization systems. The lack of strict correlation between semantic concepts and visual features, referred to as the semantic gap, is a huge challenge for annotation systems. In this paper, we propose an image annotation model that incorporates contextual cues collected from sources both intrinsic and extrinsic to images, to bridge the semantic gap. The main focus of this paper is a large real-world data set of news images that we collected. Unlike standard image annotation benchmark data sets, our data set does not require human annotators to generate artificial ground truth descriptions after data collection, since our images already include contextually meaningful and real-world captions written by journalists. We thoroughly study the nature of image descriptions in this real-world data set. News image captions describe both visual contents and the contexts of images. Auxiliary information sources are also available with such images in the form of news article and metadata (e.g., keywords and categories). The proposed framework extracts contextual-cues from available sources of different data modalities and transforms them into a common representation space, i.e., the probability space. Predicted annotations are later transformed into sentence-like captions through an extractive framework applied over news articles. Our context-driven framework outperforms the state of the art on the collected data set of approximately 20 000 items, as well as on a previously available smaller news images data set.
Autors: Amara Tariq;Hassan Foroosh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 619 - 632
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Continuity-Based Series Solution for Electromagnetic Scattering by Arbitrary Shaped Multilayer Cylinders: TM Case
Abstract:
A fast and simple method for direct electromagnetic scattering problems related to multilayer cylindrical objects having arbitrary shaped dielectric or conducting layers is presented. First, the field in each layer is represented as a series of Bessel and Hankel functions with unknown coefficients. Then, the continuity of the field, along with its radial derivative, is imposed and two equations for several unknowns are obtained for each boundary. By taking the inner products of these equations with complex exponential functions and using the orthogonality property, the equations are augmented to form a linear system for relatively small number of unknown coefficients that can easily be solved. Once these coefficients are determined, one can compute the field value anywhere including the inner regions of the multilayer structure. It has been numerically shown that, for multilayer objects having homogeneous layers and piecewise smooth boundaries, the proposed method is a significantly simple and fast alternative to general purpose numerical techniques.
Autors: Birol Aslanyürek;Tolga Ulaş Gürbüz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 812 - 819
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cooperative Framework for Fireworks Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper presents a cooperative framework for fireworks algorithm (CoFFWA). A detailed analysis of existing fireworks algorithm (FWA) and its recently developed variants has revealed that () the current selection strategy has the drawback that the contribution of the firework with the best fitness (denoted as core firework) overwhelms the contributions of all other fireworks (non-core fireworks) in the explosion operator, () the Gaussian mutation operator is not as effective as it is designed to be. To overcome these limitations, the CoFFWA is proposed, which significantly improves the exploitation capability by using an independent selection method and also increases the exploration capability by incorporating a crowdness-avoiding cooperative strategy among the fireworks. Experimental results on the CEC2013 benchmark functions indicate that CoFFWA outperforms the state-of-the-art FWA variants, artificial bee colony, differential evolution, and the standard particle swarm optimization SPSO2007/SPSO2011 in terms of convergence performance.
Autors: Shaoqiu Zheng;Junzhi Li;Andreas Janecek;Ying Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 27 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coupled-Line Balanced-to-Single-Ended Out-of-Phase Power Divider With Enhanced Bandwidth
Abstract:
In this paper, a coupled-line balanced-to-single-ended out-of-phase power divider is proposed. Configured by three quarter-wavelength coupled lines, the proposed power divider is compact and able to enhance the bandwidth of differential-mode power dividing, isolation, common-mode suppression, and phase difference between the output ports. Furthermore, enhancing the bandwidth for common-mode suppression using additional quarter-wavelength open stubs is discussed. Analytical solution of the parameters for specified bandwidth can be achieved using odd- and even-mode analysis. Analytical and practical bandwidth limitation has been analyzed, and it is shown that the bandwidths can be controlled by the odd- and even-mode impedance of the coupled lines. For demonstration, a prototype of size 15 mm mm () achieves an operating bandwidth ( dB) of 30% with the minimum insertion loss of 0.1 dB.
Autors: Jin Shi;Jianpeng Lu;Kai Xu;Jian-Xin Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 459 - 466
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Critical Survey of Deconvolution Methods for Separating Cell Types in Complex Tissues
Abstract:
Identifying properties and concentrations of components from an observed mixture, known as deconvolution, is a fundamental problem in signal processing. It has diverse applications in fields ranging from hyperspectral imaging to noise cancellation in audio recordings. This paper focuses on in-silico deconvolution of signals associated with complex tissues into their constitutive cell-type-specific components and a quantitative characterization of the cell types. Deconvolving mixed tissues/cell types is useful in the removal of contaminants (e.g., surrounding cells) from tumor biopsies, as well as in monitoring changes in the cell population in response to treatment or infection. In these contexts, the observed signal from the mixture of cell types is assumed to be a convolution, using a linear instantaneous (LI) mixing process, of the expression levels of genes in constitutive cell types. The goal is to use known signals corresponding to individual cell types and a model of the mixing process to cast the deconvolution problem as a suitable optimization problem. In this paper, we present a survey and in-depth analysis of models, methods, and assumptions underlying deconvolution techniques. We investigate the choice of the different loss functions for evaluating estimation error, constraints on solutions, preprocessing and data filtering, feature selection, and regularization to enhance the quality of solutions and the impact of these choices on the performance of commonly used regression-based methods for deconvolution. We assess different combinations of these factors and use detailed statistical measures to evaluate their effectiveness. Some of these combinations have been proposed in the literature, whereas others represent novel algorithmic choices for deconvolution. We identify shortcomings of current methods and avenues for further investigation. For many of the identified shortcomings, such as normalization issues and data filtering, we provi- e new solutions. We summarize our findings in a prescriptive step-by-step process, which can be applied to a wide range of deconvolution problems.
Autors: Shahin Mohammadi;Neta Zuckerman;Andrea Goldsmith;Ananth Grama;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 105, issue:2, pages: 340 - 366
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cross-Layer Approach to Reducing Packet Delay in Polling-Based Multiuser Systems
Abstract:
We consider a system where users are polled for transmission by a central server, and the link layer of each user employs automatic repeat request (ARQ) to ensure error-free delivery of packets. We present a cross-layer approach for reducing average packet delay (queuing delay plus service time). It is known that forward error correction (FEC) schemes can potentially lower the average packet delay by reducing the packet error probability (PEP) and, hence, the number of retransmissions. However, more precise results in the literature are few and far between. In this paper, we first establish that relative to an uncoded system, it is sufficient to reduce the average service time (AST) using FEC to achieve lower average packet delay. We then study and quantify the reduction in AST that can be achieved using the best possible FEC codes. The specific findings and contributions from our work are as follows: 1) We provide several bounds on the reduction in AST using the best possible FEC codes; 2) we give a sufficient condition when no FEC scheme can reduce the AST; 3) for Gaussian channels, we find that a relatively high PEP , which is obtained using as high a coding rate as possible, typically results in sufficiently small AST; 4) the performance of optimum maximum-likelihood decoding can be approached by a lower complexity bounded distance decoder; and 5) average packet delay can be further reduced in certain cases by opportunistically combining and encoding several packets jointly.
Autors: Anshoo Tandon;Mehul Motani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1506 - 1518
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cross-Layer Bandwidth Allocation Scheme for HTTP-Based Video Streaming in LTE Cellular Networks
Abstract:
This letter investigates the benefits of flexible resource allocation when performing HTTP-based adaptive streaming (HAS) across cellular systems such as long-term evolution (LTE). To guarantee video fluidity in the presence of fluctuations of the instantaneous video source rate and channel capacity, we consider an HAS-based proxy video manager and resource controller located at the cellular base station. Based on the channel quality observed by mobile clients, the manager allocates the wireless bandwidth to mobile clients for transmitting the video streams. We propose a cross-layer bandwidth allocation scheme that takes into account the channel quality as well as the video quality requirements and encoding rate fluctuations of the HAS video stream and minimizes the transmission delays experienced by users. This cross-layer bandwidth allocation achieves the optimum in terms of HAS streams delays and it outperforms different bandwidth allocations procedures and state-of-the-art LTE schedulers.
Autors: Stefania Colonnese;Francesca Cuomo;Tommaso Melodia;Izhak Rubin;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 386 - 389
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Data-Driven Fuzzy Information Granulation Approach for Freight Volume Forecasting
Abstract:
The performance of the logistic system is one of the most important aspects in regional economy, and the freight volume is the biggest part of the logistic system. In this paper, an information granulation method is introduced to represent the freight volume in a fuzzy manner. After the characteristic features have been extracted from the raw time-series data and represented as information granules, the granules are modeled with the support vector machine (SVM). In consideration of both algorithm efficiency and prediction accuracy, an efficient version of SVM called least square (LS) SVM is employed and integrated with a parameter optimization algorithm, the particle swarm optimization. Simulation results on a real dataset illustrate the performance of the proposed method, and comparison studies are carried out with LS and partial LS-based methods.
Autors: Shen Yin;Yuchen Jiang;Yang Tian;Okyay Kaynak;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1447 - 1456
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decision-Support System for Sustainable Water Distribution System Planning
Abstract:
An interactive decision-support system (DSS) can help experts prepare water resource management plans for decision makers and stakeholders. The design of the proposed prototype incorporates visualization techniques such as circle views, grid layout, small multiple maps, and node simplification to improve the data readability of water distribution systems. A case study with three urban water management and sanitary engineering experts revealed that the proposed DSS is satisfactory, efficient, and effective.
Autors: Alina Freund;Nazli Yonca Aydin;Dirk Zeckzer;Hans Hagen;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 44 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deep Collaborative Computing Based SAR Raw Data Simulation on Multiple CPU/GPU Platform
Abstract:
The outstanding computing ability of a graphics processing unit (GPU) brings new vitality to the typical computing intensive issue, so does the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) raw data simulation, which is a fundamental problem in SAR system design and imaging research. However, the computing power of a CPU was underestimated, and the tunings for a CPU-based method were missing in the previous works. Meanwhile, the collaborative computing of multiple CPUs/GPUs was not exploited thoroughly. In this paper, we propose a deep multiple CPU/GPU collaborative computing framework for time-domain SAR raw data simulation, which not only introduces the advanced vector extension (AVX) method to improve the computing efficiency of a multicore single instruction multiple data CPU, but also achieves a satisfactory speedup in the CPU/GPU collaborative simulation by fine-grained task partitioning and scheduling. In addition, an irregular reduction based SAR coherent accumulation approach is proposed to eliminate the memory access conflict, which is the most difficult issue in the GPU-based raw data simulation. Experimental results show that the multicore vector extension method greatly improves the computing power of a CPU-based method through about speedup, thereby outperforming the single GPU simulation. Correspondingly, compared with the baseline sequential CPU approach, the multiple CPU/GPU collaborative simulation achieves up to speedup. Furthermore, the irregular reduction based atomic-free optimization boosts the performance of the single GPU method by acceleration. These results prove that the deep multiple CPU/GPU collaborative method is promising, especially for the case of huge volume raw data simulation with a wide swath and high r- solution.
Autors: Fan Zhang;Chen Hu;Wei Li;Wei Hu;Pengbo Wang;Heng-Chao Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 387 - 399
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deep Learning Model for Robust Wafer Fault Monitoring With Sensor Measurement Noise
Abstract:
Standard fault detection and classification (FDC) models detect wafer faults by extracting features useful for fault detection from time-indexed measurements of the equipment recorded by in situ sensors (sensor signals) and feeding the extracted information into a classifier. However, the preprocessing-and-classification approach often results in the loss of information in the sensor signals that is important for detecting wafer faults. Furthermore, the sensor signals usually contain noise induced by mechanical and electrical disturbances. In this paper, we propose the use of a stacked denoising autoencoder (SdA), which is a deep learning algorithm, to establish an FDC model for simultaneous feature extraction and classification. The SdA model can identify global and invariant features in the sensor signals for fault monitoring and is robust against measurement noise. Through experiments using wafer samples collected from a work-site photolithography tool, we confirmed that as the sensor measurement noise severity increased, the SdA’s classification accuracy could be as much as 14% higher than those of the twelve models considered for comparison, each of which employed one of three feature extractors and one of four classifiers.
Autors: Hoyeop Lee;Youngju Kim;Chang Ouk Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 23 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Demodulation-Based Technique for Robust Estimation of Single-Phase Grid Voltage Fundamental Parameters
Abstract:
This paper proposes a robust technique for the single-phase grid voltage fundamental amplitude, frequency, and phase angle estimation under distorted grid conditions. It is based on a demodulation method tuned at a fixed frequency. It does not have stability issue due to an open-loop structure, does not require real-time evaluation of trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions, and also avoids the use of look-up table. It can provide accurate estimation of the single-phase grid voltage fundamental parameters under dc offset and harmonics. When compared with a frequency adaptive demodulation technique, the proposed one is less affected by dc offset, can provide faster frequency estimation, and also avoids interdependent loop, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric functions operation. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed technique.
Autors: Md. Shamim Reza;Vassilios G. Agelidis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 166 - 175
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Design Methodology of Class-E/F3 Power Amplifier Considering Linear External and Nonlinear Drain–Source Capacitance
Abstract:
A single-ended Class-E/Fn power amplifier (PA) with linear external and nonlinear drain-to-source (intrinsic) capacitances is designed and analyzed to achieve optimum operation. The effects of nonlinear intrinsic and linear external capacitance at high and low frequencies increase, respectively. The different specifications of the Class-E/F3 PA are shown versus the external and intrinsic capacitances. A Class-E/F3 amplifier at 4-MHz frequency, based on the theoretical results, is analyzed, simulated, and fabricated. The efficiency, power gain, and output power versus the input power are presented as well. The measured results are close to the analytical derivations at optimum conditions of zero-voltage switching and zero-voltage-derivative switching.
Autors: Akram Sheikhi;Mohsen Hayati;Andrei Grebennikov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 548 - 554
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deterministic and Self-Consistent Solver for the Coupled Carrier-Phonon System in SiGe HBTs
Abstract:
A stationary deterministic solver based on a spherical harmonics expansion of the Boltzmann transport equations for electrons, holes, and phonons is presented to study self-heating in ultrascaled bipolar transistors. With the electrothermal device simulator, a state-of-the-art toward-terahertz SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor is analyzed and the simulation results are verified against experimental data. To investigate nonequilibrium effects for the carrier-phonon system, the impact of hot longitudinal optical phonons on steady-state carrier transport is discussed. Furthermore, the self-consistent and deterministic solution of the coupled set of equations allows to extract the junction temperature by making use of a method based on the simulated DC characteristics. The resultant junction temperature is compared with the value obtained from the temperature profile within the nanoscale device. Good agreement is obtained for the average temperature in the base–emitter junction verifying the analytical approach used to extract the thermal resistance of the device by experiments.
Autors: Hamed Kamrani;Dominic Jabs;Vincenzo d’Alessandro;Niccòl Rinaldi;Klaus Aufinger;Christoph Jungemann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 361 - 367
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Diaphragm Type Fiber Bragg Grating Vibration Sensor Based on Transverse Property of Optical Fiber With Temperature Compensation
Abstract:
This paper has presented a novel diaphragm-type fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor with a small mass and an excellent sensitivity through the use of the transverse property of a tightly suspended optical fiber with two fixed ends. Two suspended optical fibers that were embedded with an FBG element each, have been arranged symmetrically along the both sides of the diaphragm in a parallel manner, and their middle points were connected with the two surfaces of the mass by rigid thin rods to sense vibration. The theoretical model of the presented sensor has been derived, and its sensing characteristics have been analyzed by numerical simulation to determine the physical parameters. Experiments have been conducted to show that its sensitivity is 31.25 pm/g within a working bandwidth range of 10~150 Hz. The linearity and relative sensitivity errors are 2.21% and ±10%, respectively. The experimental resonant frequency of 300 Hz is consistent with the theoretical value, which has verified the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical model. The temperature response of this sensor has decreased to 1.32 pm/°C in the range of 30~90°C after implementing the temperature compensation. Compared with the existing diaphragm-enabled FBG vibration sensors, the proposed sensor enables to support the easy implementation of distributed measurement, and the small mass allows for detection on mass-sensitive structures.
Autors: Tianliang Li;Chaoyang Shi;Yuegang Tan;Ruiya Li;Zude Zhou;Hongliang Ren;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 17, issue:4, pages: 1021 - 1029
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dissipative Systems Theory for FDTD With Application to Stability Analysis and Subgridding
Abstract:
A connection between the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the theory of dissipative systems is established. The FDTD equations for a rectangular region are interpreted as a dynamical system having the magnetic field on the boundary as input and the electric field on the boundary as output. Suitable expressions for the energy stored in the region and the energy absorbed from the boundaries are introduced, and used to show that the FDTD system is dissipative under a generalized Courant-Friedrichs–Lewy condition. Based on the concept of dissipation, a powerful theoretical framework to investigate the stability of FDTD-like methods is devised. The new method makes FDTD stability proofs simpler, more intuitive, and modular. Stability conditions can indeed be given on the individual components (e.g., boundary conditions, meshes, and embedded models) instead of the whole coupled setup. As an example of application, we derive a new subgridding scheme with support for material traverse, arbitrary grid refinement, and guaranteed stability. The method is easy to implement and has a straightforward stability proof. Numerical results confirm its stability, low reflections, and ability to handle material traverse.
Autors: Fadime Bekmambetova;Xinyue Zhang;Piero Triverio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 751 - 762
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Coverage Adjustment Algorithm for Femtocell Networks
Abstract:
In two-tier femtocell networks, adjusting the transmission power values of femtocell base stations (BSs) such that indoor users receive high signal quality while limiting leakage to outdoor users is an important problem. This paper proposes a novel distributed and self-optimized power adjustment algorithm for two-tier femtocell networks, in which a BS adjusts the transmission power based on the signal quality of neighboring BSs. Achieving fairness among users with minimal information exchange is desired. There are no predefined target parameters used to adjust transmission power, contrary to existing approaches in the literature. The convergence properties of the algorithm under fixed and time-varying communication infrastructures are investigated. The performance is further verified by simulations and comparisons with other algorithms for the coverage problem.
Autors: Kamil Senel;Mehmet Akar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1739 - 1747
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed FMCW Radar System Based on Fiber-Optic Links for Small Drone Detection
Abstract:
This paper discusses a distributed frequency modulation continuous wave radar system. This K-band radar system has high sensitivity, linearity, and flatness to detect low-radar cross section targets and measure their range and velocity. To reduce the leakage between a transmitter and a receiver, the system uses not RF cables but fiber-optic links that have low distortion characteristics and low propagation loss. The transmitter and the receiver are each mounted on a designed fixture to reduce the ground reflections. In addition, they are located on different platforms to reduce the leakage signal flowing directly from the transmitter to the receiver. Measurements in terms of the range and the velocity of a small drone have been carried out to evaluate the proposed distributed radar system. The results show that we can clearly detect the small drone within a 500 m range, which demonstrates the high sensitivity of the system and high isolation between the transmitter and the receiver.
Autors: Dong-Hun Shin;Dae-Hwan Jung;Dong-Chan Kim;Jong-Wook Ham;Seong-Ook Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 340 - 347
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed RF Transmitter Using One-Way Wireless Clock Transfer
Abstract:
A coherent distributed two-element radio-frequency (RF) transmitter implemented with wireless clock transfer is presented in this letter. This work represents the first demonstration, to the authors’ knowledge, of a distributed RF transmitter using one-way wireless clock transfer, where the slave node need not provide any information to the master node. Two 1-GHz transmitters were implemented and coherent gain above 90% of ideal signal summation was achieved with a probability of 0.97. Experimental results show near-ideal 6-dB gain from the two-transmitter system at a distance of 85 m.
Autors: Robert L. Schmid;Thomas M. Comberiate;Jason E. Hodkin;Jeffrey A. Nanzer;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 195 - 197
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Clock VLSI Design of H.265 Sample Adaptive Offset Estimation for 8k Ultra-HD TV Encoding
Abstract:
Sample adaptive offset (SAO) is a newly introduced in-loop filtering component in H.265/High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). While SAO contributes to a notable coding efficiency improvement, the estimation of SAO parameters dominates the complexity of in-loop filtering in HEVC encoding. This paper presents an efficient VLSI design for SAO estimation. Our design features a dual-clock architecture that processes statistics collection (SC) and parameter decision (PD), the two main functional blocks of SAO estimation, at high- and low-speed clocks, respectively. Such a strategy reduces the overall area by 56% by addressing the heterogeneous data flows of SC and PD. To further improve the area and power efficiency, algorithm-architecture co-optimizations are applied, including a coarse range selection (CRS) and an accumulator bit width reduction (ABR). CRS shrinks the range of fine processed bands for the band offset estimation. ABR further reduces the area by narrowing the accumulators of SC. They together achieve another 25% area reduction. The proposed VLSI design is capable of processing 8k at 120-frames/s encoding. It occupies 51k logic gates, only one-third of the circuit area of the state-of-the-art implementations.
Autors: Jianbin Zhou;Dajiang Zhou;Shihao Wang;Shuping Zhang;Takeshi Yoshimura;Satoshi Goto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 25, issue:2, pages: 714 - 724
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Input Central Capacitor DC/DC Converter for Distributed Photovoltaic Architectures
Abstract:
This paper proposes a dual-input central capacitor dc/dc converter for distributed photovoltaic (PV) power harnessing, which can be used to boost dual input sources with minimized semiconductor voltage/current stress and converter rating. Also the proposed circuit could realize the independent maximum power point tracking capability for two input PV sources. This paper analyzes the operational principle of the proposed dual-input central capacitor dc/dc converter under both continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode and presents a comparative study between dual-input central capacitor converter and its counterparts. Besides, an adaptive control method considering PV power difference, operational safety and efficiency is elaborated. Finally, the proposed converter along with its adaptive control method was verified through matlab simulation and a laboratory prototype.
Autors: Mengxing Chen;Feng Gao;Ruisheng Li;Xianwei Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2017, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 305 - 318
Publisher: IEEE
 

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